Community Assessment and Report


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Bahir Dar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Community Assessment and Report

March 2011

This report is as accurate as-

…those we interviewed were able to convey in their second language (English)

…we were able to understand those we questioned

…our records were legible and our minds were able to recall

We have made every effort to be as accurate as possible. Please forgive any inconsistencies, mistakes, oversights, or any misrepresentation of the people of Bahir Dar. It is unintentional.

Table of Contents:

Church Planting Movement Training…4
General Information…5
Access to Medical Care…8
Local Health Priorities/Issues…8
Opportunities for Action and Recommendations…10
Planning Considerations…10
Profile of Community Resources/Organizations …10
1. Christian NGOs…10

2. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)…11

3. Hospitals…12

4. Churches…13
Local Ethiopian Contacts…14
Areas for Further Research…15

(v) Information from verbal interview- transcribed with the every attempt made to be accurate and as well as could be understood from interviews that were made with Ethiopians that were communicating in English, as their second language. Please assume that most information gathered was from verbal interviews, but where there might be a question, it has been specified.


Mission Statement

In keeping with the Leroy Community Chapel Mission- “To completely transform our … world into devoted followers of Jesus Christ through the Word of God.”


The two objectives of the March 2011 trip:

1) To attend the church planting movement training that LCC paid for to ensure that it would be a good partnership and biblically sound; 2) To assess what kind of humanitarian aid we can provide long-term to this needy area of the world.


Partnership with the evangelical Christians in the Amhara region, by providing for physical needs coupled with a Church Planting Movement, as based on the ministry that Jesus and his disciples had, healing spiritual and physical brokenness. See Luke 9 and 10.

Future Plans

We hope to plan for a trip in the Fall to provide an eyeglass clinic, shoe distribution (coupled with foot washing), and family portraits taken. Possible other ideas, such as wheelchair distribution, are also discussed under “Opportunities for Action and Recommendations.”

Church Planting Movement Training
Definition of Church Planting Movements (CPM)-

“…A rapid and multiplicative increase of indigenous churches planting churches with a given people group or population segment.”

[David Garrison, “Church Planting Movements,” 1999. Please see for more information on CPMs:]

Leroy Community Chapel paid for the training of 50 church planters in CPM in Bahir Dar. The focus of these efforts is to reach the Amhara Region. During this week of CPM training two major Ethiopian organizations shared the teaching responsibility (E3 Partners Ethiopia and Horn of Africa Ministries).  Horn of Africa Ministries, specifically Shimeles Dejene, has already trained, supervised, and seen fruit in other areas of Ethiopia. The choosing of who would be trained and the logistics of where to have the training were arranged by national E3 Partner workers, specifically Yosef Mena. E3 Partners has also specialized in church planting training in Ethiopia, with extensive experience in coupling church planting training and training of disciple-makers with short-term humanitarian trips.

Each evening throughout the week, the two leaders Shimeles and Yosef discussed where their respective church planting material overlapped and had differences.  By the end of the training they had decided to merge their material together in a more manageably sized curriculum.  This decision was rooted in the unity of the stated missions of each organization to see the rapid multiplication of indigenous churches, a commitment to avoiding duplication, and the character of these two men in humbly walking with God to see His Kingdom built over their own organizations.  They both stated that Leroy Chapel had facilitated this unifying venture in church planting and were eager to grow this partnership stronger.  

The practical outcome of this meeting was the establishing of a CPM Office in Bahir Dar under the leadership of the ECF (Evangelical Church Fellowship) in direct conjunction with E3 and Horn of Africa.  They appointed Mesfin as the Regional Coordinator to direct six zonal coordinators in the extended Bahir Dar region within Amhara. In addition to this, ongoing training for CPM's would take place with the other church planters who did not attend this training, resources would be provided, and housing at the newly established office/training center would be made available, all as a result of the LCC monies provided.  All parties that attended this meeting (E3, Horn of Africa, ECF, LCC) were rejoicing at the amazing outcome of the week, the decisions made, and the vision for the future.  The next trip in November for LCC and E3 was discussed, with humanitarian resources serving as access ministries for the church planters in the region to establish new churches.

Demographics (most statistics and numbers from Wikipedia)
Capital of Ethiopia- Addis Ababa

Capital of the Amhara Region- Bahir Dar (B.D.)

Population in Bahir Dar- approximately 200,000

Population in Amhara Region- 18 million

Altitude- 6-7,000 ft above sea level

Area of B.D.- 213.43 square kilometers

Urban- 81.16% are urban inhabitants.

Language- Amharic is spoken by the majority. English is taught in the public schools.

Religion- The majority are Ethiopian Orthodox, next Muslim, and <0.2% are Evangelical. It is considered a limited access region by other evangelical missionaries to Ethiopia.

University- Bahir Dar University has over 4,000 students
General Information
Seasons- There is a rainy and dry season.

Lake Tana- There is no swimming due to the dirty water and strong currents. However, the lake is used to wash cars at its edges.

Industry- Minimal fishing industry, though next to lake and river. We were told that they fish Tilapia. It is possible, as Tilapia is one of the freshwater fish found in Ethiopia.

Agriculture-Teff (what the staple enjera is made from), lentils, and corn are grown. It is a common sight to see grain drying on plastic sheets on the ground. Approximately 200 kilometers North of BD, cotton is grown, which is managed through an Indian company.

Recreation- There is a field to play soccer and Ethiopians are known for being athletic- particularly for being runners.

Travel- B.D. is a tourist town because of Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile. There is an airport in Bahir Dar that services Ethiopia Airlines. To travel via bus between cities, two bus lines are available: Selam Bus Line Share Company and Sky Bus Transport System. To travel in the city, there are taxis, but most travel via foot and bicycle. The city has a good reputation for its transportation. There are well paved main streets. The Chinese have built many roads in Ethiopia, making it indebted to China.

Hotels- Hotel Papyrus has a swimming pool. Hotel Homland is very nice, but no elevator.

Crime- It is reported as minimal, however, we found padlocks on the huts in the outskirts of the city.

Legal Issues- There is jail time for car accidents (One of the pastors was recently in jail for 6 months for hitting a woman while avoiding hitting children in the street).

There is a new law that condemns overt religious activity outside of church (i.e. proselytizing)- many have been arrested because of this.

Diet- There are generally no desserts in the Ethiopian diet. They eat avocados, mangos, bananas, honey, coffee, fish, vegetables, corn, lamb, and popcorn. The staple is enjera made from teff. “Eragrostis tef has an attractive nutrition profile, being high in dietary fiber and iron and providing protein and calcium. Some people consider it to have a sour taste. (This might be because it is often eaten fermented). It is similar to millet and quinoa in cooking, but the seed is much smaller, and cooks faster thus using less fuel.” [from on 4/17/11]

Economy- It is estimated that the inflation rate will be 16% this year (v). The birr is the currency of Ethiopia. The exchange was approximately 17 birr to $1 American dollar.

Wages- Approximately 10 birr/ day for labor worker and 700 birr/month for school teacher (v)

Media- It is not uncommon to see satellite dishes within the city. Ethiopians reported enjoying Oprah, soccer, and President Obama. Without the satellite dish, there is only one channel that the government runs (ETV).

Education- Public school is funded by the government, however, uniforms and supplies are paid for by the students. Not all children go to school because of not being able to afford uniforms and supplies, as well as being kept at home to care for farms and animals. English is taught in the public schools.

Illiteracy- Common as there are 300 characters in Amharic. The majority of people do not know the entire alphabet. The public library has reading/ literacy classes but there are few that go into the library- it is reported as generally empty. Culturally, there is little pressure to become literate.

Women’s Issues (as described by Julie Field)- The more education a woman has, the older she is when she gets married. She must pass the 10th grade exam in order to go on in her education, otherwise she will have a life of serving. Women do the majority of physical labor and carrying heavy burdens. Girls Gotta Run is an organization that uses running to increase women’s options (see-

Government- Haile Selassie was emperor from 1930-1970’s, when the communists took over and the Christian churches faced persecution. The 1990’s were a time of change in government again and there is currently a prime minister that uses fear and force to silence opposition, even during elections.
This is by no means a thorough assessment of the Amharic Ethiopian culture, but is to be perhaps a starting point for anyone who has never been to Ethiopia. Ethiopia goes by a different calendar with different months and so they are now in the year 2003. They also go by a different clock and the 1st hour is the equivalent to our 7am. The 2nd hour is equivalent to our 8am and so on. Not only is the culture not as time-oriented as the United States, but it is also more family-oriented than individualistic. It is a male-dominated culture, with wife-beating and child-kicking prevalent as disciplinary methods. While eating together, often from the same large plate, the left hand is never used (as this is the hand used for toileting purposes). Few smoke because it is not culturally acceptable. Drug and alcohol use are reported as a problem in the B.D. University (per the EVASUE director).

Ethiopians are warm in their greetings, holding each others’ right hand while touching the right shoulders together or touching cheeks- sometimes both sides multiple times. It is not uncommon to see men holding each other’s hands as they walk down the street with a public display of friendship in this way. Guests are honored by what is called coffee ceremony. During coffee ceremony, the coffee beans are roasted, ground, and coffee is served in small tea cups. Other ways to honor a guest are to feed them a small amount of enjera when eating together and to wash their feet, which is not as frequently done.

Tattoos on the neck were originally meant to prevent goiters, but are now considered beautiful on women. It is not uncommon to see Orthodox women with tattoos on their faces of small crosses, or women who have converted but grew up Orthodox. Women generally wear dresses or skirts, though pants are also worn now in the larger cities. Men wear pants. The only people that are found wearing shorts are farmers or people that live in the country.

Ethiopia was never colonized by Europeans and is also proud to be the country that supposedly has the Ark of the Covenant. The majority of Ethiopians are Ethiopian Orthodox or Muslim. There are also other languages and people-groups in addition to the Amharic, that are not represented here because they do not generally live in the Amhara Region.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is not connected to the wider worldwide Orthodox community. They adamantly believe in the importance of the care of the Ark of the Covenant and the Orthodox priests perform special activities for the ark. Witchcraft activity is common among Orthodox priests (i.e. to gain more wisdom) and some report having out-of-body experiences. These activities include traveling in the clouds to Addis Ababa (the capital of Ethiopia). With the Orthodox majority in B.D., evangelical Christians have reported being taunted on the street “Prote” (from the word “Protestant”), having their church windows broken, and a mob form in the church courtyard where the church planting training was done (v). Yosef Menna reported that the week before we came 11 men were arrested nearby B.D. because they were sharing the gospel door to door. He also reports that prison time is generally days versus years and that Americans do not get arrested, while nationals do. This was confirmed by Julie Field, when her translator was arrested and she was not.

It is common to be kicked out of the family home after becoming an evangelical Christian. One church member in Bahir Dar reported that his father tried to kill him with an ax when he converted. Another young man was beaten and hopes to return someday to share the gospel with his family. There has also been an increase in persecution in southern Ethiopia. Sixty-nine churches and homes were burned by Muslims in March 2011. There were no fatalities. Muslims and Orthodox continue to make it difficult for Evangelicals to find grave sites to bury their dead- this is a problem in many areas. Muslims have also been known to pay more money for land/ rented areas to prevent the Evangelicals from having places of worship. This was mentioned in Akaki. In addition, the Christians from Gondar report that the government gave them land for a church but the Orthodox took it away.

On the B.D. University campus, it is not legal to study the Bible publicly in a group. Creative ways to get around this include meeting for lunch and having a discussion related to a verse or what appears to be a conversation among friends. It is legal to carry a Bible in public, though it can bring taunting. University students in B.D. were persecuted by those that guard the campus, who would lock the students out when they would have a fellowship meeting off of campus. They have been able to get official letters that allow them to be let back in when they have been off campus for an evangelical program.

Access to Medical Care
Structural Barriers- There is a shortage of medical professionals. The providers that are available are not always as educated as one would expect in the United States. Nursing schools run programs that are 1 ½- 2 years of education, primarily paperwork, with no continuing education requirements.

Financial Barriers- It is expensive by Ethiopian standards to get medical care. (see General Information for topics economy and wage). A few years ago it cost 7,000 birr (approximately $400) to have a hernia repaired surgically (v).

Availability- There is a shortage of clinics- most go to government hospitals that are overcrowded. Private clinics are too expensive. There is virtually no dental care per Dr. Asrat (however, it is uncommon to see people with missing teeth). The clinics are poorly equipped for the needs. There is a need for HIV homecare, which is alleviated in part by the Red Cross and the evangelical Christian churches. A prescription is generally not needed at the pharmacy.

Accessibility- Distance might be an issue for those that do not live near a clinic or hospital, as many do not own cars. They will walk for hours to get places- but that is hard to do when ill.

Local Health Priorities/Issues
Lack of eye care, HIV care, dental health, and wheelchair availability.
Fistulas (specifically related to childbirth):

Recommended for more information- reading the Wikipedia “Obstetric fistula” for more information and watching the PBS “A Walk to Beautiful.”

From the informative tour at Hamlin Fistula Clinic-

Obstetric fistulas are an opening that develop between the vagina and either the rectum or bladder. Fistulas are a result of “neglected labor,” where the women are in labor for multiple days (4-6 days), lack of needed protein during puberty, and being married young. Many women die in the process of giving birth in these circumstances and do not have the means for transportation to be able to get emergency help from the countryside to the nearby hospital. Those that survive are left with the grief of losing the baby and having a fistula. 95% of the women that come to the clinic are less than 30 years of age, do not have a husband that will come with them, and have lost the baby. Only 5% of women come to the clinic with a live baby. 97% of the operations are successful in closing the fistulas, but 21% are left with residual incontinence.

The pressure of the child in the birth canal for the extended period of time causes necrosis (death of tissue), causing the fistulas with urine or fecal drainage from the vagina, and damage to nerves. Other consequences of neglected births include foot drop, infections, and contractures from being bed bound. Because of the residual scars in the uterus and vagina, more than 20% of the women will no longer be able become pregnant again.

The social implications of having a fistula are that the women live outside of the family home because of the smell and some are ostracized. Fortunately, because of education, communities are realizing what causes fistulas and that there is hope for these women. Some of the patients have friends and family that visit them while they are at the Hamlin Clinic and the clinic is quietly doing devotionals with them (per Julie Field).

Goiters (per Dr. Asrat)

Appears as a large mass in the anterior neck. It is because of a swollen thyroid gland and is usually caused by an iodine deficiency. In some areas in Ethiopia, it is as common as 50% of the population (such as in West Gojam). There is a way to iodize salt in Ethiopia per Dr. Asrat.

Physically challenged children (per Dr. Asrat)- includes the deaf and blind.

They have no access to care and no groups are working with them. They do not have sign language to communicate. Street children and orphans- both have many needs, including basic clothing (he recommends buying in country).

Trachoma (per Julie Field and confirmed by Dr. Asrat)

Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and it is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, and throat secretions from affected individuals, or contact with fomites (inanimate objects), such as towels and/or washcloths, that have had similar contact with these secretions. Flies can also be a route of mechanical transmission. Untreated, repeated trachoma infections result in entropion—a painful form of permanent blindness when the eyelids turn inward, causing the eyelashes to scratch the cornea. Children are the most susceptible to infection due to their tendency to easily get dirty, but the blinding effects or more severe symptoms are often not felt until adulthood. ( on 4/18/2011)

Common developing-country medical issues: (not specifically seen but likely issues)




Diarrhea and dehydration


Dr. Asrat reports that any American surgeon can work in any Ethiopian hospital, needing only proof of professional license. Some very-needed surgeries include cleft palate repair and cataract surgery.


Common need for wells/clean water sources.

Opportunities for Action
*Giving grain

*ESL-Some said would be a good outreach (per EVASUE). Others disagreed.

*Eyeglass clinic- E3 Partners has experience doing

*Medical outreach- E3 Partners has experience doing; Licensed medical professionals-can work (must let Kathy know at E3 Partners to arrange this with government)

*Dental clinic- E3 Partners has experience doing (have not done yet in Ethiopia). Dr. Asrat reports no dental care available.

*Wheelchair distribution- E3 Partners has experience doing

*Well digging - $4,000 per Julie Field. Unsure as to depth and ability to do in B.D.
*Dr. Asrat’s recommendations:

Prioritize the eyeglass clinics, wheelchair distribution, WASH (explanation below), and goiters. Do not do HIV homecare because it will require much research and education for proper Ethiopian OSHA requirements (for proper handling/ disposal of biohazard material), as well as training of volunteers for a short-term trip. This is a long-term issue that needs to be treated as a long-term response.

Dr. Asrat recommended not doing education with a short-term team. The eastern part of the Amhara region has severe nutritional deficiencies- but would need an assessment and supplies to be effective. Also, there are some WASH (teaching clean water, sanitation, & hygiene principles) programs that have been started, as well as Seeds of Hope work, with biofilters and iodine tablets to clean water- he does not believe we can do the same type of work in a short-term trip.
Planning considerations

*The university students may be able to take a week off of school to translate for E3 Partners short-term trips.

*When doing humanitarian aid on public/government property- the government publicizes care to the local people before the American team comes. While on the property, teams are not allowed to proselytize. Whether bringing humanitarian aid on public property or government property- must get governmental approval.

Profile of Community Resources/Organizations
1.Christian NGOs
Compassion International- working with the local churches to sponsor Muslim, Orthodox, and Evangelical children.
E3 Partners- contact Rick Eisemann who works with Yosef Menna and Mesfin to coordinate the short-term trips. Rick Eisemann- ( and
EVASUE (Evangelical Student Union of Ethiopia) and EVAGSUE (Evangelical Graduate Student Union of Ethiopia)- contact is Oskhel (Zelalem has contact information). Two thousand undergraduate EVASUE multidenominational evangelical students. Fifty plus students that have already graduated are in EVAGSUE. Four objectives of the EVASUE: 1) Evangelism (student to student), 2) Mission (trips to surrounding areas), 3) Leadership, and 4) Discipleship. They have numerous fellowship meetings available to the students for outreach, to be successful in college, and to prepare for successfully graduating. There are further notes and CD available with more detailed information (Jeff Pierce has). EVASUE National Coordinator is in Addis. They partner with the Medical Fellowship (students from medical school) and (Medical University Graduate Fellowship)- to do campaigns in remote areas in Ethiopia. Also, the Lawyers Association gives free legal service to the poor.

Indigenous Outreach International- contact Stephen Kennedy [met in local grocery store in Addis- lives in Addis]. They support and partner with local pastors; (731) 664-9960;

In to Focus Vision- Diane Pogroszewski (818) 325-5780;
Horn of Africa- Doing the Church Planting Movement training. Shimeles Dejene: and Mulugeta Yilma:
Amhara Development Association (Julie mentioned) Mission statement: To support the development endeavors of the Amhara people in the areas of health, education, basic skill training and other development activities, through community participation by mobilizing resources from members, supporters, donors, and other sources.

Amhara Region Women Entrepreneurs Association (AWEA) Vision -“To see women entrepreneurs in Amhara region to be economically competent, environmentally friendly; relieved of social problems and their endeavors  recognized  and esteemed by the society ” They hold the Fatherhood Facilitators Training Conference at our hotel in B.D.

Ethiopian Red Cross Society (ERCS)- provides mosquito nets and malaria outreaches (the government also provides mosquito nets). It provides HIV homecare and education. Dr. Asrat reports that the Red Cross is liquidating and coming under government control. It is not able to provide adequate HIV homecare.
Glimmer of Hope- From the website: “A Glimmer of Hope is a social venture that helps lift women and children out of extreme poverty in rural Ethiopia. Glimmer developed an entrepreneurial model to provide clean water + schools + health clinics + micro-finance loans, one village at a time. work in rural areas of B.D. to provide clean water and to build schools.”

Global Health- from website “The Global Health Council works to ensure that all who strive for improvement and equity in global health have the information and resources they need to succeed. To achieve this goal, the Council serves as the voice for action on global health issues and the voice for progress in the global health field.”

Living Water, Seas of Hope, Life Water- digging wells in Africa and Ethiopia
Save the Children- From website, in regards to what they do- “Save the Children serves impoverished, marginalized and vulnerable children and families in more than 120 nations. Our programs reach both children and those working to save and improve their lives, including parents, caregivers, community members and members of our partner organizations. We help save children’s lives, protect them from exploitation and assist them in accessing education and health care.”

3.Hospitals and Clinics

*Felge Hiwot Hospital (tests for HIV)

*Gamby Clinic (tests for HIV)

*Hamlin Fistula Clinic: (see page 7 for information on fistulas)

Completed in 2004, it is 1 of 5 in Ethiopia. The original fistula clinic in Ethiopia is located in Addis and was opened by Dr. Hamlin, a gynecologist, from Australia. Oprah Winfrey had her on her show to bring awareness to the situation. The hope is to build more clinics like it in the outlying countryside areas. The ward has 45 beds and is located on a government compound with expansion projects already begun for a kitchen and various other buildings. There is 24/7 care, including an available surgeon. The rest of the 46 staff include 20 nursing assistants that are post-fistula patients. The fistula operations are performed 3x/week Depending on the types of issues the women have, some stay for as little as 18 days (for surgery) to up to 5 months (with foot drop and contracture rehabilitation). They do physical therapy in the ward, as well.

The standard pre-operative care includes an assessment of nutritional needs (must be deemed able to heal before can have surgery), education on how to clean themselves, consent forms signed, tour of the campus, and talking with the counselor about what to expect. The clinic has an outreach program to train nurses and midwives to identify fistulas, called the Hamlin Midwifery College. They also have a vehicle that is used as an “ambulance” to bring in mothers that are in labor that need c-sections. The surgeon also performs c-sections in the same operating room where fistula repairs are done and those women recover in the same ward as the fistula repair patients.

*Universal Clinic
4.Local churches
Kale Hiwot (started by SIM)-

Their outreaches include:

Vocational training (sewing) for tentmakers/church planters

250 Compassion International children

Local orphanage of 300 children- funded by UK sponsor

Bible school with 54 students- building new Bible school that is funded by an Australian church

50 missionaries, 6 daughter churches

Prison ministry


HIV support- food and homecare visits, with USAID financial support

Female reading program

Vulnerable children

Outreach to near Sudan border- 2 worship centers with holistic outreach

Felt needs:

More help/ support for Bible school

Need another fulltime/paid ministry worker

Orphanage- the UK sponsor has not paid recently

Mesereta Cristo (Mennonite)

250 Compassion International children

They have similar outreaches as the Kale Hywot church, as well as a business people group and “Untouchables” ministry (shunned and neglected group)- living in rented home (rented by church), fed, and clothed.
Mekane Yesus (Lutheran/Presbyterian origins)

Assembly of God

Anglican Church (in Addis and Gambella but not in B.D.) work with Sudanese refugees in the West

Reformed Orthodox Church

Culturally Orthodox believers make up this underground movement. Priests become believers from reading scripture and others become believers from evangelism. Believers work underground within the Orthodox Church and teach others where there are opportunities. Those believers that have been kicked out and jailed at times, have a strategy to reform the Orthodox church by using printed material and discipling new believers to stay in the Orthodox Church. They have their own network of fellowship. The leader of the Reformed Orthodox Church in B.D. also works for Horn of Africa.

They report that some people in the Orthodox Church are starting to read the Bible for themselves. They explain that they do not want to have to change their church culture nor way of worship, but want to see heart change in new believers. Their goal is to create more awareness for those in the Orthodox Church by explaining false teaching. The felt need: 1) evangelical support (a) prayer, (b) training specific to their context, (c) support as there is more tension expected from the Orthodox Church in the future, and 2)financial support to publish the false teaching printing. They have found that this reformed movement is more effective and faster than evangelical outreach. In addition to the local B. D. network, there is a network that extends to Tigray, Gondar, throughout B.D. and around the country of Ethiopia.

Evangelical house churches

Growing and being started by TCCP graduates. Went to one in B.D.- led by Tenanye (also went to CPM training). They meet every evening for prayer, studying the Word, and then go to a local large church once a week. They have already started working on starting a second home church. Their prayer request is to share the gospel boldly. One young man was beaten by his family when he became a believer- his reports that his “passion is to go back to the area where I was born.”

Local Ethiopian Contacts
Please do not make any contacts without speaking with Jeff Pierce or Mark Spansel, unless you went on a team to Ethiopia and met these people/ know them.
*Dr. Asrat- Reports would be able to assist with the setup/arranging of a medical clinic.

*Julie Field- American that spends 6 weeks or more at a time in Ethiopia. Works with the Awi in a partnership with her church. In this region of 700,000-800,000 people, there are 500 Christians. There are only two full time missionaries in the region who are with SIM and have been working on erosion issues in the area for 10 years. E3 does eyeglass clinics among the Awi. The Awi people have been marginalized for the last 600 years and made to speak Amharic. Julie was part of helping bring the Jesus Film to them in their own language, as well as putting on a women’s conference called, “Created for a Purpose.” Julie is a champion of orality learning, is spending time in Malawi (where orality training is taking place) to see if can be brought to the Awi as a tool for discipleship training. She offered to be a resource for cultural issues- such as alternatives to handing money to churches. More information on Julie Field, orality, and resources are available upon request (see Erika Loucka for further notes)

*Hiymanot Alamire (Reformed Orthodox Priest).  He wrote a book to share the truth about the good and the bad of Orthodox religion and how to reform it...Book aimed at priests/people, and possibly looking for money to pay for printing ($200) His contact is in c/o
*Rachel Weller- speaks English, Oromo, and Amharic; Presbyterian Church USA and partner is the Mekane Yesus Church (Bethel Synods)- CHE work in Gambella, Gambella and continuing education with nurses;
*Wondafresh -speaks English and Spanish; pastor in Gondar-
*Zelalem (Zelalem Memory Tours)- speaks English [lives in Bahir Dar] and is able to contact the Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs if need detailed information about disabilities and needs in the area. Contact info: 251-091-312-2671;

Areas of further research
1. Sexual exploitation/prostitution- have been told is not a problem in B.D.

2. Child labor

3. ESL as an outreach

4. ION- International Orality Network as a resource for orality in discipleship

5. Where to buy local shoes

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