Com 110 overview purpose the overall purpose of the Communication and Critical Inquiry

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INTRODUCTION

Gained attention

Showed relevance of topic to audience

Established credibility

Introduced topic/thesis statement clearly

Previewed body of speech

----------------------------------------------------------------------

BODY

Main points clear


Strong evidence & supporting material

Organization effective

Language precise, clear, powerful

Transitions effective

Sources are well integrated, credible, fully cited

----------------------------------------------------------------------



CONCLUSION

Audience prepared for conclusion

Purpose & main points reviewed

Closed speech by reference to intro./other devices

----------------------------------------------------------------------

DELIVERY

Maintained eye contact

Used voice, diction, & rate for maximum effect

Used space, movement, & gestures for emphasis

----------------------------------------------------------------------

OVERALL IMPRESSION

Topic challenging

Adapted to audience

Maintained time limits

Evidence of preparation & practice

Quality & relevance of visual aids

Was informative

----------------------------------------------------------------------


Student Signature_________________________________
Lab Attendant Signature____________________________
Date_________________

Note: You should compare the feedback provided in the speech lab to the specific requirements stipulated by your instructor. In other words, it is your instructor who will ultimately assign a grade for your speech.


Speech Lab Student Feedback Form

Group Speech
Speech Components Feedback

INTRODUCTION

Gained attention

Showed relevance of topic to audience

Established credibility

Previewed key issues/perspective

----------------------------------------------------------------------


COLLECTIVE CONTENT


Issues covered in breadth & depth

Perspectives Clear

Organization Effective

Strong evidence & supporting material

Sources are well integrated, credible, & cited fully

----------------------------------------------------------------------


COLLECTIVE DELIVERY


Group collaboration & interaction apparent

Effective organization of speakers

Transitions effective

Evidence of preparation & practice

Effective visual aids when used

----------------------------------------------------------------------



CONCLUSION

Audience prepared for conclusion

Purpose & main points reviewed

Closed speech by reference to intro./other devices

----------------------------------------------------------------------

DELIVERY

Maintained eye contact

Used voice, diction, & rate for maximum effect

Used space, movement, & gestures for emphasis

----------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Student Signature_________________________________
Lab Attendant Signature____________________________
Date_________________

Note: You should compare the feedback provided in the speech lab to the specific requirements stipulated by your instructor. In other words, it is your instructor who will ultimately assign a grade for your speech.




Speech Lab Student Feedback Form

Persuasive Speech

Speech Components Feedback


INTRODUCTION

Gained attention


Showed relevance of topic to audience

Established credibility

Introduced topic/thesis statement clearly

Previewed body of speech

----------------------------------------------------------------------

BODY

Main points clear


Strong evidence & supporting material

Organization effective

Argument development effective

Refuted counterarguments

Language precise, clear, powerful

Transitions effective

Sources are well integrated, credible, fully cited

----------------------------------------------------------------------



CONCLUSION

Audience prepared for conclusion

Purpose & main points reviewed

Closed speech by reference to intro./other devices

----------------------------------------------------------------------

DELIVERY

Maintained eye contact

Used voice, diction, & rate for maximum effect

Used space, movement, & gestures for emphasis

----------------------------------------------------------------------

OVERALL IMPRESSION

Topic challenging

Adapted to audience

Maintained time limits

Evidence of preparation & practice

Quality & relevance of visual aids

Was Persuasive

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Student Signature_________________________________
Lab Attendant Signature____________________________
Date_________________

Note: You should compare the feedback provided in the speech lab to the specific requirements stipulated by your instructor. In other words, it is your instructor who will ultimately assign a grade for your speech.



Required General Education Materials

COMMUNICATION 110 AND ENGLISH 101


Glossary of Shared Vocabulary/Critical Thinking Terms
--Argumentation, Rhetorical, Process, and Product Terms--
Accuracy (pp. FF-82)
In evaluating a deductive argument, the truth or verifiability of the major and minor premises (p. FF-82).
Ad Hominem
A fallacy in which the person, rather than the issue at hand, becomes the focus (argument against the person) (p. FF-84).
Example: There is no doubt that American businesses have been hurt by all the environmental regulations passed in recent years. Most of the regulations were dreamed up by ivory-tower intellectuals, tree huggers, and pin-headed government bureaucrats. We can’t afford those kinds of regulations.
Ambiguity (Fallacies of)
Arguments that are flawed because they contain a word or words with two or more meanings (p. FF-85; equivocation and division).
Analogical Reasoning
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second (p. 444).
Analysis
Generally, the process of examining a whole with regard to its parts, particularly with an eye toward determining their nature and interrelationships. In English 101 and Comm 110, the process of examining a text or the process by which a text was produced for the purpose of gaining a better understanding of the text or process.
Appeal
A rhetorical strategy designed to engage the audience with an issue in order to accomplish a desired result. Appeals may be based on logic (see “Logos”), emotion (see “Pathos”), or character (see “Ethos”).
Appeal to Authority

A fallacy that occurs when a person offers information that is outside her or his area of expertise (p. FF-85).

Example: Ken Griffey Jr. knows what he is talking about when he says that Jay’s Auto-Body shop is the best in town; after all, he is the greatest baseball player in history.

Required General Education Materials
Appeal to the People
A fallacy that invites you to join the group and do something because “everyone is doing it”; also known as the bandwagon fallacy (p. FF-84).
Example: Let’s buy a SUV because that’s what the “cool” people drive.
Argument
Arguments consist of propositions and their justification. A proposition is a statement of what you believe, whereas a justification is all the evidence you have gathered that supports the proposition (p. FF-81).
Argument Link
Provides a link between the claim and evidence; explains how the data proves the speaker’s point (also known as the warrant in Toulmin’s argument model).
Audience
The person or group for whom the message is intended.
Audience Analysis
A critical step in the process of deciding upon an appeal, building an argument, and shaping a text; the consideration of the audience’s age, background, gender, economic status, beliefs, biases, culture, concerns, etc.
Assertion
A statement that the author/speaker believes to be true. (See “Claim.”)
Backing
Use to substantiate or qualify the speaker’s evidence (evidence credibility) (argument model).
Begging the Question
A fallacy that occurs when you use a conclusion that is also your premise; also called a circular argument (p. FF-85).
Example: All educated people can speak competently in public (all competent speakers are educated).
Causal Reasoning

Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects (p. 443).

Claim
A statement or point the speaker is attempting to make, assertion (argument model).

Required General Education Materials
Convention
The way things are usually done; perhaps less stringent than a rule, but still a major consideration in the production of a text. Conventions may affect decisions as broad as the organization of a text or as narrow as the punctuation of a sentence.
Copy-editing
The process of reviewing a text for the purpose of addressing grammatical and mechanical considerations.
Critical Listening
Listening that challenges the speaker’s message by evaluating its accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility (p. FF-78).
Critical Thinking
Analyzing and judging the accuracy of messages (p. FF-79). Focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and differences between fact and opinion (p. 16).
Deductive Argument (reasoning from principle)
An argument that progresses from a general proposition to a specific instance (p. FF-82).
Delivery
The process of making a spoken text public; the presentation of a spoken text to its audience.
Discourse Community
A group of “knowledgeable peers” whose ideas shape and are shaped by each other’s thinking, speaking, and writing.
Discovery Draft
A single, early iteration of a text, generally used for the discovery of possible ideas, issues, audiences, purposes, and so on.
Division (Fallacy of)
A fallacy in which you argue that what is true of the parts must be true of the whole or that what is true of the whole must be true of the parts.

Example: Jimmy, a student in my history class, is highly motivated. The whole class must be over-achievers.

Required General Education Materials
Documentation
The process of identifying for the audience the sources of information and evidence used in a text. Ethical and responsible writers and speakers routinely document all outside sources within the body of the text and in a separate listing.
Draft for Editing
A late draft of a text; respondents are asked to consider meaning-preserving issues such as grammar and mechanics.
Draft for Response
A relatively early draft of a text; respondents are asked to help the author create meaning and knowledge by offering their own perspectives on the issue and the text as well as responding to questions posed by the author.
Enthymeme
Parts of a deductive argument, such as a premise or a conclusion (p. FF-83). A truncated syllogism.
Equivocation (Fallacy of)
A fallacy that occurs when you purposefully use the ambiguous qualities of language to your advantage or when you use two different meanings of the same word within a single context (p. FF-86). You equivocate when you use terms like oldest, thinnest, or tallest without specifying the context.
Example: Pamela is so thin. She has lost more weight than anyone else in our Weight Watchers group.
Ethos
A personal proof, or ethos, is based on the authority and knowledge of a credible source (p. FF-82).
Evidence
The proof a speaker uses to substantiate claims (argument model). Evidence may include personal experience, anecdotes, expert testimony, comparisons or analogies, facts, statistics, examples, charts/diagrams/graphs, concrete details, quotations, reasons, and/or definitions.
Exigency
The pressing need or desire that drives a communication situation. The writer/speaker’s motivation.

Required General Education Materials

Fallacy
An argument that is flawed, does not follow rules of logic, and therefore is not to be believed (p. FF-84). An error in reasoning (p. 445).
False Alternatives
A fallacy which suggests that only two alternatives are possible and that one of the two is disastrous or to be avoided (p. FF-85).
Example: Either we build a new high school or children in this town will never get into elite colleges.
False Cause
The fallacy of attributing the cause of something to whatever happened before it (p. FF-85).
Example: I’m never eating oysters again. The last time I had oysters, I got pregnant.
Final Analytical Essay
A text produced at the end of the semester for inclusion in the portfolio. The final analytical essay looks critically at the body of work produced in the class as well as the processes used to produce that body of work.
Final Unit Draft
A relatively late draft of a text; one that is ready to be submitted for evaluation by an instructor.
Forum
The “site of publication”; where the message/text is made public.
Forum Analysis
A critical step in the shaping of a message/text. The consideration of the forum’s audience, conventions, biases, and so on for the purpose of shaping a text.
Hasty Generalization
A fallacy in which an inference is drawn from insufficient observation; also called a premature generalization (p. FF-85).
Example: I was once bitten by a dog, so I will never trust dogs again.
Inductive Argument (reasoning from specific instances)
An argument that progresses from specific instances to a generalization (p. FF-82).

Required General Education Materials

Inference

A generalization from or about information you have received through your senses (pp. FF-81).
Invalid Analogy
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike (p. 444).
Example: In Great Britain the general election campaign for Prime Minister lasts less than three weeks. Surely we can do the same with the U.S. presidential election.
Invention
The process of selecting a topic or issue, determining a perspective, and identifying appropriate kinds of evidence and appeals to be used in the presentation of the issue to a particular audience for a particular purpose.
Irrelevant Conclusion
A fallacy that occurs when evidence supports one conclusion but you draw another one (p. FF-85).
Example: By beginning to confront rainforest destruction in the third world, our environmental movement will become more appealing to ethnic activists. Racism is a heinous crime against society.
Kairos
The opportune moment for a communication to take place; the occasion or “teachable moment.”
Logos
A logical proof, or logos, is based on reasoning (p. FF-82).
Message Analysis
A step in critical thinking and listening that includes evaluating the process by which information and knowledge was discovered and evaluating the message itself (p. FF-80).
Observation
A description based on phenomena that can be sensed—seen, heard, tasted, smelled, or felt (pp. FF-81).
Pathos
An emotional proof, or pathos, is based on feelings or emotions (p. FF-82).
Required General Education Materials

Portfolio

An evaluation instrument; a collection of artifacts that demonstrate student learning and growth.
Portfolio Draft
A final iteration of a text for purposes of the course; one prepared especially for inclusion in the portfolio.
Pre-emption
Requires the speaker to anticipate counterarguments to her/his position and answer them ahead of time (argument model).
Purpose
The writer/speaker’s goal. What s/he hopes to accomplish through the text.
Qualifier
A statement that qualifies the speaker’s argument by admitting exceptions (argument model).
Red Herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion (p. 446).
Example: How dare my opponents accuse me of political corruption at a time when we are working to improve the quality of life in the United States.
Relevance (Fallacies of)
Arguments that are flawed because the conclusion is based on irrelevant premises (p. FF-84; ad hominem, appeal to the people, appeal to authority, hasty generalization, false cause, begging the question, irrelevant conclusion, and false alternatives).
Research, Primary
The process of accumulating evidence through first-hand observation and investigation. Primary research tools include the examination of texts, observations, surveys, interviews, laboratory experiments, and so on.
Research, Secondary
The process of accumulating evidence found in previously published work. Secondary research tools include books, magazines, newspapers, government documents, reports, websites, television or radio broadcasts, and so on.
Required General Education Materials
Response

The process of providing substantive feedback to an author or speaker. Ideally, such feedback is designed to provide the author/speaker with additional information or evidence or a new or different perspective on a text or issue—one that s/he may not have previously considered.

Revision, Global
Literally, the process of “re-seeing” a text for the purpose of making it more suitable for the rhetorical situation within which it exists. Global revision consists of making changes that affect the text as a whole.
Revision, Local
Literally, the process of “re-seeing” a text of the purpose of preserving meaning, achieving clarity, enhancing style, or addressing other concerns at the section, paragraph, sentence, or word level.
Revision Strategies
Approaches to revising texts. Specific revision strategies include addition, deletion, substitution, transposition (re-organization), or transformation (a change in audience, purpose, forum, format, genre, etc.)
Rhetorical Situation
The conditions that shape a text, including its topic, audience, purpose and forum.
Slippery Slope
A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented (p. 448).
Example: If we allow the government to restrict the sale of semi-automatic weapons, before we know it, there will be a ban on the ownership of handguns and even hunting rifles. And once our constitutional right to bear arms has been compromised, the right of free speech will be the next to go.
Source Credibility
The speaker’s competence to make the claim, as perceived by the listeners (p. FF-80).
Straw Person Argument
A straw person argument is a type of red herring because the arguer attempts to refute her or his opponent's position, and in the context is required to do so, but instead attacks a position—the "straw person"—not held by her or his opponent
Example: It is a straw person to attack abortion rights as the position that no abortions should ever be restricted, bar none.

Required General Education Materials

Structure
The organization or arrangement of ideas within a text. While most texts have a clear beginning, middle, and end, the specific organizational pattern of any individual text should be determined by the demands of the rhetorical situation. In other words, ideas should be arranged in a way that will anticipate and meet the needs of the audience while allowing for the effective and efficient accomplishment of the author’s purpose. Certain conventions of forum or genre may also play a role in determining an appropriate structure for a text.
Style
The manner in which speakers or writers express their ideas. Style may refer to the manner of delivery, to the choice and arrangement of words, the use of figures of speech, and so on. The most important consideration concerning style, however, is its rhetorical appropriateness and effectiveness.
Syllogism
An argument with a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion (p. FF-82).
Text

Any written, spoken, or visual artifact which can be analyzed with the intent of coming to a better understanding of its nature (e.g. an article, a speech, a picture, a movie, a song, etc.)


Tone
A reflection of the writer/speaker’s attitude toward the issue as reflected in the text. Some examples of tones include: seriousness, passion, humor, satire or sarcasm, righteousness, mocking, objective, detached, didactic, dogmatic, questioning, superior, idealistic, and so on. Once again, the key is to strike a tone that is appropriate for a given rhetorical situation.
Unit Analysis
A brief analysis of the student’s work during the course of a single unit. An examination of the text produced during the unit as well as the processes used to produce the text.
Validity

In evaluating a deductive argument, the ability to logically derive a conclusion from its propositions (p. FF-83).

Required General Education Materials

OPERATIONALIZING CRITICAL THINKING IN COM 110
Taxonomy Classification Instructional Objectives
Knowledge:

Of terminology Able to distinguish among various types of

speeches and their function.

Able to distinguish among various parts of a

speech and their function.

Able to recall specific facts for use in speech

development.
Of criteria Able to identify the major criteria used by

professionals in assessing a speech.

Able to identify criteria for testing the

validity of evidence.
Of methodology Able to identify methods for analyzing the

audience.
Of theories Able to recall major rhetorical theories.
Comprehension:

Translation Able to illustrate arguments using evidence.

Able to represent ideas through metaphors.
Interpretation Able to draw conclusions on the basis of

evidence presented.
Application: Able to organize ideas in a speech.

Able to choose evidence appropriate for a

given audience.
Analysis:

Of elements Able to recognize unstable assumptions in a

speech.

Able to categorize the arguments in a

speech.

Able to identify the main points of a speech.
Of relationships Able to distinguish fallacies in arguments.

Able to compare the validity of opposing

arguments.

Required General Education Materials

OPERATIONALIZING CRITICAL THINKING IN COM 110
Taxonomy Classification Instructional Objectives
Analysis (Contd.):

Of organizational principles Able to distinguish forms of support.

Able to analyze an audience.
Synthesis:

Production of a unique communication Able to write a well organized speech.

Able to deliver a speech.
Production of a plan Able to plan an outline of a speech.

Able to plan a strategy for researching a

topic.

Able to plan a strategy for audience analysis.
Evaluation:

Judgments in terms of internal Able to judge the effectiveness of a speech.

Evidence

Required General Education Materials

Argumentation/Critical Thinking Questions
1. What topic or question is being explored in this text? (How does this topic fit into larger contexts of current discussion and debate?)
2. What is the author’s main point?
3. Does the author attempt to give us any reasons to think that the main point is likely to be right?

4. What reasons or evidence does the author provide in support of the main point?


5. Do these fit together to form just one main argument, or is there a cluster of different arguments, or maybe a chain of arguments leading to the main point?
6. Do the reasons and evidence given by the author all appear to be solid and believable, or is there reason to question them? If the author relies on work done by others, are those sources reliable?

7. If we were to accept the author’s reasons and evidence, would that be enough to warrant our acceptance of the author’s main point? (Think about whether the reasons and evidence are powerful and relevant. Do they lead us logically to the author’s main point?) Here are some more detailed questions that fit here:

7a. If the argument is an attempt to establish a cause and effect relationship between two or more things, has the author given us enough evidence to rule out alternative causes that differ from the ones the author favors?

7b. Is the author relying too much on irrelevant attacks on someone else’s character?

7c. Has the author too conveniently left out some things that would count against the main point?

8. What objections to the author’s position are likely to be made by someone who does not agree? Does the author do enough to respond to those objections? Are there better ways to respond to the objections?
9. What unstated assumptions might the author be relying on to help support the main point? Does it help the argument to bring these assumptions out into the open, or are the assumptions too questionable to be acceptable?
10. Would the author’s position be more reasonable if the main point were altered in some way? If so, how and why?
Required General Education Materials
What is Information Literacy and Why is it Important?
One of the core set of competencies that you are developing in COM 110 is Information Literacy skills. These skills focus on the need to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information.
We have divided this process in a set of competencies that are fluid and flexible and can be envisioned as steps in a circular process:


  • Know – decide what is required to answer a question, do the assignment and/or what the question, assignment, etc. means to you




  • Access – select appropriate tools, design and implement search strategy and evaluate search results




  • Evaluate – recognize and summarize main ideas, identify and/or create evaluation criteria, evaluate research results and compare to existing knowledge



  • Use and Incorporate Ethically and Legally – apply new information ethically and legally, integrate and synthesize information ethically and legally into speech and related work, acknowledge new information through proper citing and share speech and related work in appropriate forum


  • Remember – transfer knowledge gained from this process to future questions, assignments, etc.


A more detailed version of the information literacy competencies/standards can be found at http://www.mlb.ilstu.edu/learn/ilcomps.htm


In this course, you will utilize these skills in a set of information literacy instructional sessions that accompany each of the three speeches you will be doing this semester. For more information regarding information literacy instruction in Com 110 visit: http://www.library.ilstu.edu/gened/
However, we want to stress the idea that these skills are not an inoculation that cures you of information illiteracy, but rather the beginning steps to developing abilities that will be useful throughout your college career, and as importantly, the rest of your life.
Long after you graduate, you will be making important decisions that will require you to know, access, evaluate, use and remember information. You will buy a car and/or house; research companies, organizations and institutions for employment; search for a place to live; find information on personal interests; inform yourself on medical issues; and the list goes on and on. To make informed decisions, you will need to be able to efficiently access, evaluate and utilize information.
For more information on information literacy, please visit the American Library Association’s Information Literacy web site: http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlissues/acrlinfolit/infolitoverview/introtoinfolit/introinfolit.htm

Required General Education Materials
Information Literacy/Research Process


Required General Education Materials
Critical Thinking: Testing Evidence

As a group, determine which of the tests of evidence that the following excerpts violate—timeliness, credibility, or bias.



  1. According to Sean Penn in a recent interview, the United States needs to change its foreign policy in the Middle East otherwise it will be impossible to bring about lasting peace in the region.




  1. Dr. Sherwood B. Idso, a research physicist with U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, in Phoenix, Arizona, has found when enriched with more carbon dioxide, plants grow bigger and better, much like those of past geological epochs of biological prominence. "It well could be that the rising carbon dioxide content of Earth's atmosphere is actually a blessing in disguise and one of the better things that could happen to mankind and nature."




  1. The most recent precedent for a blanket clemency came 16 years ago when the governor of New Mexico commuted the death sentences of the state's five death row inmates. However, calling his state's record on death penalty convictions "shameful," the governor of Illinois pardoned four men who claim to have been tortured into confessing murders they did not commit. In addition, he will announce before leaving office if he will grant clemency to any or all the state’s 160 death row inmates.




  1. According to a survey conducted for Honda Motor Co., most people prefer cars produced by Honda to that of Ford, Mazda, Toyota and even Hyundai.




  1. After months of preparations and the deployment of thousands of troops to try and bolster security, Iraqis anxiously await to cast ballots in the nation's first major free election in more than 50 years.



  1. A "60 Minutes" story reported by Dan Rather, disclosed 30-year-old memos, shedding a negative light on President Bush's service in the Texas Air National Guard. According to Texas Lt. Gov. Ben Barnes, he helped Bush get into the Air Guard, which was seen as a way to avoid serving in Vietnam.





  1. According to www.celebritygossip/insiderinformation/123.com, Julia Roberts and her husband Danny Moder hired a former Secret Service agent who served for the Clinton administration as their twins’ live-in nanny.




  1. The White House announced that President Bush has nominated Condoleezza Rice, his national security adviser and one of his closest counselors, to replace Colin Powell as secretary of state. If nominated and confirmed, Rice would be the second woman and the second African American to be the nation's top foreign policy representative.


Required General Education Materials
Critical Thinking: Analyzing Political Argument
Wolves” from the Bush campaign, aired October 22, 2004

NARRATOR: “In an increasingly dangerous world, even after the first terrorist attack on America, John Kerry and the liberals in Congress voted to slash America’s intelligence operations by six billion dollars, ....cuts so deep they would have weakened America’s defenses. And weakness attracts those who are waiting to do America harm.
Global Test,” Bush campaign, aired October 2, 2004
NARRATOR: “He said he'd attack terrorists who threaten America, but at the debate, John Kerry said America must pass a "global test" before we protect ourselves. The Kerry doctrine: A global test. So we must seek permission from foreign governments before protecting America? So America will be forced to wait while threats gather? President Bush believes decisions about protecting America should be made in the Oval Office, not foreign capitals.”

He’s Lost, He’s Desperate,” John Kerry, aired October 3, 2004, (response to “Global Test”)

NARRATOR: “George Bush lost the debate. Now he’s lying about it. This is what you heard John Kerry really say: 'The president always has the right for pre-emptive strike. I will hunt and kill the terrorists wherever they are.' But here’s something new about George Bush: newspapers report he withheld key intelligence information from the American public... so he could overstate the threat Iraq posed. Bush rushed us into war. Now we’re paying the price. It's time for a fresh start.”
Juvenile,” Kerry campaign, aired September 22, 2004
NARRATOR: “One thousand U.S. casualties. Two Americans beheaded just this week. The Pentagon admits terrorists are pouring into Iraq. In the face of the Iraq quagmire, George Bush's answer is to run a juvenile and tasteless attack ad. John Kerry has a plan for success. Get allies involved. Speed up the training of Iraqis. Take essential steps to get a free election next year. On Iraq, it's time for a new direction.”
Required General Education Materials
Critical Thinking: Applying Toulmin’s Argument Model
1. CLAIM – statement, point you are trying to make, assertion
Low-carbohydrate diets should not be used.
2. DATA/PROOF/EVIDENCE – proof you use to substantiate the claim (can take several forms: statistics, personal examples, expert testimony, etc.)
Potential long-term health concerns caused by low-carb diets include bone loss, kidney stress, and increased risk of some cancers. Lack of vitamins, osteoporosis, and heart disease are also common side effects.
3. ARGUMENT LINK (WARRANT) – ties A & B together, explains how the data prove your point, demonstrates that making the mental leap from one to the other is rational

Low-carb diets lead to many negative long-term health effects.  Diets are intended to improve one’s health, not harm it. Moreover, negative health effects are undesirable.  Low-carbohydrate diets should not be used.

The argument is formulated that low-carbohydrate diets should not be used because these diets lead to negative long-term health effects, and these effects both negate the purpose of dieting and are ultimately undesirable.
4. EVIDENCE CREDIBILITY (BACKING) – substantiates or qualifies your evidence
Stated on the Fad Diets: Low Carbohydrate Diet Summaries Web site provided by the Registered Dietitians at the University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center and accessed November 10, 2004, potential long-term health concerns caused by low-carb diets include “bone loss, kidney stress, and increased risk of some cancers.” Lack of vitamins, osteoporosis, and heart disease are also common side effects.
5. QUALIFIER – admits exceptions, demonstrates that argumentation is not an exact science and that issues are rarely discussible in absolute terms
Low-carb diets should not be used -------except when doctors and their patients weigh the costs and decide that the negative health concerns associated with low-carb dieting are more favorable than the side effects of obesity.
6. PREEMPTION – requires the speaker to anticipate the counterarguments and answer them ahead of time

Some doctors suggest temporary low-carbohydrate diets. In fact, there is an abundance of literature, some even written by Dr. Atkins himself, claiming that the Atkins diet and other low-carb diets are safe and effective.


This requires that you do a good job of researching ALL perspectives!!!!
Required General Education Materials
Sample Argument Text: Low-Carbohydrate Diets
Despite what the media tells you, low-carbohydrate diets should not be used (CLAIM). Dieters are looking for a way to improve their health, when in fact low-carbohydrate diets lead to many undesirable effects (WARRANT).

These diets produce an abundance of medical problems that stem from the drastically reduced daily intake of carbohydrates. Stated on the Fad Diets: Low Carbohydrate Diet Summaries Web site provided by the Registered Dietitians at the University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center (BACKING) and accessed November 10, 2004, potential long-term health concerns caused by low-carb diets include “bone loss, kidney stress, and increased risk of some cancers.” Lack of vitamins, osteoporosis, and heart disease are also common side effects (PROOF/EVIDENCE).

It is true that some doctors suggest temporary low-carbohydrate diets. In fact, there is an abundance of literature, some even written by Dr. Atkins himself, claiming that the Atkins diet and other low-carb diets are safe and effective (PREEMPTION).
These arguments about safety leave out important facts. It must be recognized that even if an individual loses weight, that person may be damaging his or her long-term health even further. For instance, pounds may be traded for higher cholesterol levels. According to Alleged Atkins Diet Victim Files Suit Web site filed by James Green and Daniel Kinburn (BACKING) and accessed November 18, 2004, “…Two recent studies funded by the Atkins Center for Complementary Medicine showed that approximately 30 percent of participants had increased LDL (“bad”) cholesterol” (PROOF/EVIDENCE).
There are rare occasions when doctors and their patients weigh the costs and decide that the negative health concerns associated with low-carb dieting are more favorable than the side effects of obesity (QUALIFIER).
Testing the Argument
In order to effectively critique an argument, you must ask the right questions.
What reasons or evidence are offered to support the position?
If there are reasons/evidence offered, the position can be called the author’s conclusion, and we can ask the following questions:
Are the reasons/evidence solid and believable, or is there reason to doubt them?
Do the reasons connect tightly to the conclusion, or are there holes in the logic? (e.g., Are all the

reasons truly relevant?)


Does the argument exhibit any recognizable patterns of bad reasoning (fallacies)?
What objections might be made to the argument? If they are worthy of discussion, did the

speaker reply adequately to them?


Have significant considerations been left out by the author?

Would a different position or conclusion have been more reasonable? If so, where did the

speaker go wrong?


Optional Handouts
ANY OLD BAG WILL DO ASSIGNMENT SHEET
Adapted from M. Buchanan (1995). The Speech Teacher
Purpose:
To begin the process of audience analysis as well as to “break the ice” of completing the first “speech.” Also, to provide students the opportunity to see what it is like to stand in front of an audience.
Assignment:
Students will bring to class three items in a bag of their choice (no book bags). The items should be a personal reflection of the student and allow that student to share information about themselves in a creative way. The students will explain how these items reveal information about their personality. Students will conclude their presentation by explaining why they chose the bag they brought and how it reflects them personally.
Evaluation:
The assignment is for points. Students must stand in front of the class for at least one minute (no longer than 2 minutes). If students finish their presentation before the time limit, then the class can ask them questions to finish the allotted time.
Hints to Students:
Practice working with your items. You’d be surprised how difficult it can be to talk and manipulate items at the same time (especially if you are nervous). Make sure you know exactly what you want to say, when you want to say it, and most importantly) how you want to finish it. Make sure your presentation is at least one minute long. Silence can be very uncomfortable. Some former students say this is the most difficult assignment of the semester, so from here on out is smooth sailing. Good luck!

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