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558340 DT Two- or Three-wheel vehicles and Quadricycles
Impact Assessment




EUROPEAN COMMISSION


Brussels, 4.10.2010

SEC(2010) 1152





COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

Accompanying document to the

Proposal for a
REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
on the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadricycles

Impact Assessment

This report commits only the Commission departments involved in its preparation and does not prejudge the final form of any decision to be taken by the Commission.

Lead DG: DG Enterprise and Industry

Commission Work Programme 2010

Commission’s Agenda Planning: 2010/ENTR/02

{COM(2010) 542 final}
{SEC(2010) 1151}

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Background information and policy context 6

1. Procedural issues and consultation of interested parties 7

1.1. Organisation and timing 7

1.2. Public consultation 7

1.3. External expertise 8

1.4. Industry self obligation and proposal 8

2. Problem definition and right to act 8

2.1. Problem definition 8

2.1.1. Complexity of the current legal framework Error: Reference source not found

2.1.2. High level of emissions Error: Reference source not found

2.1.3. High number of fatalities in road accidents and safety risks Error: Reference source not found

2.1.4. Lack of a legal framework for new technologies Error: Reference source not found

2.2. Community competence and subsidiary Error: Reference source not found

3. Objectives Error: Reference source not found

3.1. General objectives Error: Reference source not found

3.1.1. Specific objectives: simplification of existing EU legislation Error: Reference source not found

3.1.2. Environmental specific objectives Error: Reference source not found

3.1.3. Safety specific objectives Error: Reference source not found

3.1.4. Specific objectives: realign legal requirements and technology developments Error: Reference source not found

4. Policy options Error: Reference source not found

4.1. Simplification of existing EU legislation Error: Reference source not found

4.2. Vehicle type approval environmental measures Error: Reference source not found

4.2.1. New or revised environmental measures for the type approval of new vehicles Error: Reference source not found

4.2.1.1. Revised lower emissions limits. Error: Reference source not found

4.2.1.2. Use of a revised World-wide Motorcycle emissions Testing Cycle (WMTC) for all L-category vehicle

classes. Error: Reference source not found

4.2.1.3. Type-approval requirements for CO2 measurement and fuel consumption determination and reporting Error: Reference source not found

4.2.1.4. Evaporative emissions test and limit Error: Reference source not found

4.2.1.5. Durability requirements Error: Reference source not found

4.2.2. New measures to control vehicle emissions over vehicle life. Error: Reference source not found

4.2.2.1. In-Use Conformity (IUC) testing and limits Error: Reference source not found

4.2.2.2. On Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems and access to repair information. Error: Reference source not found

4.3. New vehicle type approval safety measures Error: Reference source not found

4.3.1. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake Systems Error: Reference source not found

4.3.2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

4.3.3. 74kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

4.4. Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

4.4.1. Electrical cycles (currently outside scope of Framework Directive), Tricycles (L5e) and quadricycles

(categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found

4.4.2. Specific requirements for category L7e vehicles Error: Reference source not found

4.4.3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions Error: Reference source not found

5. Analysis of impact Error: Reference source not found

5.1. Simplification of the legislation Error: Reference source not found

5.2. Vehicle type approval environmental measures Error: Reference source not found

5.2.1. New or revised environmental measures for the type approval of new vehicles Error: Reference source not found

5.2.1.1. Revised lower emissions limits Error: Reference source not found

5.2.1.2. Use of a revised World-wide Motorcycle emissions Testing Cycle (WMTC) for all L-category vehicle

classes Error: Reference source not found

5.2.1.3. Type-approval requirements for CO2 measurement and fuel consumption determination and reporting and

reporting. Error: Reference source not found

5.2.1.4. Evaporative emissions test and limit. Error: Reference source not found

5.2.1.5. Durability requirements. Error: Reference source not found

5.2.2. New measures to control emissions during vehicle life. Error: Reference source not found

5.2.2.1. In-Use Conformity (IUC) testing and limits. Error: Reference source not found

5.2.2.2. On Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems and access to repair information Error: Reference source not found

5.3. New vehicle type approval safety measures Error: Reference source not found

5.3.1. Obligatory fitting of Advanced brake systems Error: Reference source not found

5.3.2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

5.3.3. 74kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

5.4. Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

5.4.1. Re-categorising electric assisted cycles (currently outside the scope of legal framework), tricycles (category L5e)

and quadricycles (Categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found

5.4.2. Specific requirements for category L7e vehicles Error: Reference source not found

5.4.3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions Error: Reference source not found

5.4.4. Proposal to combine the results of the preferred options for improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

6. Options comparison and conclusions Error: Reference source not found

6.1. Simplification of the legislation Error: Reference source not found

6.2. Vehicle type approval environmental measures Error: Reference source not found

6.2.1. New or revised environmental measures for the type approval of new vehicles Error: Reference source not found

6.2.1.1. Revised lower emissions limits

6.2.1.2. Use of a revised World-wide Motorcycle emissions Testing Cycle (WMTC) for all L-category vehicle

classes Error: Reference source not found

6.2.1.3. Type-approval requirements for CO2 measurement and fuel consumption determination and reporting and

reporting Error: Reference source not found

6.2.1.4. Evaporative emissions test and limit Error: Reference source not found

6.2.1.5. Durability testing of anti-pollution devices and aged vehicles to obtain new vehicle type-approval certificate Error: Reference source not found

6.2.2. New measures to control vehicle emissions over vehicles in use

6.2.2.1. In-Use Conformity (IUC) testing and limits. Error: Reference source not found

6.2.2.2. On Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems and access to repair information Error: Reference source not found

6.3. New vehicle type approval safety measures Error: Reference source not found

6.3.1. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake Systems Error: Reference source not found

6.3.2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

6.3.3. 74 kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

6.4. Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

6.4.1. Re-categorising electric assisted cycles (currently outside scope of legal framework), Tricycles (L5e) and

quadricycles (categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found

6.4.2. Specific requirements for category L7e vehicles Error: Reference source not found

6.4.3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions Error: Reference source not found

6.5. Overview preferred options, the detailed analysis and comparison with the other options Error: Reference source not found

7. Monitoring and evaluation Error: Reference source not found

7.1. Simplification Error: Reference source not found

7.2. Vehicle type approval environmental measures Error: Reference source not found

7.2.1. New or revised environmental measures for the type approval of new vehicles Error: Reference source not found

7.2.1.1. Revised lower emissions limits

7.2.1.2. Use of a revised World-wide Motorcycle emissions Testing Cycle (WMTC) for all L-category vehicle

classes Error: Reference source not found

7.2.1.3. Type-approval requirements for CO2 measurement and fuel consumption determination and reporting and

reporting Error: Reference source not found

7.2.1.4. Evaporative emissions test and limit Error: Reference source not found

7.2.1.5. Durability testing of anti-pollution devices and aged vehicles Error: Reference source not found

7.2.2. New measures to control vehicle emissions over vehicles in use

7.2.2.1. In-Use Conformity (IUC) testing and limits Error: Reference source not found

7.2.2.2. On Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems and access to repair information Error: Reference source not found

7.3. New vehicle type approval safety measures Error: Reference source not found

7.3.1. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake Systems Error: Reference source not found

7.3.2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

7.3.3. 74kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

7.4. Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

7.4.1. Electrical cycles (currently outside scope of Framework Directive), Tricycles and Quadricycles Error: Reference source not found

7.4.2. 6.4.2. Specific requirements for category L7e vehicles) Error: Reference source not found

7.4.3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX I: L-category vehicle definitions Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX II: Public consultation on outline proposals for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the

Council for L-category vehicles — Summary of Responses Error: Reference source not found

1. Context Error: Reference source not found

2. Overview of respondents and analysis method Error: Reference source not found

3. Summary of responses Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX III: Description of the tasks requested to the external consultant TRL and methodology used — Policy

Assessment report regarding possible safety measures Error: Reference source not found

1. Detailed description of the task to be performed Error: Reference source not found

2. Methodology Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX IV: Description of the tasks requested to the external consultant LAT and methodology used — Policy

assessment report regarding possible safety measures Error: Reference source not found

1. Subject of the service request Error: Reference source not found

1.1. Detailed description of the tasks to be performed Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Methodology Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX V: Self obligation European motorcycle industry association (ACEM) Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX VI: Self obligation European motorcycle industry association (ACEM) Environmental Aspects Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX VII: Self obligation European motorcycle industry association (ACEM) Environmental aspects — Revised

emission limits Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX VIII:Background to the type-approval system Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX IX: The Market for L-category vehicle in the EU Error: Reference source not found

1. The structure of the EU market Error: Reference source not found

2. Electrical Cycles Error: Reference source not found

2.1. Sales of Electric Cycles Error: Reference source not found

3. Powered-two wheelers (PTW) Error: Reference source not found

3.1. EuroStat data Error: Reference source not found

3.2. Type Approval data Error: Reference source not found

3.3. Import and export of motorcycles and motorcycle parts Error: Reference source not found

3.4. The impact of the new measures on international trade Error: Reference source not found

3.5. Production of PTWs Error: Reference source not found

3.6. PTW Price development over time Error: Reference source not found

3.7. Sales of PTWs Error: Reference source not found

7.4.4. Motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

7.4.5. Mopeds Error: Reference source not found

3.8. Upstream-Suppliers Error: Reference source not found

3.9. Downstream- sale, maintenance and repair Error: Reference source not found

3.10. Employment PTW industry Error: Reference source not found

4. All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) Error: Reference source not found

4.1. All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) sales in Europe Error: Reference source not found

4.2. Employment ATV industry Error: Reference source not found

5. Mini-cars Error: Reference source not found

Annex X: Details chapter 5 — Impact analysis — Simplification of legislation Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XI: Details chapter 5 — Impact analysis vehicle Type Approval Environmental measures Error: Reference source not found

1. New or revised environmental measures for the type approval of new vehicles Error: Reference source not found

1.1. Revised lower emissions limits, detailed analysis of proposed limit by comparison with light duty

M1 emission limits Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Qualitative analysis of the policy options to revise the emission limits Error: Reference source not found

1.3. Revised lower emissions limits, summary of the cost effectiveness of the proposed emission limit

options Error: Reference source not found

1.4. Use of a revised World-wide Motorcycle emissions Testing Cycle (WMTC) for all L-category vehicle Error: Reference source not found

1.5. Type-approval requirements for CO2 measurement and fuel consumption determination and reporting and

reporting Error: Reference source not found

1.6. Evaporative emissions test and limit Error: Reference source not found

1.7. Durability requirements. Error: Reference source not found

2. New measures to control emissions during vehicle life. Error: Reference source not found

2.1. In-Use Conformity (IUC) testing and limits. Error: Reference source not found

2.2. On Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems and access to repair information Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XII: Details chapter 5 — Impact analysis new vehicle Type Approval safety measures Error: Reference source not found

1. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake systems Error: Reference source not found

1.1. No change Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Anti-lock Brake Systems on all Powered Two Wheelers (PTW) Error: Reference source not found

1.3. Anti-lock Brake Systems on PTWs with cylinder capacity > 125 cm3 and Advanced Brake Systems (Combined

Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Brake Systems(ABS)) on motorcycles

with 50cm3 < cylinder capacity ≤ 125cm3 Error: Reference source not found

1.4. To make mandatory the fitting of Advanced Brake Systems (Combined Brake System (CBS) and/or Anti-lock

Braking Systems) on those motorcycles which conform to the performance criteria defined by the A2 driving

licence . Obligatory fitting of Anti-lock Brake Systems on all other L3e class motorcycles; Error: Reference source not found

1.5. Industry self obligation Error: Reference source not found

2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

2.1. No change; Error: Reference source not found

2.2. Repeal Chapter 7 of Directive 97/24/EEC, current superseded anti-tampering measures; Error: Reference source not found

2.3. New measures on anti-tampering Error: Reference source not found

3. 74 kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XIII:Details chapter 5 — Impact analysis Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

1. Electrical Cycles (outside scope of framework directive currently), Tricycles (L5e) and Quadricycles

(Category L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found

2. Specific requirements for Category L7e vehicles Error: Reference source not found

3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions. Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XIV:Details chapter 6 — options comparison and conclusions Simplification of the legislation Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XV:Details chapter 6 — Options comparison and conclusions Vehicle Type Approval Environmental measures Error: Reference source not found

1. New or revised environmental measures for the type approval of new vehicles Error: Reference source not found

1.1. Revised lower emissions limits. Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Use of a revised World-wide Motorcycle emissions Testing Cycle (WMTC) for all L-category vehicle

classes. Error: Reference source not found

1.3. Type-approval requirements for CO2 measurement and fuel consumption determination and reporting and

reporting Error: Reference source not found

1.4. Evaporative emissions test and limit Error: Reference source not found

1.5. Durability requirements Error: Reference source not found

2. New measures to control emissions during vehicle life. Error: Reference source not found

2.1. In-Use Conformity (IUC) testing and limits. Error: Reference source not found

2.2. On Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems and access to repair information Error: Reference source not found

3. Proposal for revised emission limits Error: Reference source not found

3.1. Proposal to revise emission limits for short and medium term Error: Reference source not found

3.2. Proposal to revise emission limits for long term Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XVI:Details chapter 6 — options comparison and conclusions-Analysis New Vehicle Type Approval Safety

measures Error: Reference source not found

1. fitting of Advanced Brake systems Error: Reference source not found

1.1. No change Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Anti-lock Brake Systems on all Powered Two Wheelers (PTW) Error: Reference source not found

1.3. Anti-lock Brake Systems on PTWs with cylinder capacity > 125 cm3 and Advanced Brake Systems (Combined

Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Brake Systems(ABS)) on motorcycles

with 50 cm3 < cylinder capacity ≤ 125 cm3 Error: Reference source not found

1.4. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake Systems (Combined Brake System (CBS) and/or

Anti-lock Brake Systems (ABS)) on motorcycles fulfilling the maximum performance criteria related to the A2

driving licence. Obligatory fitting of Anti-lock Brake Systems on all other L3e class motorcycles. Error: Reference source not found

1.5. Industry self obligation Error: Reference source not found

1.6. Impact Assessment of Anti-lock Brake System technology fitted on vehicles, manufactured and type approved

by SMEs Error: Reference source not found

1.6.1. Introduction Error: Reference source not found

1.6.2. Regulatory Impacts on SMEs Error: Reference source not found

1.6.3. Economic Advantages Error: Reference source not found

1.6.4. Possible Disadvantages Error: Reference source not found

1.6.5. Potential Opportunities Error: Reference source not found

1.6.6. Potential Risks Error: Reference source not found

2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

2.1. No change; Error: Reference source not found

2.2. Repeal Chapter 7 of Directive 97/24/EEC, current superseded anti-tampering measures; Error: Reference source not found

2.3. New measures on anti-tampering. Error: Reference source not found

3. 74 kW power limitation for motorcycle Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XVII:Details chapter 6 — Options comparison and conclusions — Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

1. re-categorisation Electrical Cycles (outside scope of framework directive currently), Tricycles (L5e) and

Quadricycles (Categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found

2. Specific requirements for category L7e vehicles Error: Reference source not found

3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions. Error: Reference source not found

4. Proposal to re-categorise L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XVIII:Details chapter 7 — – Monitoring & Evaluation Analysis New Vehicle Type Approval Simplification and

Safety measures Error: Reference source not found

1. Simplification Error: Reference source not found

2. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake systems Error: Reference source not found

3. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found

4. 74kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XIX:Details chapter 7 — Monitoring & Evaluation Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found

1. Re-categorisation electric assisted CYCLES (outside scope of legal framework currently), Tricycles (L5e) and

quadricycles (Categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found

2. Specific requirements for Off-road quads (All Terrain Vehicles, ATVs) Error: Reference source not found

3. Specific requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions. Error: Reference source not found

ANNEX XX:Abbreviation List and Glossary Error: Reference source not found

Background information and policy context

Please refer to Annex XX at the back of this report for a list of abbreviations and a glossary of terminology.

‘L-category vehicles’ is a term covering a wide range of different vehicle types with two or three or four wheels, e.g. two- or three-wheel mopeds, two- or three-wheel motorcycles and motorcycles with side-cars. Examples of four-wheel vehicles, also known as quadricycles or quads, which also belong to the L-category vehicle family, are quads used on public roads, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), which are quads designed to be used off-road, and mini-cars. Annex I provides more details of the current categorisation criteria for L-category vehicles.

Type-approval requirements for new vehicles in the L category are currently set out in Directive 2002/24/EC1 (the ‘Framework Directive’). In addition, a series of directives referred to in the Framework Directive contain detailed technical requirements relating to L-category vehicles. The Framework Directive became mandatory on 9 November 2003 for new types of vehicles.

Type-approval legislation was addressed in the political initiative ‘CARS 212. This initiative was launched in 2005 to carry out a regulatory and policy review of the automotive sector to advise the Commission on future policy options. One of the reasons for launching CARS 21 was the concern expressed by automotive stakeholders that the cumulative cost of regulation had a negative effect on competitiveness, and made vehicles unnecessarily expensive. The CARS 21 Final Report3 concluded that while most of the legislation in force should be maintained for the protection of consumers and the environment, a simplification exercise should be undertaken so as to rationalise the regulatory framework and move towards international harmonisation. This simplification exercise was planned in the ‘Commission second progress report on the strategy for simplifying the regulatory environment’4. Any possible initiative should be aligned with this strategy.

In line with the European strategy on air quality5, the EU has constantly strengthened emission standards for motor vehicles, in particular for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. The contribution of L-category vehicles to the overall reduction sought in greenhouse gases is another environmental aspect that is covered in this Impact Assessment.

The new initiative should be aligned with the European Road Safety Action Plan 2011-2020 and the European Road Safety Charter (ERSC)6, 2000-2010. The ERSC aimed to halve the number of road fatalities by 2010, but this challenging target will unfortunately not be met. Unfortunately, L-category vehicle riders belong to a vulnerable road user group with the highest fatality and injury rates among all road users.

Annex IX provides detailed information on the market for L-category vehicles, as registered by EuroStat. Where data were not available from EuroStat, the industry associations were requested to provide relevant information. The market is broadly composed of two sub-markets, the first comprising motorcycles and the second for scooters and mopeds. The motorcycle market is dominated by Japanese imports from companies such as Honda, Yamaha, Kawasaki and Suzuki. In a globalised world it is not any longer appropriate to refer only to traditional European companies with their main development and production footprint based in Europe. These large companies with their head offices in Japan also produce and develop models in Europe; they employ many European citizens and account for approximately 50 per cent of sales in the EU market. Large traditional EU-based motorcycle producers, also with their head offices in Europe are Piaggio, Peugeot, BMW, and a number of mid-sized companies like KTM and Ducati, which account for approximately 17 % of the market between them. In recent years there has been a significant increase in imports from China. The United States is the largest export market for motorcycles from the EU.

The second sub-market is the market for mopeds and scooters. This market is much more fragmented than the motorcycle market. Piaggio, Peugeot and Derbi are the main traditional European producers. Asian manufacturers are again strongly represented in this segment, including manufacturers from China, Thailand and India, but they have less market share than in the motorcycle segment.

In all, the number of vehicles currently in circulation in the EU is estimated at over 30 million. The EU produces over 1.1 million vehicles annually, but this is a relatively low number in comparison with China, which produces over 20 million vehicles per year, India, which produces 8 million, and Taiwan, which produces 1.5 million vehicles. However, European vehicles are considered to provide greater added value and higher quality.

It is estimated that there are approximately 100 manufacturers of motorcycles or mopeds in the EU, about half of which are owned by European companies. The estimate was based on different data sources including EuroStat, data from the type-approval authorities and a study by the University of Bologna, which was commissioned by industry. The number of SME producers operating in both the motorcycle and scooter markets is small, although the scooter market has more SMEs. The combined market segments have a turnover of approximately € 4.1 billion.

While approximately 60 000 people are employed in the manufacture of motorcycles and cycles, the total number of persons employed by the industry as a whole is estimated at approximately 165 000, when all aspects of the market are taken into consideration, including the upstream and downstream sectors. As regards employment, the main countries are Italy, Spain, France, Germany and the United Kingdom.

A third, downstream sub-market is the sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles. This market is extremely significant and, in 2006, generated € 3. 4 billion in value added from a turnover of over € 24.8 billion in the EU-27 (EuroStat estimate). 105 000 persons were employed by the 37 000 enterprises in the motorcycle distribution sector It is estimated that 72 % of the total industry’s turnover is generated in this sector.

The Impact Assessment Board (IAB) of the EU Commission issued an opinion on the present report after its meeting on 16 December 2009. The Board’s recommendations were used to revise and improve the presentation of the analysis and the overall quality of the report. The references to the annexes to chapters 5, 6 and 7 were made into links so that all the qualitative and quantitative elements of every policy option are readily accessible in the main report. The ‘industry self-regulation’ option for advanced brake systems was elaborated on in chapter 6.3.1 and additional information on the industry proposal for new emission limits was added in chapter 6.2.1.1 to meet the IAB recommendation to make it clearer whether self-regulation is a feasible option or not. The desirable use of international standards, like UNECE regulations, was explained in more detail in chapters 4.1, 4.2.11, 5.1 and 6.1. The global impacts of the measures on international trade were explained in Annex VIII, chapters 3.3 and 3.4. The Commission’s level of ambition regarding suggested standards for pollutant emissions was also added to chapter 3.1.2. A summary table of preferred options with associated references to the detailed analysis and comparison in the main text was added to chapter 6.5. Chapters 5.2.1.3 and 6.2.1.3 were further developed regarding CO2 emissions and fuel consumption determination and reporting at type approval to pave the ground for future introduction of energy efficiency labelling. Finally, the references to monitoring and evaluation arrangements were improved in chapter 7 by inserting active links to this topic in Annexes XVIII and XIX. In addition, it was explained who would be responsible for collecting data for monitoring and evaluation and when a study was to be conducted to evaluate and compare the regulator’s target with the actual situation at a future point in time.




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