Community-Led Total Sanitation Experiences today & tomorrow … transformation!



Download 249.85 Kb.
Date conversion27.12.2016
Size249.85 Kb.

Community-Led Total Sanitation

Experiences today & tomorrow … transformation!

Participants: CLTS practitioners from Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nepal and UK.


19th September, 2006, Marquee Hall, Marriott Hotel, Islamabad


Background:

Sanitation remains one of the biggest development challenges in developing countries. Improving sanitation is key to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing child mortality and combating disease.


In recent years, the impact of the Community led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach has drawn significant attention. At the heart of this approach is a shift away of the focus of supporting toilet construction for individual households, to an approach that seeks to create ‘open defecation free’ villages through an emphasis on the behaviour change of the whole community. This is achieved through triggering the communities’ recognition of the negative externalities to ‘all’ as a consequence of the sanitary practices of some. The CLTS approach effectively creates empowered communities who are motivated to take collective action, with the government and other agencies potentially playing a role in facilitating this movement. There is a growing recognition that this approach offers tremendous potential for developing countries to surpass their MDG targets for sanitation. This has resulted in this approach spreading from Bangladesh to India, and now this approach is gaining ground in Indonesia, Cambodia, Pakistan, Nepal and other countries.
Objectives:

The primary objective of this workshop is to ‘learn from each other’ through the bringing together of various agencies that are facilitating CLTS in various countries, in various contexts and from varied perspectives.


The workshop therefore presents opportunities
  • for all participants involved in CLTS to share their unique experiences, insights and challenges.


  • for participants from different contexts to identify various actors in CLTS with whom they wish to establish functional linkages

  • to provide a space for practitioners to discuss their particular issues and their common challenges in promoting CLTS

  • to catch a glimpse of the ‘invaluable experiences of the participants’ around CLTS, that can then form the basis of ‘learning for all’ and the development of research questions for IDS

  • for IDS to begin thinking and incorporating comparative perspectives (e.g. states and bureaucracies, NGOs, civil societies, media) into the design of its research agenda.

  • for the participants to arrive at a common platform on CLTS that can be presented at the SACOSAN conference during the CLTS session

  • to engage with the media in a process of mutual learning, to understand the role that the media can play (and that which it cannot play…) in creating a groundswell movement of communities that are seeking and achieving total sanitation


Process:

The workshop is planned in a participatory way to allow active interaction among participants, share practical experiences from the ground, allow structured thinking in distilling commonalities and distinctive features in each implementing countries, identify areas that requires further research and learning through structured group interactions in order to take forward the agenda beyond the workshop.


Outcome:

By forging a ‘common vision’ for CLTS and noting the significant challenges in achieving this goal, the desired outcome is that the many CLTS partners that better understand the institutional roles and responsibilities for delivering this Vision, have developed a greater understanding of various partners and actively seek opportunities to maximize the strengths of other partners in this pursuit.

Organizers:

This workshop is jointly organized by the Water and Sanitation Program – South Asia and Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, United Kingdom.






Agenda
















Time

Activities

Speakers

What is CLTS today?
What do we want it to be?


8:15 - 8:30

Registration

 

8:30 - 8:40

Welcome & Defining of Objectives

Farhan Sami

8:40 -8:50

Ice-breakers: Where we come from

Kamal Kar

8:50 - 10:00

Sharing of Experiences, Innovations and Challenges

Multiple
(Kamal Kar)

10:00 - 10:20

Setting the Context: 'What is CLTS today?' and 'What is our Vision for CLTS?'

Kamal Kar





10:20 - 10:40

Challenges for the future: What needs to happen? [Mixed Groups]

Mark Ellery/Robert Chambers




10:40 - 11:00

Morning Tea

 

Who needs to do what to deliver this Vision?

11:00 - 12.00

Groups address questions and issues emerging from previous sessions [what, how, and by whom?]

Kamal Kar, Robert Chambers, Deepak Sanan,
Nilanjana Mukherjee, Brigitta Bode, Shafiul Ahmed,
Farhan Sam, Soma Gosh Moulik, Maheen Zehra, Mark Ellery

12:00 - 12:30

Review and discussion of group conclusions [walk around]







12:30 - 13:30

Lunch Break

 

What do we need to know?

13:30 - 13.45

Reflection and summary

Deepak Sanan / Robert Chambers


13:45 - 14:00

Introduction of CLTS research initiated by IDS and global challenges?

Lyla Mehta & Petra Bongartz

14:00 - 14:10

Questions and reactions

Lyla Mehta & Petra Bongartz

14:00 - 15:00

Group work and report back on questions and issues for research

Shafiul Ahmed




15:00 - 15:15

Afternoon Tea (Journalists join after their return from the field visit and lunch)

 




15:30 - 15:45

Summary of the day's proceedings: "What CLTS is now (status + challenges)?", "What is our CLTS Vision?", "What needs to change?", "What do we need to know more about?", "What role can the media play?"

Kamal Kar

What role can the media play?

15:15 - 15:30

Welcome remarks for the media contingent

Malik Amin Aslam, Minister of State,
Ministry of Env.


15:45 - 16:00

The role of communication in transforming 'supply side' actions into a 'demand side' peoples movement

Cathy Revels

16:00 - 16:40

Current trends in media & communications in shaping public opinion.
Potential instruments (reality shows, marketing, movies, print media, talk-back radio, competitions) that could ignite a 'people’s movement' in sanitation.

Shahzad Sharjeel / Darryl D'Monte

16:40 - 17:00

Comments from the Floor: Discussion

Vandana Mehra

17:00 - 17:15

Way Forward and Vote of Thanks

Ede-Jorge Ijjasz














Notes on Sessions

* = Powerpoint presentation available


Ice-breakers: Where we come from

  • Exercise 1: Participants walk around and introduce themselves to three people, ask them how they are and how they feel about the workshop today.
  • Exercise 2: People arrange themselves by country to form a global map



Sharing of Experiences, Innovations and Challenges

Presentations from country representatives



  • Bangladesh: Dr Brigitta Bode and Anuwarul Haq, Social Development Unit, Care Bangladesh *

  • Cambodia: Hilda Winarta, UNICEF and Chreay Pom, Ministry of Rural Development

  • India: Deepak Sanan, WSP Maharashtra

  • Indonesia: Nilanjana Mukherjee, WSP Indonesia

  • Nepal: Laxmi Poudel, NEWAH

  • Pakistan: Syed Shah Nasir Khisro, Executive Director, IRSP, Mardan *


Setting the Context: 'What is CLTS today?' and 'What is our Vision for CLTS?'

Powerpoint presentation by Kamal Kar (*)


Challenges for the future: What needs to happen? [Mixed Groups]

After participants had identified key issues and challenges in CLTS and written these on cards, facilitators grouped the cards into the following categories which emerged:




  1. Facilitation

  2. Monitoring

  3. Mindsets (providers and citizens)

  4. Scaling Up (broadening and deepening

  5. Sustainability

  6. Subsidy Issues (Financing Public Good vs Patronage and Dependence)

  7. Institutions: who should do what?


Groups address questions and issues emerging from previous sessions [what, how, and by whom?]

Participants then split into groups trying to ensure that each type of organisation (INGOs, WSP, local NGOs, government) was represented in each group. Groups brainstormed on how to address the identified challenges, particularly focusing on what needs to be done, how and by whom. (see appendix 2)

Review and discussion of group conclusions [walk around]

Over lunch, flipcharts with the results of the group work were displayed and participants were asked to walk around and comment on those suggestions they agreed with by ticking them and to leave comments where they did not agree or thought an item needed clarification.

Introduction of CLTS research initiated by IDS and global challenges?

Powerpoint presentation by Lyla and Petra on IDS research and work carried out so far.*



Questions and reactions

Feedback from the floor on IDS research, clarifications, questions and responses


Group work and report back on questions and issues for research

Groups and individuals brainstormed on questions and issues they would like to see addressed by research and wrote these on cards. (see Appendix 3)



Summary of the day's proceedings: "What CLTS is now (status + challenges)?", "What is our CLTS Vision?", "What needs to change?", "What do we need to know more about?", "What role can the media play?"

Powerpoint presentation by Kamal Kar *


Welcome remarks for the media contingent

The role of communication in transforming 'supply side' actions into a 'demand side' peoples movement

If CLTS were a disease or a cure for cancer, it would be front page news. So how come that something that can prevent 40 children a day dying from diarrhoeal diseases in India is not being reported? How can we use the mechanisms and approaches of the media, which are currently used to sell products, fashions and lifestyles to promote CLTS? How can the media be an agent of behaviour change?


Current trends in media & communications in shaping public opinion.

Potential instruments (reality shows, marketing, movies, print media, talk-back radio, competitions) that could ignite a 'people’s movement' in sanitation.

Darryl D’Monte



Comments from the Floor: Discussion

Questions and comments from journalists and other participants



Appendices



  1. Participants List
  2. Challenges for the future: What needs to happen, how and by whom? (Flipcharts from group work)


  3. Questions for Research (group work and individual feedback from cards)

  1. PARTICIPANTS







Name

Designation /Department

WSP-SA



Mr. Ede Jorge Ijjasz-Vasquez

Global Manager, WSP, World Bank Headquarters, Washington, D.C., USA



Mr. Eduardo A. Perez

Senior Sanitation Specialist, WSP, World Bank Headquarters, Washington, D.C., USA



Ms. Catherine J. Revels

Regional Team Leader, WSP-SA, New Delhi, India



Mr. Deepak Sanan

Team Leader, WSP-SA, New Delhi, India



Ms. Soma Ghosh Moulik

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-SA, New Delhi, India



Ms. Geeta Sharma

Water & Sanitation Program-South Asia, New Delhi, India

Mr. C. Ajith Kumar


State Coordinator (Maharashtra State), WSP-SA, New Delhi, India



Ms. Vandana Mehra

Regional Communications Specialist. WSP-SA, New Delhi, India



Mr. Abdul Motelab

Country Team Leader, WSP-SA, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Mr. Shafiul Azam Ahmed

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-SA, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Mr. Glenn Pearch-Oroz

Water & Sanitation Specialist, WSP-SA, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Dr. Nilanjana Mukherjee

Sr. Community Development Specialist & Team Leader, WSP-EAP, Jakarta, Indonesia



Mr. Richard Warner Pollard

Regional Team Leader, Water and Sanitation Program - WSP-EAP, Jakarta, Indonesia



Ms. Reini Farida Siregar

Urban Sanitation Consultant, WSP-EAP, Jakarta, Indonesia



Mr. Deviariandy Setiawan

WSS & Poverty Specialist, WSP-EAP, Jakarta, Indonesia



Mr. Martin Gauss

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-LAC, Lima, Peru



Mr. Ousseynou Diop

Sr. Sanitary Engineer, WSP-West & Central Africa, Dakar, Senegal



Mr. Andreas Knapp

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Farhan Sami

Country Team Leader, WSP-SA, Islamabad Office



Syeda Maheen Zehra

Sr. Institutional Development Specialist, WSP-SA, Islamabad Office



Mark Ellery

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-SA, Islamabad Office



Ahmad Farooq Bazai

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-SA, Islamabad Office



Masroor Ahmad

Water and Sanitation Specialist, WSP-SA, Islamabad Office

Institute of Development Studies (IDS)

Mr. Robert Chambers


Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, UK



Ms. Lyla Mehta

Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, UK



Ms. Petra Bongartz

Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, UK



Mr. Kamal Kar

Independent consultant

Bangladesh



Mr. Ziaul Haque Zia

State Minister for LGRD&C, Government of Bangladesh



Mr. M. Siraz Uddin Miah

Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of Bangladesh



Mr. Waliul Islam

Deputy Secretary & PS to PM, Ministry of LGRD & Cooperative, Government of Bangladesh



Anowarul Haq

Care Bangladesh



Dr Brigitta Bode

Care Bangladesh

Cambodia




Chreay Pom

MRD, Cambodia



Hilda Winarta

UNICEF, Cambodia

Indonesia



Emah Sudjimah

Government of Indonesia



Nina Rose Shatifan

Participatory Development Capacity Building Advisor, WSLIC-2, Government of Indonesia



Maraita Listyasari

Government of Indonesia

Nepal



Hom Nath Acharya

Newah, Nepal



James Wkken

WaterAid



Keshab Subedi

Plan, Nepal



Kumar Silwar

Newah, Nepal

Lajana Manandhor


LUMANTI, Nepal



Laxmi Poudel

Nepal Water for Health



Oliver Jones

WaterAid, Nepal



Soniya Thapa

NEWAH, Nepal



Urmika Simkhada

WaterAid, Nepal



Vidhan Ratna Yami

Under-Secretary, Ministry of Physical Planning & Works, Government of Nepal



Gyanesh Bajrncharya

NWSC, Nepal

Pakistan



Aftab Ahmad

Executive Director, HRDS, Islamabad



Agshar Ali

Deputy Program Manager, DFID, Islamabad



Ahmad Raza Farrukh

Project Implementation Officer (WS), ADB, Islamabad




Ali Al Mahi

Country Director, Islamic Relief, Islamabad



Al-Nashir Jamal

Chief Executive Officer, Aga Khan Foundation, Islamabad



Altaf Hussain

Program Manager, Water Aid, Islamabad



Arif Pervez

Country Manager, Water Aid, Islamabad



Ayaz Khan

Executive Coordinator, The Network, Islamabad



Brigadier Iftikhar Haider

MD, KW&SB, Karachi, Government of Paksitan



Bushra Gohar

Project Director, Action Aid, Islamabad



Col. Iftikhar-ur-Rehman

Chief Executive, CUP, Islamabad



Dorothy Blane

Country Director, Concern International Islamabad



Ehsan Qadir

USAID, Islamabad




Fabia Shah

Chief Program Adviser, AusAid, Islamabad



Faiza Jan Muhammad

Country Director, MCI, Islamabad



Farhana Farooqi

Country Head, Oxfam, Islamabad



Fayaz Baqir

Asst. Resident Representative, UNDP, Islamabad



Graham Strong

Country Director, World Vision, Islamabad



Gul Sharif Khan

Program Manager, CUP, Islamabad



Huma Khan

Project Officer Pakistan Humanitarian Forum, Oxfam

Islamabad





Iftikhar Mehmood

Admin Officer, Action Aid, Islamabad



Imran Shami

Water and Environment Sanitation Advisor, Plan, Islamabad



Iqbal Jafar

Chief Executive, TVO, Islamabad




Jack Christopher Norman

Country Representative,

Catholic Relief Services, Islamabad





John Hansell

Livelihoods Advisor, DFID, Islamabad



Malik Tariq

Project Officer, The Network, Islamabad



Mazoor Hussain

Program Manager, Water and Sanitation, Infrastructure

MCI, Islamabad





Mia Haglund Heelas

Country Director, Plan Pakistan, Islamabad



Michelle Nevkirchin

Team Leader Water and Sanitation, Catholic Relief Services, Mansehra



Mr. Dawood Mufti

Project Officer, TVO, Islamabad



Muhammad Irtiza Haider

Deputy Program Manager, NRSP, Islamabad



Muhammad Mobin

Assistant Country Director, Concern International,

Islamabad



Niaz Muhammad

Water and Sanitation Advisor, Care International, Islamabad



Mohammad Saleem

Deputy Program Manager, Aga Khan Foundation, Islamabad



Muzaffar Ahmad

General Manager (CPI), PPAF, Islamabad



Nadeem Afzal

Environmental Engineer, PIEDAR, Islamabad



Navaraj Gyawali

Country Director, Islamabad



Nawaz Tahir

Tehsil Nazim, Takht Bhai, District Mardan



Ramrajya Joshi

Program Support Manager, Plan Pakistan, Islamabad



Rashid Bajwa

General Manager, NRSP, Islamabad



Rubab Fatima

Project Officer, Islamic Relief, Islamabad



Shafqat Ali

Water Quality Specialist, HRDS, Islamabad




Shandana Khan

Chief Executive Officer, RSPN, Islamabad



Sultan Mehmood

Water & Sanitation Advisor, Islamic Relief, Islamabad



Syed Ayub Qutab

National Coordinator, WSSCC (PIEDAR), Islamabad



Syed Salman Shah

Technical Advisor Emergency, Concern International,

Islamabad





Syed Shah Nasir Khisro

Executive Director, IRSP, Mardan



Tameez Ahmad

Program Officer, UNICEF, Islamabad



Tanya Khan

Social Sector Specialist, RSPN, Islamabad



Thowai Zai

Chief WES Section, UNICEF, Islamabad



Zafar Sabri

General Manager (CPI), PPAF, Islamabad



Zulfiqar Ahmed

DFID, Islamabad


UK



Therese Makan

WaterAid, UK



Tom Palaendyul

WaterAid, UK




  1. CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE: WHAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN, HOW AND BY WHOM? (FLIPCHARTS FROM GROUP WORK)



Key challenges in CLTS

After participants had identified key issues and challenges in CLTS, these were grouped into the following main categories:




  1. Facilitation

  2. Monitoring

  3. Mindsets (providers and citizens)

  4. Scaling Up (broadening and deepening

  5. Sustainability

  6. Subsidy Issues (Financing Public Good vs Patronage and Dependence)

  7. Institutions: who should do what?

Participants then split into groups and brainstormed on how to address these challenges, particularly focusing on what needs to be done, how and by whom.




  1. Facilitation

What next?

Clarify the definition of facilitation at different levels



Who?

Government, Sanitation Taskforce, NGOs, Consortium


What next?

Identify the criteria for facilitator trainers and community facilitators



Who?

Sponsors, Funding Agencies, Implementers


What next?

Develop training manual, culturally acceptable



Who?

Training providers, WSP, UNICEF, Central agencies

What next?

Mechanism of recognition/appreciation and reward from government


Who?

Government at different tiers


What next?

Support to natural leaders to go to neighbouring communities, helping them in planning



Who?

Local government, NGOs, supporting agencies


What next?

Accredited training



Who?

Training institutions


What next?

Strengthening of network



Who?

Implementers


What next?

Access to training in other areas



Who?

Extension workers





  1. Monitoring




Outcome Monitoring

Monitoring of Sustainability

WHAT

Advocacy with government and donors

Indicator: % of villages that manage to maintain ODF status

Agree on some common parameters

Develop practical tools

Organisation networking

Development of a feedback system




HOW

Link with incentives


Include feedback mechanism


Compilation of various parameters and tools used in CLTS in different countries




WHO

Government (local level)

Encourage communities to regularly update ODF status and celebrations with verification by concerned authorities

Third party

Peer monitors (communities)

WSP, IDS (parameter)






  1. Mindsets (providers and citizens)

What mindset do we want? Communities should feel the need and empowered to act. The ‘need’ for change – moving inputs/outputs to focus on ‘outcomes’. What mindset impedes this?

Attitude… people, facilitators, providers



Stakeholders

Prevailing Mindsets

How?

By Whom?

Communities

    • we need help & show us (we are poor – cost)

    • what’s wrong with the prevailing practice?

    • dominant interest don’t feel the need

    • Realisation – the need for the entire community/internalisation and inclusion through self-awareness
    • Demonstrations of triggers for and of better outcomes


    • by themselves when empowered – gen. activists/leaders from within communities

Governments

  • we know it all and good for people

  • supply of inputs can change behaviour

  • meeting targets – project driven

  • where are the resources – we need more funding

  • expose them to differential outcome – why move from inputs to outcomes focused approach

  • policy, advocacy and create champions

  • demonstrations – research, working with them

  • incentives

  • political acceptance

  • individuals within bureaucracies

  • E
    I

    N

    T

    E

    G

    R

    A

    T

    E

    !

    SAs help government functionaries to gov. out and search solutions

  • media involvement

  • bring media to advocate/promote

NGOs

  • pre-set agenda by donors/government

  • notion about community: we know and have expertise about community

  • CLTS becoming fashionable and joining the bandwagon

  • dependent on government and donor policies – critique them

  • develop their knowledge (what works!), keeping outcome at centre stage

  • make it fashionable for NGO involvement

  • advocacy
  • government and donors (who supports them)


  • NGOs themselves by learning from communities

  • pressure groups within society

Donors

  • fear CLTS to demonstrate and failure to declare victories

  • low cost - driven by financial disbursement

  • fear of being reduced to bit/marginal player

  • visibility – cannot label outcomes of my interventions

  • critiques of aim and vision

  • focusing on sector outcomes

  • creating/organising pressure groups

  • change own strategies to match sector demand

  • IDS- clarify, external iundependent organ help in critiquing

  • government- to harmonise

  • learn from their own community (donors)




  1. Scaling Up (broadening and deepening)

What

How

Who

Funding agencies (Gov, NGOs, Donors) to stop hardware subsidy/cash/credit upfront to households

Use funds for human resource development (CLTS, Conflict Resolution, Poverty Analysis) at community level and local government

Local government to systematically use community consultants with remuneration


Measure success by outcomes for the whole community

Generate evidence through global studies (bang for the buck)

Donors (IDS, WSP, Government, NGO) Partnership

Support demand generation and local supply for more affordable options

Communication campaign to build pressure for change, recognition, principles of CLTS

Government with support from partners

Linking CLTS with poverty eradication (livelihood, health, education, …)

Reward and recognition at community and institutional level (not individual)

Government




Local market development (skills, options, access, credit, promotional skills)

Local government with marketing agency, NGOs



  1. Sustainability

What?

  1. Functional linkage between government and non-government

  2. Demand creation

  3. Local institution with natural leader

  4. Linkages with other programmes (incl. income-generating programme)
  5. Monitoring by communities and facilitating organisations


  6. Allocation for resources


How?

    1. Local government should take lead in facilitation

    2. Enabling policy

    3. Sensitisation (attitude, behaviour change)

    4. Regular sharing and learning

2.1 Regular sharing and learning

2.2 Triggering, community and facilitators


    1. Facilitating, networking of natural leaders

    2. Creating functional linkage between local government and networked natural leaders

    3. Get legal status of local institutions

4.1 Coordination and collaboration within organisations

4.2 Skill development planning and training based on indigenous knowledge and cultural acceptance
5.1 Sanitation norms and codes developed by the community

5.2 Establish joint monitoring mechanism


6.1 Create funds for survival of local institutions

6.2 Rewarding local technological innovations

6.3 Promotion of sanitation materials

6.4 Capacity building of facilitators and natural leaders

6.5 Reward
Who?


  1. Government, NGOs, Donor Agencies

  2. Facilitating Organisations (FO), Community (natural leaders)

  3. Local Government, Facilitating Organisations, Community

  4. Community, Government, FO

  5. Community, Local Government, FO

  6. Local government, NGO, Donors, Community




  1. Subsidy Issues

Ideas


      • Can we disassociate subsidy/non-subsidy from CLTS? creating confusion

      • Can we tie CLTS with the Mosque/Church/Pagoda/Committee?

      • Help establish ‘Community fund’

    • for community ownership

    • to reach the poorest/marginalised

    • for sustainability

    • for integration

Subsidy?


Any external contribution in cash or material for hardware




What

Who

How

When

1.

Clear cut policy with regard to

  • rural setting

  • urban setting (need subsidy for urban area. ie collection and treatment plant for safe disposal))

Government

Donor


Civil society organisations

Group consultation

Discussion



SACOSAN 2

21 September 2006



2.

Make CLTS part of other programmes

All government agencies

Donors


Civil society

Propose integrated programme, ie Education, Health, Infrastructure

After SACOSAN 2

3.

Cost recovery approach


Credit agency

Banks


Soft loan for doing hardware activities

Should start as soon as possible

4.

Subsidy for NGOs or facilitating organisation

Donor

Government











  1. Institutions: who should do what?

Who

What

Communities

  • user groups

  • committees

Forming platforms to scale out

Mutual monitoring



International Agencies

Donors


CLTS oriented coordination

Harmonising donor approach to CLTS

Performance based award system


Media

Dissemination of success stories

Opinion formation

Public debate


Academia

Cost-Benefit analysis (sustainability) with/without CLTS

Technical ??? on CLTS



Government (Legislative Executive, Judiciary)

Sanitation policy (CLTS)

Provincial Government (Policymakers, Administration)

Capacity Building

Systems/procedures

Visionary leadership


Local Government (Policymakers, Administration)

Facilitation within province

Linkages


Backstopping

Private Sector

Investment in the sector

Promote CLTS

NPOs and NGOs

  • Rights-based

  • Empowerment

  • Development

  • Service delivery

Advocacy with sustainability as objective

Ignition instead of ????




3. QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH (GROUP WORK AND INDIVIDUAL FEEDBACK FROM CARDS)

Human behaviour



  • local traditions and culture – effect on CLTS

  • comparative studies on contemporary approaches to sanitation and CLTS

  • roles of types of incentives in different regions

2. What are the instruments that the local government can use to promote CLTS?



  • housing by-laws

  • local awards

3. What are the possible mixes of financing options for CLTS that do not compromise the outcomes?



  • credit?

  • rewards for outcomes?

  • private/entrepreneur financing?

4. Questions and Issues for Research – Nepal and Pakistan Joint Group



  • Is it modification or contamination of CLTS as it evolves?

  • How to apply CLTS in urban and urbanising areas?

  • How to prevent contamination of ground water?

  • How to scale up/finance neighbourhood/community sanitation after CLTS?

  • An independent evaluation of CLTS? by economists, engineers, sociologists and public health researchers?

4.


Affordability

Financiability

Scalability

Comprehensibility

Sustainability

Adaptability

Acceptability

Recognition by Academia

Evaluation/Independent by various engineering professionals

5.


  • What are the practical indicators for monitoring CLTS? This is beyond counting latrines (eg hygiene, behaviour change…)

  • Which constraints are there when transferring approaches like CLTS to other regions?

6.


  • extent to which geo-physical characteristics (water availability, population density) and social make-up (heterogeneous/homogenous, class/caste) determine CLTS success/outcomes?

  • Extent to which linkages with livelihood, health, education etc can make CLTS more effective and enable scaling up?

  • Examine the extent to which capacity needs to be build at different levels (eg Government, CBOs, NGOs etc) and what roles should they play?

  • The different environments that enable CLTS to be implemented successfully – communities that have had development interventions versus those with no development engagement?

  • What are the vested interests behind traditional subsidy approaches and what lessons are there from the CLTS work so far for addressing/changing these?






The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page