Com 110 overview purpose the overall purpose of the Communication and Critical Inquiry

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II. Body


A. First, the Coliseum’s construction will be discussed.

1. According to John Pearson, author of Arena: The Story of the Coliseum, published in 1973, the Emperor Vespasian, to curry the favor of the Roman people, commissioned the construction of the Coliseum.

2. Considering the games were held 1900 years ago, the construction was considered pure genius.

a. The outdoor theatre boasted 80 entrances, with a design so incredibly pragmatic that each was equipped with a numbered staircase, ensuring the simultaneous exit of about 50,000 individuals in three minutes flat. Our sports stadiums today cannot even accomplish this feat.

b. Just as we look down from gymnasium bleachers, spectators would look down upon the wooden arena floor. However, the Coliseum’s floor was covered with sand, which served to soak up large quantities of blood. The floor also concealed a labyrinth of tunnels, trapdoors, and a complicated system of chains and pulleys, similar to our modern-day elevators.
Transition: Now that we have laid the foundation of the Coliseum’s construction, let us live through a day at the Roman Games.

B. A Day at the Games can be compared to a day watching football at the Redbird Arena.

1. As ISU students, part of our tuition pays for Redbird Arena. However, at the Coliseum’s inception, it was a Roman citizen’s right to attend the games free of charge. And just as we are treated to semesters of games, it was not uncommon for emperors to treat their subjects to many months of games.

2. The mornings began with fights between wild animals. One battle involved a bull and a panther, each at the end of a chain. They could barely reach other, and they were forced to tear each other apart piece by piece. Lions would be matched against tigers and bears pitted against bulls.

Outline Format for Informative and Persuasive Speeches

3. Lunchtime executions followed. The scholar Baker, as cited earlier, states that the infliction of pain was an essential part of punishment in ancient Rome. Therefore, common methods included crucifixions, being burned alive, and being thrown to wild beasts.

In fact, Emperor Constantine would order molten lead to be poured down the condemned’s throats.



4. The best attraction was saved for the afternoon: gladiatorial combat. The following videoclip is taken from the 2000 epic film, Gladiator, in which Russell Crowe stars. As stated earlier, notice the concealed trapdoors in the arena floor. [Show videoclip.]
Transition: Now that we have lived through the terror of the Roman games, let us learn of the present plans to restore and renovate this ancient monument to its original glory.
C. The present life of the coliseum is undergoing change.

1. After 300 years of this publicly accepted entertainment a monk named Telemachus ran into the arena, screaming for them to stop. However, the mob was not to be cheated of their entertainment, and he was torn to pieces.

a. Although gladiatorial combat was subsequently banned, the battles and executions involving wild beasts took another 100 years to end.

b. Stones were taken from the Coliseum to construct other buildings during the Middle Ages, and the inner arena, as shown here [show transparency] became overgrown with weeds and vegetation.

2. Recently, [show transparency] the national geographic website reported in July of 2001, that a restoration project is underway to reinstate the Coliseum, which is located near the center of modern Rome.

a. It will take eight years and cost 18-million dollars.


b. It will also allow international tourists to attend Greek plays and gladiatorial exhibitions.
Transition: Once restored, it will encompass, as historian Dr. Alison Futrell states in her 1997 book, Blood in the Arena, “all the glory and doom of the Roman Empire.”

III. Conclusion


  1. Thesis/Summary: In many ways, the Coliseum has influenced the development of civilization and will likely do so for years to come. The Coliseum’s construction was truly genius, bearing witness to the wealth of the Roman Empire. The games, unlike those at Redbird Arena, served bloodshed and agony, in the form of wild beasts, executions and gladiators. Hopefully, the restoration of the Coliseum will see much less bloodshed.

  2. Memorable Close: To quote the 7th century historian and monk, the Venerable Bede, in his famous “Ecclesiastical History of the English people,” “While the Coliseum stands, Rome shall stand; when the Coliseum falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, the world shall fall."


References (separate page)
Auguet, R. (1998). Cruelty and civilization: The Roman games. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Baker, A. (2001). The gladiator: The secret history of Rome’s warrior slaves. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Bede, V. (1849). The Venerable Bede's ecclesiastical history of England. London: H. G. Bohn.
The Coliseum on Eliki. (n.d.) The Coliseum. Retrieved July 20, 2002, from http://www.eliki.com/coliseum/

Core Tour Europe 2003. (2002). Coliseum. Sponsored by Saint Joseph’s College. Retrieved July 22, 2002, from http://www.saintjoe.edu/~mjoakes/europe/images/ photos_01/coliseum.jpg

Futrell, A. (1997). Blood in the arena: The spectacle of Roman power. Austin: University of Texas Press.

National Geographic News. (2001, June 29). Rome Coliseum being restored for wider public viewing. Retrieved July 22, 2002, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2001/06/0625_wirecoliseum.html

Pearson, J. (1973). Arena: The story of the Coliseum. London: Thames & Hudson.


Wick, D. (Producer), & Scott, R. (Director). (2000). Gladiator [Motion picture]. United States: Dreamworks Pictures and Universal Pictures.
Outline Format for Informative and Persuasive Speeches

EXAMPLE OF A SPEAKING OUTLINE

Roman Coliseum


  1. Introduction




      1. AG: Imagine yourself…

      2. Rel: Redbird Arena/Today’s athletes (Baker, 2001)

      3. Cred: History major/Tour of Rome

      4. Thesis: To truly understand…architecture, terror, restoration

      5. Preview: [Transparency #1] Lay foundation, live through day, learn present plans


Transition: To begin, we will lay the foundation by describing its design and construction.


  1. Body

      1. Construction

        1. Vespasian (Pearson, 1973)

        2. Construction “pure genius”

          1. 80 entrances/numbered staircase/simultaneous exit

          2. Sand floor soak up blood/labyrinth/pulleys


Transition: Now that we have laid the foundation of the Coliseum’s construction, let us live through a day at the Roman Games.

      1. Redbird Arena


        1. Free of charge

        2. Wild animals (Lions v. tigers, bears v. bulls)

        3. Lunchtime executions (crucifixion, burned alive, wild beasts, molten lead) (Baker, 2001)

        4. Gladiator combat [Video clip]


Transition: Now that we have lived through the terror of the Roman games, let us learn of the present plans to restore and renovate this ancient monument to its original glory.


      1. Present life

        1. Telemachus

          1. 100 years to end

          2. Stones taken/overgrown with weeds and vegetation [Transparency #2]

        2. Restoration project (National Geographic, 2001) [Transparency #3]

          1. Eight years/18 million dollars

          2. Greek plays and gladiatorial exhibitions


Transition: Once restored, it will encompass, as historian Dr. Alison Futreall states in her 1997 book, “Blood in the Arena,” “all the glory and doom of the Roman Empire.”


  1. Conclusion

      1. Thesis/Summary: Influenced civilization/truly genius/bloodshed and agony

      2. Memorable Close: Venerable Bede – “While the Coliseum stands, Rome shall stand; when the Coliseum falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, the world shall fall.”


For more tips on preparing a speaking outline, see Chapter 10 in your Lucas textbook.

Outline Format for Informative and Persuasive Speeches


OUTLINE FOR INFORMATIVE SPEECH "A"

Tornadoes
Purpose: To inform the audience about tornadoes.
Thesis: In order to better understand tornadoes, it is important to explore what causes tornadoes to develop, how researchers classify types of tornadoes, and odd occurrences that may be associated with tornadoes.
Organizational Pattern: Topical
I. Introduction

A. Attention Getter: What can hurdle automobiles through the air, rip ordinary homes

to shreds, defeather chickens, and travel at speeds over 60 mph?



B. Relevance: Illinois rests on the boundary of what tornado researchers call tornado

alley. This is the area of the country that receives the most tornadoes every year.

According to a 1995 brochure distributed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration (NOAA), Illinois averages 27 tornadoes a year. Also, nearly five people die

every year in Illinois as a result of tornadoes [VISUAL AID]. In fact, according to



Tornado Project Online!, a website hosted by a company that gathers tornado

information for tornado researchers that I accessed earlier this month, the deadliest tornado

in U.S. recorded history occurred in Murphysboro, Illinois. In 1925, a violent tornado killed

234 people in this Southern Illinois town.



C. Credibility: I grew up in the heart of tornado alley and have been interested in this

weather phenomenon for a very long time. Also, I am a trained weather spotter for the

Bloomington/Normal civil defense agency.

D. Thesis: In order to better understand tornadoes, it is important to explore what causes

tornadoes to develop, how researchers classify types of tornadoes, and odd occurrences

that may be associated with tornadoes.


E. Preview: So, let us crash through the causes of tornadoes, twist around the types of

tornadoes, and blow through some of the oddities associated with tornadoes.


Transition: Initially, I will crash through the causes of tornadoes.
II. Body
A. There are several causes of tornadoes.

  1. According to the USA Today Tornado Information website, which was last updated

on June 20, 2000, a tornado is a "violently rotating column of air in contact with the ground

and pendant from a thunderstorm." Therefore, thunderstorms are the first step in the creation

of a tornado.

2. The USA Today Tornado Information site also indicates that there are three

key conditions for thunderstorms to form.

a. First, moisture in the lower to mid levels of the atmosphere.

b. Second, unstable air. This is air that will continue rising once it begins

rising from near the ground.

c. The finial condition for the formation of tornado-producing

thunderstorms is a lifting force. A lifting force is a mechanism that cause the air to begin rising. The most common lifting force is heating of the air (which is why we experience so many thunderstorms in the spring as the air begins to warm).

3. The same source indicates that the strongest thunderstorms typically form in

warm, humid air that's east or south of advancing cold air.

4. I mentioned in the introduction that Illinois sees its fair share of tornadoes.

The following graph, adapted from the USA Today Tornado Information web site,

illustrates areas in the U.S. that receive the greatest number of tornadoes (tornado

alley). Thunderstorm-producing tornadoes are likely to form in this area as cold

air from the west and north clashes violently with warm air from the Gulf of

Mexico [VISUAL AID].


Outline Format for Informative and Persuasive Speeches
Transition: Now that we have crashed through the causes of tornadoes, let's twist around the types of tornadoes.

B. There are several types of tornadoes.

1. According to renowned weather historian Dr. David Ludlum, author of the

1997 edition of the National Audubon Society’s Field Guide to North American

Weather, tornado researchers use a scale, known as the Fujita-Pearson Tornado

Intensity Scale (named after its creators) to rate the intensity of tornadoes


[VISUAL AID].

2. Tornado statistics from NOAA (cited above) [VISUAL AID]

a. Weak tornadoes

(1) Account for 69% of all tornadoes.

(2) Winds are less than 110 mph.

b. Strong tornadoes

(1) Account for 29% of all tornadoes.

(2) Winds range from 110 to 205 mph.

c. Violent tornadoes

(1) Represent only 2% of all tornadoes.

(2) Winds exceed 205 mph.

3. According to Tornado Project Online!, although violent tornadoes account

for only 2% of all tornadoes, they are responsible for 67% of all deaths in

tornadoes [VISUAL AID].

4. In addition, astrogeophysicist Dr. Robert Davies-Jones notes in a 1995 edition

of Scientific American that most tornadoes have damage paths 150 feet wide,

move at about 30 miles per hour and last only a few minutes. However,

extremely violent tornadoes, like the one that ripped through Murphysboro,

Illinois, may be over a mile wide, travel at 60 mils per hour and may stay on the

ground for more than one hour.


Transition: Now that we have a better understanding of the causes and types of tornadoes, I will blow through some of the oddities associated with tornadoes.
C. There have been many oddities associated with tornadoes.

1. Stories of strange events are typical in the wake of the damage caused by

tornadoes. Indeed, much of what makes stories of tornadoes unusual is irony.

Consider the following story from the 1996 Weather Guide Calendar. In a 1984

Kansas tornado a man, apparently thinking that his mobile home would be

destroyed, ran to shelter in another building, only to have that building destroyed

(killing the man), while his trailer survived just fine.

2. As noted by Tornado Project Online!, the Great Bend, Kansas tornado of

November 1915 is a tornado which seems to have the greatest number of oddities

associated with it.

a. At Grant Jones' store, the south wall was blown down and scattered, but

shelves and canned goods that stood against the wall were not moved.

b. The Riverside Steam Laundry, build of stone and cement block, was

completely destroyed, yet two nearby wooden shacks were untouched.

c. A canceled check from Great Bend was found in a corn field, one mile

outside of Palmyra, Nebraska….305 miles to the northeast. This is the

longest know distance that debris has ever been carried.

3. Tornado Project Online! also reports that the "plucked chicken" remains

today as perhaps the most talked about tornado oddity [VISUAL AID]. Indeed,

this oddity has been associated with many Illinois tornadoes.

a. Within the damage descriptions of rural tornadoes, there are often

stories of a chicken "stripped clean of every feather."

b. It has long been thought that the feathers explode off the bird in the

tornado's low pressure.


Outline Format for Informative and Persuasive Speeches
c. The most likely explanation for the defeathering of a chicken is the

protective response called "flight molt." As noted by Tornado Project



Online!, "chickens are not stripped clean, but in actuality they lose a large percentage of their feathers under stress in this flight molt process." In short, when the chickens become scared their feathers become loose and are simply blown off.
Transition: Summary

III. Conclusion
A. Thesis/Summary: In this speech I have explored the key factors that cause

tornadoes to develop, how researchers classify types of tornadoes, and odd

occurrences that may be associated with tornadoes.
B. Memorable Close: So, the next time you see a Ferrari flying through the air,

your college dorm being dismantled floor by floor, or a chicken without wings,

take cover because tornado season is here.



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