Commonwealth of Australia 2014


Appendix C—Government agencies involved in pilot

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Appendix C—Government agencies involved in pilot

Table C1—Australian Government agencies involved in the Measurement Framework pilot project

Australian Government agency

AusTrac

Australia Competition and Consumer Commission

Australia Federal Police

Australia Post

Australian Communications and Media Authority

Australian Crime Commission

Australian Customs and Border Protection Service

Australian Electoral Commission

Australian Institute of Criminology

Australian Securities and Investments Commission

Australian Security Intelligence Organisation

Australian Taxation Office

Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions

CrimTrac

Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy

Department of Defence


Department of Families, Housing, Community Services, Indigenous Affairs—Social Services

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade—Australian Passport Office

Department of Human Services—Centrelink

Department of Human Services—Medicare

Department of Immigration and Citizenship

Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education

Department of Infrastructure and Transport

Department of Veterans’ Affairs

Office of the Australian Information Commissioner

Table C2—State/territory government agencies involved in the Measurement Framework pilot project



State/territory government agency

NSW

New South Wales Police Force

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages

Department of Transport

Department of Roads and Maritime Service


Department of Fair Trading

VIC

Victoria Police Service

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages

Roads Corporation Victoria—VicRoads

Consumer Affairs Victoria

QLD

Queensland Police Service

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages

Department of Justice and Attorney-General

Department of Transport and Main Roads

SA

South Australia Police

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages

Consumer and Business Services

Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure

WA

Western Australia Police

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages

Department of Consumer Affairs

Department of Transport

TAS

Tasmania Police

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages


Department of Premier and Cabinet—Proof of Age Cards

Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources

Department of Consumer Affairs and Fair Trading—DoJ

ACT

Australian Capital Territory Policing

Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages

Department of Transport

Office of Regulatory Services



Appendix D—Definition of key terms



Forgery: the act of producing a false document with the intention of using it to dishonestly induce a third person to accept it as genuine. (Adapted from the Criminal Code Act 1995 Cth)
Fraud: dishonestly obtaining a benefit, or causing a loss, by deception or other means. (Adapted from Division 135 of the Criminal Code Act 1995 Cth; Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines 2011)
Identity crime: a generic term to describe activities/offences in which a perpetrator uses a fabricated identity, a manipulated identity, or a stolen/assumed identity to facilitate the commission of crime.

(2007 Intergovernmental agreement to a National Identity Security Strategy; 2)

Identity fabrication: the creation of a fictitious identity.
(Adapted from Australian Centre for Policing Research 2006; 15)
Identity fraud: gaining money, goods, services or other benefits or avoiding obligations through the use of a fabricated identity, a manipulated identity, or a stolen/assumed identity. (2007 Intergovernmental agreement to a National Identity Security Strategy; Australian Centre for Policing Research 2006; 15)
Identity information: information relating to a person (whether living or dead, real or fictitious, an individual or a body corporate) that is capable of being used (whether alone or in conjunction with other information) to identify or purportedly identify the person. This includes the following:

(a) a name or address,

(b) a date or place of birth, marital status, relatives’ identity or similar information,

(c) a driver licence or driver licence number,

(d) a passport or passport number,

(e) biometric data,

(f) a voice print,

(g) a credit or debit card, its number, or data stored or encrypted on it,

(h) financial account numbers, user names or passwords,

(i) a digital signature,

(j) a series of numbers or letters (or both) intended for use as a means of personal identification,

(k) an ABN.

(Criminal Code Act 1995 Cth, Part 9.5, Division 301.1)
Identity manipulation: altering one or more elements of identity (e.g. name, date of birth, address). (Adapted from Australian Centre for Policing Research 2006; 15).

Identity misuse: using personal information for purposes extraneous to the original transaction—such as renting it to a vendor of related products, or mining it to create a consumer profile or direct marketing list. (Ludington, S, 2006; 146).

Identity takeover: assuming parts or all of the identity of another person with their consent.
(Adapted from advice provided by the AFP/NSW Police Identity Security Strike Team)
Identity theft: stealing or assuming a pre-existing identity (or significant part thereof) without consent and, in the case of an individual, whether the person is living or deceased. (Australian Centre for Policing Research 2006; 15)
Impersonation: the act of pretending to be another person, or acting in that other person’s capacity as a public official; the person does so knowing it to be in circumstances when the official is likely to be on duty; the person does so with the intent to deceive.
(Adapted from the Criminal Code Act 1995 Cth)

Appendix E—Calculating the direct losses caused by identity crime

Table E1: Estimated direct losses attributed to identity crimes and misuse, by agency and value ($)



Agency

Year

Unit

Estimated Unit Cost

Multiplier

Total Fraud Cost

25% ID Crime


50% ID Crime

Average ID

Crime Costs

PIa

2012

Data Breach

$2,160,000

61 breaches

$131,760,000

$32,940,000

$65,880,000

$49,410,000

KPMGb

2012

Aust & NZ Organisations

$3,080,000

281 organisations

$865,480,000

$216,370,000

$432,740,000

$324,555,000

Cth Fraudc

2009–10

Cth Agencies

$9,716,366

51 agencies

$495,534,666

$123,883,667

$247,767,333


$185,825,500

ABS

2010–11

Individuals

$2,000

1,200,000 people

$2,400,000,000

$600,000,000

$1,200,000,000

$900,000,000

APCA

2012–13

Payment Fraud

$197

614,960 transactions

$121,147,120

$30,286,780

$60,573,560

$45,430,170

Total













$4,013,921,786

$1,003,480,447

$2,006,960,893

$1,505,220,670

a: Ponemon Institute 2012

b: KPMG Survey of Fraud, Bribery & Corruption 2012: http://www.kpmg.com/AU/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Fraud-Survey/Documents/fraud-bribery-corruption-survey-2012-fraud-facts.pdf



c: AIC Fraud against the Commonwealth 2009–10 annual report to government: http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/mr/1-20/18/04_exec_summ.html
Table E2: Estimated direct costs of investigating and prosecuting identity crimes, by agency and value

Agency

Year

Unit

Estimated
Unit Cost


Multiplier

Total Fraud
Cost


25% ID Crime

50% ID Crime

Average ID

Crime Costs

AFPa

2010–11

Fraud investigation

$209,774

61 cases

$12,796,214


$3,199,054

$6,398,107

$4,798,580

CDPP

2012–13

Defendant prosecuted

$22,198

1554 defendants

$34,495,692

$8,623,923

$17,247,846

$12,935,885

State courts

2011–12

ID crimes proven guilty

$3,000

22,000 offences

$66,000,000

$16,500,000

$33,000,000

$24,750,000

State police

2012–13

Detected ID crime

$3,000

30,000 offences

$90,000,000


$22,500,000

$45,000,000

$33,750,000

Total













$203,291,906

$50,822,977

$101,645,953

$76,234,465

a: Jorna & Smith 2013.



1Due to some variability in the characterisation of agency definitions regarding identity-related crimes, it may be difficult to directly compare data produced by different agencies in all cases.

2The ABS survey asked respondents whether in the last 12 months, they had been aware of anyone using their credit cards to make purchases or withdraw cash without their permission, or using their personal details, such as driver’s licence or tax file number in stolen, fraudulent or forged documents, without their permission.




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