1. fitting of Advanced Brake systems Error: Reference source not found
1.1. No change Error: Reference source not found
1.2. Anti-lock Brake Systems on all Powered Two Wheelers (PTW) Error: Reference source not found
1.3. Anti-lock Brake Systems on PTWs with cylinder capacity > 125 cm3 and Advanced Brake Systems (Combined
Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Brake Systems(ABS)) on motorcycles
with 50 cm3 < cylinder capacity ≤ 125 cm3 Error: Reference source not found
1.4. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake Systems (Combined Brake System (CBS) and/or
Anti-lock Brake Systems (ABS)) on motorcycles fulfilling the maximum performance criteria related to the A2
driving licence. Obligatory fitting of Anti-lock Brake Systems on all other L3e class motorcycles. Error: Reference source not found
1.5. Industry self obligation Error: Reference source not found
1.6. Impact Assessment of Anti-lock Brake System technology fitted on vehicles, manufactured and type approved
by SMEs Error: Reference source not found
1.6.1. Introduction Error: Reference source not found
1.6.2. Regulatory Impacts on SMEs Error: Reference source not found
1.6.3. Economic Advantages Error: Reference source not found
1.6.4. Possible Disadvantages Error: Reference source not found
1.6.5. Potential Opportunities Error: Reference source not found
1.6.6. Potential Risks Error: Reference source not found
2. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found
2.1. No change; Error: Reference source not found
2.2. Repeal Chapter 7 of Directive 97/24/EEC, current superseded anti-tampering measures; Error: Reference source not found
2.3. New measures on anti-tampering. Error: Reference source not found
3. 74 kW power limitation for motorcycle Error: Reference source not found
ANNEX XVII:Details chapter 6 — Options comparison and conclusions — Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found
1. re-categorisation Electrical Cycles (outside scope of framework directive currently), Tricycles (L5e) and
Quadricycles (Categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found
2. Specific requirements for category L7e vehicles Error: Reference source not found
3. Dedicated requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions. Error: Reference source not found
4. Proposal to re-categorise L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found
ANNEX XVIII:Details chapter 7 — – Monitoring & Evaluation Analysis New Vehicle Type Approval Simplification and
Safety measures Error: Reference source not found
1. Simplification Error: Reference source not found
2. Obligatory fitting of Advanced Brake systems Error: Reference source not found
3. Anti-tampering measures Error: Reference source not found
4. 74kW power limitation for motorcycles Error: Reference source not found
ANNEX XIX:Details chapter 7 — Monitoring & Evaluation Improved categorisation of L-category vehicles Error: Reference source not found
1. Re-categorisation electric assisted CYCLES (outside scope of legal framework currently), Tricycles (L5e) and
quadricycles (Categories L6e and L7e) Error: Reference source not found
2. Specific requirements for Off-road quads (All Terrain Vehicles, ATVs) Error: Reference source not found
3. Specific requirements for gaseous alternative fuels and other non-traditional propulsions. Error: Reference source not found
ANNEX XX:Abbreviation List and Glossary Error: Reference source not found
Background information and policy context
Please refer to Annex XX at the back of this report for a list of abbreviations and a glossary of terminology.
‘L-category vehicles’ is a term covering a wide range of different vehicle types with two or three or four wheels, e.g. two- or three-wheel mopeds, two- or three-wheel motorcycles and motorcycles with side-cars. Examples of four-wheel vehicles, also known as quadricycles or quads, which also belong to the L-category vehicle family, are quads used on public roads, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), which are quads designed to be used off-road, and mini-cars. Annex I provides more details of the current categorisation criteria for L-category vehicles.
Type-approval requirements for new vehicles in the L category are currently set out in Directive 2002/24/EC1 (the ‘Framework Directive’). In addition, a series of directives referred to in the Framework Directive contain detailed technical requirements relating to L-category vehicles. The Framework Directive became mandatory on 9 November 2003 for new types of vehicles.
Type-approval legislation was addressed in the political initiative ‘CARS 21’2. This initiative was launched in 2005 to carry out a regulatory and policy review of the automotive sector to advise the Commission on future policy options. One of the reasons for launching CARS 21 was the concern expressed by automotive stakeholders that the cumulative cost of regulation had a negative effect on competitiveness, and made vehicles unnecessarily expensive. The CARS 21 Final Report3 concluded that while most of the legislation in force should be maintained for the protection of consumers and the environment, a simplification exercise should be undertaken so as to rationalise the regulatory framework and move towards international harmonisation. This simplification exercise was planned in the ‘Commission second progress report on the strategy for simplifying the regulatory environment’4. Any possible initiative should be aligned with this strategy.
In line with the European strategy on air quality5, the EU has constantly strengthened emission standards for motor vehicles, in particular for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. The contribution of L-category vehicles to the overall reduction sought in greenhouse gases is another environmental aspect that is covered in this Impact Assessment.
The new initiative should be aligned with the European Road Safety Action Plan 2011-2020 and the European Road Safety Charter (ERSC)6, 2000-2010. The ERSC aimed to halve the number of road fatalities by 2010, but this challenging target will unfortunately not be met. Unfortunately, L-category vehicle riders belong to a vulnerable road user group with the highest fatality and injury rates among all road users.
Annex IX provides detailed information on the market for L-category vehicles, as registered by EuroStat. Where data were not available from EuroStat, the industry associations were requested to provide relevant information. The market is broadly composed of two sub-markets, the first comprising motorcycles and the second for scooters and mopeds. The motorcycle market is dominated by Japanese imports from companies such as Honda, Yamaha, Kawasaki and Suzuki. In a globalised world it is not any longer appropriate to refer only to traditional European companies with their main development and production footprint based in Europe. These large companies with their head offices in Japan also produce and develop models in Europe; they employ many European citizens and account for approximately 50 per cent of sales in the EU market. Large traditional EU-based motorcycle producers, also with their head offices in Europe are Piaggio, Peugeot, BMW, and a number of mid-sized companies like KTM and Ducati, which account for approximately 17 % of the market between them. In recent years there has been a significant increase in imports from China. The United States is the largest export market for motorcycles from the EU.
The second sub-market is the market for mopeds and scooters. This market is much more fragmented than the motorcycle market. Piaggio, Peugeot and Derbi are the main traditional European producers. Asian manufacturers are again strongly represented in this segment, including manufacturers from China, Thailand and India, but they have less market share than in the motorcycle segment.
In all, the number of vehicles currently in circulation in the EU is estimated at over 30 million. The EU produces over 1.1 million vehicles annually, but this is a relatively low number in comparison with China, which produces over 20 million vehicles per year, India, which produces 8 million, and Taiwan, which produces 1.5 million vehicles. However, European vehicles are considered to provide greater added value and higher quality.
It is estimated that there are approximately 100 manufacturers of motorcycles or mopeds in the EU, about half of which are owned by European companies. The estimate was based on different data sources including EuroStat, data from the type-approval authorities and a study by the University of Bologna, which was commissioned by industry. The number of SME producers operating in both the motorcycle and scooter markets is small, although the scooter market has more SMEs. The combined market segments have a turnover of approximately € 4.1 billion.
While approximately 60 000 people are employed in the manufacture of motorcycles and cycles, the total number of persons employed by the industry as a whole is estimated at approximately 165 000, when all aspects of the market are taken into consideration, including the upstream and downstream sectors. As regards employment, the main countries are Italy, Spain, France, Germany and the United Kingdom.
A third, downstream sub-market is the sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles. This market is extremely significant and, in 2006, generated € 3. 4 billion in value added from a turnover of over € 24.8 billion in the EU-27 (EuroStat estimate). 105 000 persons were employed by the 37 000 enterprises in the motorcycle distribution sector It is estimated that 72 % of the total industry’s turnover is generated in this sector.
The Impact Assessment Board (IAB) of the EU Commission issued an opinion on the present report after its meeting on 16 December 2009. The Board’s recommendations were used to revise and improve the presentation of the analysis and the overall quality of the report. The references to the annexes to chapters 5, 6 and 7 were made into links so that all the qualitative and quantitative elements of every policy option are readily accessible in the main report. The ‘industry self-regulation’ option for advanced brake systems was elaborated on in chapter 6.3.1 and additional information on the industry proposal for new emission limits was added in chapter 126.96.36.199 to meet the IAB recommendation to make it clearer whether self-regulation is a feasible option or not. The desirable use of international standards, like UNECE regulations, was explained in more detail in chapters 4.1, 4.2.11, 5.1 and 6.1. The global impacts of the measures on international trade were explained in Annex VIII, chapters 3.3 and 3.4. The Commission’s level of ambition regarding suggested standards for pollutant emissions was also added to chapter 3.1.2. A summary table of preferred options with associated references to the detailed analysis and comparison in the main text was added to chapter 6.5. Chapters 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 were further developed regarding CO2 emissions and fuel consumption determination and reporting at type approval to pave the ground for future introduction of energy efficiency labelling. Finally, the references to monitoring and evaluation arrangements were improved in chapter 7 by inserting active links to this topic in Annexes XVIII and XIX. In addition, it was explained who would be responsible for collecting data for monitoring and evaluation and when a study was to be conducted to evaluate and compare the regulator’s target with the actual situation at a future point in time.