Computer Glossary

PVP Parallel Vector Processing

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PVP Parallel Vector Processing

PVS Parallel Visualization Server

PW Password

PWB Printed Wire Board +

Programmer's Workbench [Microsoft]

PWD Print Working Directory [Unix]

PWR Power

PWSCS Programmable Workstation Communication Services [IBM]

.PX Primary Index (file name extension) [Paradox]

QA Quality Assurance

QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QBE Query By Example

QBF Query by Form

QBIC Query By Image Content [IBM]

QC Quality Control

QD Querty/Dvorak

QDA Qualitative Data Analysis

QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System

.QDI Quicken Dictionary (file name extension) [Intuit]

.QDT Quicken Data (file name extension) [Intuit]

QEMM Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager [Quarterdeck Corp.]

QFA Quick File Access

QFE Quick-Fix Engineering [Microsoft]

QFP Quad Flat Pack

QIC Quality Information Using Cycle Time [Hewlett-Packard] +

Quarter-Inch Cartridge

.QIF Quicken Import File/Interchange Format

(file name extension)

.QMT Quicken Memorized List (file name extension) [Intuit]

.QNX Quicken Indexes to Data (file name extension) [Intuit]

QOS Quality Of Service

QPG Quantum Phase Gate

QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

QTC Quicktime Conferencing [Macintosh]

RA Return Authorization

.RA Real Audio (file name extension)

RACF Resource Access Control Facility

RAD Rapid Application Development

RADAR Radio Detection And Ranging +

Rights, Availabilities, Distribution Analysis

and Reporting [Disney]

RADB Routing Arbiter Data Base

RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service

RADSL Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line

RAG Row Address Generator

RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks +

Redundant Arrays of Independent Drives +

Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks

RAIS Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Systems

RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit

RAM Random Access Memory

.RAM Real Audio Metafile (file name extension)

RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog

Converter [Sierra]

RAMP Remote Access Maintenance Protocol [Internet]

RAND Random

RAP Rapid Application Prototyping

RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

RAS Random Access Storage +

Reader Admission System [British Library] +

Reliability, Availability and Serviceability +

Remote Access Service + Row Address Select

RASAPI Remote Access Service Application Programming

Interface [Microsoft]

.RAT Rating (file name extension)

RAVE Rendering Acceleration Virtual Engine [Apple Computer]

.RAW Raw Data (file name extension)

RB Right Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)

RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System

RBCS Remote Bar Code System

RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company

RCL Rotate Carry Left

RCP Remote Control Panel + Remote Copy [Internet] +

Restore Cursor Position

RCPT Recipient

RCR Rotate Carry Right

RCS Records Communications Switching System +

Revision Control System [Unix]

RD Receive Data + Remove Directory

R&D Research and Development

RDA Remote Database Access

RDB Receive Data Buffer + Relational Database

RDBMS Relational Database Management System

RDCLK Received Timing Clock

RDF Resource Description Framework [W3C]

RDO Remote Data Object

RDP Reliable Datagram Protocol + Remote Desktop Protocol


RDSR Receiver Data Service Request

RDTO Receive Data Transfer Offset [IBM]

RDX Realistic Display Mixer

.REC Recorder (file name extension) +

Recreational or Entertainment Activities (Domain

Name) [Internet]

REC. Recreation [USENET Newsgroup Category]

.REF Reference (file name extension)

REG Register

REGAL Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate

RELSECT Relative Sector

REM Remark + Remote + Ring Error Monitor

REN Rename

REP Repeat

REPE Repeat while Equal

REPNE Repeat while Not Equal

REPNZ Repeat while Not Zero

REPZ Repeat while Zero

REQ Request

REREG Re-Register

RES Remote Execution Service + Reset + Resolution

.RES Resource (file name extension)

RET Resolution Enhancement Technology [HP] + Return

RETR Retrieve

REX Relocatable Executable

REXEC Remote Execution

REXX Restructured Extended Executor (language) [IBM]

RF Radio Frequency

RFC Request For Comments [Internet]

RFD Request for Discussion [Internet]

RFI Radio Frequency Interference + Request for Information

RFP Request for Proposal

RFQ Request for Quotation

RFS Remote File Sharing + Remote File System

RFT Revisable Form Text + Rich Text Format

RFU Reserved For Future Use

RGB Red-Green-Blue (color model)

RI Referential Integrity + Ring Indicate

RID Relative Identifier

RIFF Resource Interchange File Format [Microsoft]

RIM Remote Installation and Maintenance [Microsoft]

RIME RelayNet International Message Exchange

RIP Raster Image Processor + Remote Imaging Protocol +

Routing Information Protocol [Novell]

RIPEM Riordan's Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail

RIPS Raster Image Processing System

RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing

RIT Raw Input Thread [Microsoft]

RJE Remote Job Entry

RLD Received Line Detect

RLE Run Length Encoded

RLL Run Length Limited

RLN Remote LAN Node [DCA]

RLOGIN Remote Login

RLSD Received Line Signal Detected

RLSI * Ridiculously Large-Scale Integration

RM Reset Mode

RMA Return Material Authorization +

Return to Manufacturer Authorization

RMB Right Mouse Button

RMDIR Remove Directory

RMI Remote Messaging Interface +

Remote Method Invocation [Sun]

RMON Remote Monitor/Monitoring

RMP Remote Maintenance Processor [IBM]

RMS Record Management Services + Root Mean Square

RMW Read-Modify-Write

RN Read News [Internet]

RNA Remote Network Access [Microsoft]

RND Random

RNG Random Number Generator

RNP Regional Network Provider

R-O Read Only

ROB Reorder Buffer [Intel]

ROL Rotate Left

ROLAP Relational On-Line Analytical Processing

ROM Read Only Memory

ROOM Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling

ROP Raster Operation + RISC Operation

ROR Rotate Right

ROS Read-Only Storage [IBM]

ROSCOE Remote Operating System Conversational Online


ROT Running Object Table

RPC Remote Procedure Call

RPG Report Program Generator (Programming Language)

RPL Resident Programming Language +

Requested Privilege Level

RPN Real Page Number + Reverse Polish Notation

RPRINTER Remote Printer [NetWare]

RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM

RPR Relative Performance Rating

RPT Repeat

RPQ Request for Price Quotation

RQBE Relational Query By Example [Fox Pro]

RR Real Reality

RS Radio Shack +

Recommended Standard (as in RS-232) [EIA] +

Record Separator + Request to Send

RSA129 (129 digit cryptographic security number named after

its inventors: Drs. Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and

Leonard M. Adleman)

RSAC Recreational Software Advisory Council

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications System

RSD Route Server Daemon

RSH Remote Shell

RSI Repetitive Strain Injury (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)

RSL Request-and-Status Link

RSP Required Space Character

RSPX Remote Sequenced Packet Exchange

RST Reset + Restart

RSTS Resource Sharing Time Sharing [Digital]

RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol

RSX Realistic Sound Experience +

Real Time Resource Sharing Executive

RT Real Time + RISC Technology + Run Time

R/T Receive/Transmit

RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method

RTC Real-Time Clock

RTDM Real-Time Data Migration

RTEL Reverse Telnet [Internet]

RTF Rich Text Format

RTL Register Transfer Language/Level +

Resistor Transistor Logic + Right-To-Left +

Run Time Library

RTM Response Time Monitor + Runtime Manager [Borland]

RTMP Routing Table Maintenance Protocol

RTN Reuters Transaction Network

RTOS Real-Time Operating System

RTP Rapid Transport Protocol + Real-Time Protocol

RTS Remote Takeover System + Request To Send

RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol

RTTI Runtime Type Information

RTTY Radio Teletypewriter (Communications)

RTV Real Time Video

RTX Run Time Extension

RUN Rewind/Unload [IBM]

RVA Relative Virtual Address

RVI Reverse Interrupt

R/W Read/Write

RWM Read-Write Memory

RX Receiver

RXD Receive Data

SA Selective Availability

SAA Systems Application Architecture [IBM]

SAC Single Attachment Concentrator

SADL Synchronous Data Link Control [Racal-Vadic]

SAINT * Symbolic Automatic Integrator

SAL Shift Arithmetic Left

SAM Serial Access Memory + Sequential Access Method +

Security Accounts Manager [Microsoft] +

Single Application Mode [Microsoft]

SAN Storage/System Area Network

SANE Standard Apple Numeric Environment

SAP Second Audio Program + Service Access Point [DEC] +

Service Advertising Protocol +

* Symbolic Assembly Program +

Systems, Applications and Products (company)

SAPI Speech Application Program Interface [Microsoft]

SAR Segmentation and Reassembly +

Shift Arithmetic Right +

Successive Approximation Register +

Synthetic Aperature Radar

SAS Sales Accounting System + Single Attached Station +

Single Audio System + Statistical Analysis System

SASI Shugert Associates System Interface (SCSI originated

from SASI)

SATAN Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks

.SAV Saved (file name extension)

SAVDM Single Application VDM

SB Sound Blaster [Creative Labs] + Sound Board

SBA Scene Balance Algorithms [Kodak]

SBB Subtract With Borrow

SBC Single-Board Computer

SBCS Single-Byte Character Set

SBI Sound Blaster Instrument

.SBR Source Browser (file name extension) [Borland]

SBS Smart Battery Specification [Duracell/Intel]

.SC Script (file name extension)

SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

SCAM SCSI Configuration Automatically

SCAS Scan String

SCB Subsystem Control Block [IBM]

SCC Serial Communications Controllers +

Serial Controller Chip +

Synchronous Channel Check [IBM]

SCCS Source Code Control System

SCD Standard Color Display

S-CDMA Synchronous Code-Division Multiple Access

SCF System Control Facility

SCI Scalable Coherent Interface +

Serial Communications Interface

SCI. Science [USENET Newsgroup Category]

SCLM Software Configuration and Library Management [IBM]

SCM ScreenCam Format [Lotus] +

Software Configuration Management + Station Class Mark

SCO Santa Cruz Operation (Software Company)

SCOPE Simple Communications Programming Environment


SCP Save Cursor Position + Subsystem Control Port +

System Control Program

SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier

.SCR Script (file name extension)

SCRN Screen (video display)

SCRS Scalable Cluster of RISC Systems

SCSA Signal Computing System Architecture [Dialogic]

SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface

SD Send Data + Super Density

SDA Software Disk Array + Source Data Automation +

System Display Architecture [Digital]

SDAM Single DOS Application Mode

SDB Symbolic Debugger [Unix]

SDD Software Description Database [Internet] +

Subscriber Data Document

SDF Space Delimited File + Space Delimited Format

.SDF Standard Data Format (file name extension)

SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDI Selective Dissemination of Information +

Single Document Interface

Software Development Interface [Mosaic]

SDK Software Developer's Kit [Microsoft]

SDL Specification and Description Language

SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control (protocol)

SDM System Development Multitasking

SDMS SCSI Device Management System [NCR]

SDN Software Defined Network [AT&T]

SDNS Secure Data Network Service

SDR Streaming Data Request

SDRAM Synchronous DRAM

SD-ROM Super Density ROM

SDS Sysops Distribution System

SDSL Single-Line/Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line

SD_STB Streaming Data Strobe [IBM]

SDTV Standard Definition Television

SDV Switched Digital Video [AT&T]

SDX Storage Data Acceleration

SEA Standard Extended Attribute [OS/2]

.SEA Self Extracting Archive (file name extension) [Macintosh]

SEAC * Name of first computer to use transistors, built by

(National Bureau of) Standards Eastern Automatic

Calculator (Also see SWAC)

SEAL Segmentation and Reassembly Layer (protocol) +

Screening External Access Link [Digital-DEC]

SEC Single Error Correction

SECAM Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire

(Sequential Color With Memory)

SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge

SED Stream Editor + Stream-Oriented Editor

SEG Segment

SEH Structured Exception Handling

SEL Select

SEM Scanning Electron Microscope +

Standard Electronic Module +

Strategic Enterprise Management [SAP]

SEPP Secure Encryption Payment Protocol

SER Serial

SERCOS Serial Real-Time Communications System

SET Secure Electronic Transaction +

Softwave Engineering Technology

.SET Driver Set (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] +

Image Settings (file name extension) [Paradox]

SETEXT Structure Enhanced Text [Internet]

SEU Smallest Executable Unit

SF Sign Flag

SFC System File Checker

SFD Start Frame Delimiter

SFDR Spurious-Free Dynamic Range

SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language

SFS System File Server

SFT System Fault Tolerance

SFX Sound Effect(s)

SGA Shared Global Area

SGEN Signal Generator + System Generator

SGDT Store Global Descriptor Table

SGI Silicon Graphics, Inc.

SGM Shaded Graphics Modeling

SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language

SGR Set Graphics Rendition

SGRAM Synchronous Graphics RAM

S/H Sample and Hold

SHA Secure Hash Algorithm [NSA]

SHAR Shell Archive

SHED Segmented Hypergraphic Editor

SHG Segmented Hypergraphics

SHL Shift Logical Left

SHR Shift Logical Right

S-HTTP Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol

SHV Standard High-Volume

.SHW Show (file name extension)

SI Shift-In + Source Index + System Information +

System Integration

SIC Standard Industrial Code

SID Security Identifier + Serial Input Data +

Station Identification [AT&T] +

Symbolic Interactive Debugger + System ID

SIDF System Independent Data Format

SIDH System Identification for Home Systems

SIDT Store Interrupt Descriptor Table

SIFT Stanford Information Filtering Tool

SIG Special Interest Group

SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications

and Technology

SIM Simulator

SIMD Single Instruction, Multiple Data-stream (processor)

SIMM Single In-line Memory Module

SIMTEL Simulation and Teleprocessing

SIMULA Simulation (language)

SIO Serial Input/Output (communications driver)

SIP Single In-line Package

SIPC Simply Interactive Personal Computer [Microsoft]

SIPO Serial In, Parallel Out

SIPP Single In-line Pin Package

SIR Serial Infrared [Hewlett-Packard]

SIRDS Single-Image Random Dot Stereogram

SI/SO Serial In/Serial Out + Shift In/Shift Out

SIT Special Information Tones

.SIT Stuff-It (compressed file name extension) [Macintosh]

SIU System Interface Unit

SKIP Simple Key-Management for Internet Protocols [Sun]

SKU# Stock Keeping Unit Number

SLC Subscriber Line Concentrator

SLDT Store Local Descriptor Table

SLED Single Large Expensive Disk

SLIC System Level Integration Circuit

SLIM Structured Language for Internet Markup

SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol

SLM Spatial Light Modulator

SLMR Silly Little Mail Reader

SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane (program)

SLP Service Location Protocol

SLSI Super Large-Scale Integration

SLSS Systems Library Subscription Service [IBM]

SLU Spoken Language Understanding

SM Set Mode + Shared Memory

SMART Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology

SMB Server Message Block (protocol) [MII]

SMD Surface Mounted Device

SMDR Station Message Detail Recording

SMDS Switched Multimedia/Multi-Megabit Data Service

SMF Single Mode Fiber + System Manager Facility [Compaq]

SMI System Management Interrupt [Intel]

SMIF Standard Mechanical Interface

SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language


SMIT System Management Interface Tool [IBM]

SMK Software Migration Kit [Microsoft]

SML Standard Meta Language

SMM System Management Mode [Intel]

SMOBC Solder Mask Over Bare Copper

SMP Simple Management Protocol + Symbolic Manipulation

Program + Symmetrical Multi-Processing +

Symmetric Multiprocessor

.SMP Sample (file name extension)

SMPC Shared Memory Parallel Computer

SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply

SMRAM System Management Random Access Memory

SMS Small Messaging System +

Storage Management Services [NetWare] +

Storage Management Subsystem/System +

Systems Management Server [Microsoft]

SMSW Store Machine Status Word

SMT Station Management (protocol) +

Surface-Mount Technology

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMU System Management Utility

SN Serial Number

S/N Signal-to-Noise (Ratio)

SNA Systems Network Architecture [IBM]

SNAP Sub-Network Access Protocol +

Sub-Network Attachment Point

SND Sound

SNEWS Secure News Server [Internet]

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol

SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language (Programming Language)

SNP Serial Number/Password [Omen Technology]

SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio

SOA Start Of Authority

SOC System On a Chip

SOC. Social Issues [USENET Newsgroup Category]

SOCKS Socket Secure (server) [Internet]

SO-DIMM Small Outline DIMM

SOE Standard Operating Environment

SOH Start of Header

SOHO Small Office/Home Office

SOL Simulation Oriented Language

SOM Start of Message + System Object Model [IBM]

SONET Synchronous Optical Network

SOP Small Outline Package + Standard Operating Procedures

SOS Silicon On Sapphire + Sophisticated Operating System +

Standards and Open Systems

SOTA State Of The Art

SOX Sound Exchange

SP Service Pack [IBM] + Stack Pointer + System Product

SPA Secure Password Authentication [Microsoft] +

Software Publishers Association

SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network

SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture +

Sun's Palo Alto Research Center

SPC Small Peripheral Controller + Statistical Process Control

SPCL Spectrum Cellular Corporation

SPCS Stored Program Controlled Switch

SPD Serial Presence Detect

SPEC Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative

SPF Shortest Path First + System Programming Facility

SPGA Staggered Pin-Grid Array

SPI Security Parameters Index + Service Provider Interface +

SCSI Parallel Interface

SPID Service Profile/Provider Identifier

SPIKE Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-Based

Environment [STScI]

SPIRES Stanford Public Information Retrieval System

[Stanford University]

SPL Spooler + System Programming Language [HP]

.SPL Spell Checker (file name extension)

SPLD Simple Programmable Logic Device

SPM System Performance Monitor [IBM]

SPOOL Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line

SPOT Shared Product Object Tree [IBM]

SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol + Standard Printer Port

SPPS Scalable Power Parallel System [IBM]

SPR Special Purpose Register +

Statistical Pattern Recognition

SPREAD * Systems Programming, Research, Engineering

and Development [IBM]

SPS Shock Protection System + Standby Power System

SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

SPT Sectors Per Track

SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange [Novell]

SQ Squeezed (files)

SQE Signal Quality Error (test)

SQL/DS Structured Query Language/Data System [IBM]

SQRT Square Root

SR Shift Register

SRAM Shadow Random Access Memory +

Static Random Access Memory

SRAPI Speech Recognition API

SRB Source-Route Bridge

.SRC Source (file name extension)

SRD Screen Reader System

SRDRAM Self-Refreshed DRAM

SRGB Sustained RGB (values)

SRM Security Reference Monitor

SRO Sharable and Read Only

SRP Suggested Retail Price

.SRP Script (file name extension)

SRPI Server-Requester Programming Interface

SRQ Service Request

SRR Serially Reusable Resource

SRS Sound Retrieval System

SS Stack Segment + Single Sided + Seconds

SSA Serial Storage Architecture

SSAP Source Service Access Point

SSCP Systems Service Control Point [IBM]

SSD Solid State Disk

SSEC * Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator [IBM]

SSGA System Support Gate Array

SSH Secure Shell

SSI Server Side Includes + Single System Image +

Small Scale Integration

SSL Secure Sockets Layer

SSPI Security Service Provider Interface [Microsoft]

SSRP Simple Server Redundancy Protocol [Cisco]

SST Spread-Spectrum Technology +

Systems Services and Technology

STA Spanning Tree Algorithm

STAR Self Defining Text Archival

STB Strobe

STC Set Carry Flag

STD Set Direction Flag + Standard

STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance [Banyan]

STDAUX Standard Auxilary

STDERR Standard Error

STDIN Standard Input

STDIO.H Standard Input/Output Header [C Programming Language]

STDM Statistical Time Division Multiplexer

STDOUT Standard Output

STDPRN Standard Printer

STEP Standard for Exchange of Product

.STF Structured File (file name extension) [Lotus Agenda]

STI Set Interrupt Flag

S/TK Sectors Per Track

STL Standard Template Library

STN Super-Twist Nematic

.STORE Businesses Offering Goods (Domain Name) [Internet]

STOS Store String

STP Secure Transfer Protocol + Shielded Twisted Pair (cable) +

Signal Transfer Point +

Synchronized Transaction Processing

STR Store Task Register + Synchronous Transmitter Receiver

STRESS Structural Engineering System Solver (Programming


STRUDL Structural Design Language (Programming Language)

STScI Space Telescope Science Institute

STT Secure Transaction Technology [Microsoft]

STX Start of Text

.STY Style (file name extension) [Ventura, Word, WordPerfect]

SUB Subroutine + Substitute + Subtract

SUN Sun Microsystems, Inc.

.SUP Supplemental Dictionary (file name extension)


SVC Switched Virtual Circuit

SVF Simple Vector Format

SVG Scalable Vector Graphics

SVGA Super Video Graphics Array


SVM System Virtual Machine [Microsoft]

SVN Switched Virtual Network [IBM]

SVR Server

SVR# System V Release Number [AT&T]

S/W Software

SWAC * Mobile version of SEAC, built for deployment to White

Sands, and named Standards Western Automatic Calculator

SWAIS Simple Wide Area Information Server [Internet]

SWAP Shared Wireless Access Protocol

SWIG Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator

SWISH Simple Web Indexing System for Humans

SWP Simple Web Printing

.SWP Swap (file name extension)

.SYL Syllabus (file name extension)

SYLK Symbolic Link

.SYM Symbols (file name extension)

.SYN Synonym (file name extension)

SYNC Synchronous

SYS System

.SYS System Configuration (file name extension) +

System Device Driver (file name extension)

SYSADMIN System Administrator

SYSGEN System Generator

SYSLOG System Log

SYSMOD System Modification

SYSOP System Operator

SYSREQ System Request

SZ Send ZModem [Unix]

TAB Tape Automated Bonding

TACS Total Access Communication System

TAD Telephone Answering Device

TAP Telelocator Alphanumeric Protocol

TAPCIS The Access Program for the CompuServe

Information Service

TAPI Telephony Applications Programming Interface

.tar Tape Archive (archived file name extension) [Unix]

.tar.Z Compressed Archived files (file name extension) [Unix]

TAS Telephone Access Server

TASM Turbo Assembler [Borland]

TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Transceiver/Receiver Interface

TB Terabyte (1,024 gigabytes)

(One Thousand Billion characters of information)

T/B Top and Bottom

TBBS The Bread Board System (BBS)

TBGA Tape Ball Grid Array

.TBK Toolbook (file name extension)

TBU Tape Backup Unit

TC Test Control + Transmission Control

TCL Tool Command Language

TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation

TCO Total Cost of Ownership

TCP Tape-Carrier Package

TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TD Transmit Data

TDC Tabular Data Control

TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf

TDtoDP Tablet Coordinates to Display Coordinates


TDE Terminal Display Editor

.TDF Trace Definition File (file name extension) [OS/2] +

Typeface Definition File (file name extension)

TDI Transport Device Interface

TDM Technical Document Management +

Time Division Multiplexing

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

TDMS Terminal Display Management System

TDP Tag Distribution Protocol [Cisco] +

Telelocator Data Protocol

TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request

TDR Time Domain Reflectometry

TE/2 Terminal Emulator/2 [Oberon]

TEB Thread Environment Block

TEC Tokyo Electronics Corporation

TED Tiny Editor

TEI Terminal Endpoint Identifier

TELCO Telephone Company

TEML Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borland]

TEMP Temporary

TER Thermal Eclipse Reading [Sony]

TERMPWR Terminator Power

TFDD Text File Device Driver

TFEL Thin-Film Electroluminescent

.TFM Tagged Font Metric (file name extension)

TFT Thin-Film Transistor (screens)

TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol

THD Total Harmonic Distortion

.THD Thread (file name extension)

THOMAS The (U.S.) House (of Representatives) Open Multimedia

Access System

THOR Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording

THR Transmit Holding Register

.THS Thesaurus (file name extension)

TI Texas Instruments, Inc.

TIA Telecommunications Industry Association +

The Internet Adapter [Internet]

TID Target ID

TIES Time Independent Escape Sequence

.TIF Tagged Image File (filename extension)

TIFF Tagged Image File Format

TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture

TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding

and Referencing

TIIAP Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure

Assistance Program [NII]

TIM Technical Information Memo [Compaq]

TIMEZONES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GMT Offsets

Offsets Eastward from GMT (+)

Offsets Westward from GMT (-)

AST - Atlantic Standard Time -4:00

AT - Azores Time -2:00

AHD - Alaska-Hawaii Daylight :::

AHS - Alaska-Hawaii Standard -10:00

BLT - Baghdad Local Time +3:00

BST - British Summer Time :::

CAT - Central Alaska Time -10:00

CCT - China Coast Time +8:00

CDT - Central Daylight Time :::

CET - Central European Time +1:00

CLT - Cairo Local Time +2:00

CST - Central Standard Time -6:00

EAD - East Australian Daylight :::

EAS - East Australian Standard +10:00

EDT - Eastern Daylight Time :::

EET - Eastern European Time +1:00

EMT - Eastern Mediterranean +2:00

EST - Eastern Standard Time -5:00

GMT - Greenwich Mean Time +0:00

HST - Hawaii Standard Time -10:00

JST - Japanese Standard Time +9:00

MDT - Mountain Daylight Time :::

MET - Middle European Time +1:00

MST - Mountain Standard Time -7:00

MTS - Moscow Time Standard +3:00

MTD - Moscow Time Daylight :::

NT - Nome Time -11:00

NZT - New Zealand Time +12:00

PDT - Pacific Daylight Time :::

PST - Pacific Standard Time -8:00

PST - Pakistan Standard Time +5:00

WAS - West Australian Standard +7:00

WAT - West Africa Time -1:00

WED - Western Europe Daylight :::

WES - Western Europe Standard +0:00

YDT - Yukon Daylight Time :::

YST - Yukon Standard Time -9:00

IDLE- International Date Line East +12:00

IDLW- International Date Line West -12:00

TIMI Technology Independent Machine Interface [IBM]

TIMS Text Information Management Systems

TINA Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture

TIP Terminal Interface Processor +

Transaction Internet Protocol

TITOFET Tunneling-In, Tunneling-Out Field Effect Transistor

TK/TK Track to Track

TLA Three-Letter Acronym

TLB Translation Lookaside Buffer

.TLB Table (file name extension)

TLD Top Level Domain

TLI Transport Layer Interface

TLS Transport Layer Security

TLU Table Lookup

.TLX Telex (file name extension)

TM Trademark

TMDS Transition Minimized Differential Signaling

.TML Template (file name extension)

TMP Temporary

TN Twisted Nematic

TNC Terminal Node Controller

TNO The Netherlands Organization

ToC Table Of Contents

TOD Time Of Day

TOP Technical and Office Protocol

TPC Transaction-Processing Performance Council

TPF Transactions Processing Facility [IBM]

TPI Tracks Per Inch

TPL Table Producing Language +

Transaction Processing Language

TPM Transactions Per Minute

TPORT Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T]

TPS Transactions Per Second +

Transaction Processing System

TPW Turbo Pascal for Windows

TQFP Thin Quad Flat Pack

TQM Total Quality Management

TR Terminal Ready

T/R Transmit/Receive

TRADIC * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer

(Name of first computer to be entirely


.TRM Terminal (file name extension)

TRN Threaded Read News [Internet] + Token Ring Network

TRON The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus

TS Top Secret

TSA Target Service Agent + Technical Support Alliance +

Telephony Services Architecture

TSAPI Telephony Services Application Program

Interface [AT&T + Novell]

TSB Termination Status Block

TSD Type-Specific Driver

TSE The Semware Editor

TSO Time Sharing Option

TSP Telephony Service Provider

TSR Terminate and Stay Resident

TSS Task State Segment + Time Sharing System

TS/SI Top Secret/Sensitive Information

.TST Test (file name extension)

TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic

TSV Tab Separated Values

TT Typewriter Text

TTA Transport-Triggered Architecture

TTCN Tree and Tabular Combined Notation

.TTF TrueType Font (file name extension)

TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic

TTP Thermal-Transfer Printing

TTS Text-To-Speech + Transaction Tracking System

TTY Teletype

TUCOWS The Ultimate Collection of Winsock Software

TUI Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect]

TUMS Table Update and Management System [Stanford University]

.TUT Tutorial (file name extension)

TVF Table of contents Verbosely from File [UNIX]

TVFS Toronto Virtual File System [IBM]

TVI Television Interference

TVOL Television On-Line

TWAIN Technology Without Any Interesting Name

(connection between application and scanner software)

TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service

TXD Transmit Data

.TXF Tax Exchange Format (file name extension)

TXT Text

TXT2STF Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda]

TZ Time Zone [Unix]

UA User Agent + User Area

UAE Unrecoverable Application Error

UAM User Authentication Method

UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

UBR Unspecified Bit Rate

.UC2 Compressed File (file name extension) [UltraCompressor]

UCE Unsolicited Commercial Email

UCL Universal Communications Language

UCS Unicode Conversion Support + Universal Character Set +

User Coordinate System

UCT Universal Coordinated Time

UDA Universal Data Access [Microsoft]

UDC Universal Decimal Classification + User Defined Commands

UDD User Data Document

UDE Universal Data Exchange

UDEC * Universal Digital Electronic Computer [Burroughs]

UDF Universal Disk Format + User Defined Functions

UDG User Defined Gateway

UDP User Datagram Protocol

UDT Uniform Data Transfer

UFS Unix File System

UG User Group

UHCI Universal Host Controller Interface

UHF Ultra-High Frequency

UI Unix International + User Interface

UIC User Identification Code

UID User Identifier

UIMS User Interface Management System

UL Underwriters Laboratories +

Unordered List + Upload

ULA Uncommitted Logic Array

ULN Universal Link Negotiation

ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration

UMA Unified Memory Architecture

UMB Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST]

UML Unified Modeling Language

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UNC Universal Naming Convention +

Uuencoded Netnews Collator [Unix]

UNCOL Universal Computed Oriented Language

UNI User-Network Interface

UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication (System)

UNICOS Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible

UNII Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure

UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer

UNIX (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System)

UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture

UP Uniprocessor

UPC Universal Product/Program Code + User Parameter Control

UPG Upgrade

UPL User Program Language

UPM Unix Programmer's Manual +

User Profile Management [IBM]

UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply/System

URC Uniform Resource Characteristics +

Uniform Resource Citation

UREP Unix RSCS Emulation Protocol (protocol)

URI Uniform Resource Identifier

URL Uniform Resource Locator

URN Uniform Resource Name/Number

US Unit Separator

USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

USB Universal Serial Bus [Intel]

USENET User's Network [Internet]

USERID User Identification

USOC Universal Service Ordering Code

USQ Unsqueezed (files)

USR US Robotics (corporation)

USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter

USSA User Supported Software Association (United Kingdom)

UT User Terminal

UTC Coordinated Universal Time

UTI Universal Text Interchange/Interface

UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (cable)

UU Uuencode/Uudecode

UUCP Unix-To-Unix Copy Program

UUD UUDecoding [Unix]

UUDECODE Unix-To-Unix Decoding

UUE UUEncoding [Unix]

UUENCODE Unix-To-Unix Encoding

UUI User-To-User Information [AT&T]

UUID Universal Unique Identifier

UV Ultraviolet

VA Virtual Address + Visual Age [IBM]

VAD Value Added Dealer

VADD Value Added Disk Driver

VADSL Very-High-Rate Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

VAL Value + Voice Application Language

.VAL Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox]

VAM Virtual Access Method

VAN Value Added Network

VAP Value Added Process

VAR Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer + Variable

VAST Variable Array Storage Technology

VAX/VMS Virtual Address Extension/Virtual Memory System [DEC]

VB Variable Block + Visual Basic [Microsoft]

VBA Visual Basic for Applications [Microsoft]

VBE/AI Vesa Bios Extension/Audio Interface

VBI Vertical Blanking Interval

VBNS Very High Speed Backbone Network Service [MCI + NSF]

VBR Variable Bit Rate

VBRUN Visual Basic Runtime

VBS Visual Basic Script

.VBX Visual Basic Extension (file name extension)

VCC Virtual Channel Connection

VCD Virtual Communications Driver

VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier

VCL Visual Component Library

VCOS Visual Caching Operating System [AT&T]

VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface

VCR Video Cassette Recorder

VDD Virtual Device Driver

VDDM Virtual Device Driver Manager

VDE Video Display Editor + Visual Development Environment

VDISK Virtual Disk

VDM Virtual DOS Machine [IBM]

VDMAD Virtual Direct Memory Access Device [Microsoft]

VDS Virtual DMA Services

VDSL Very-High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line

VDT Video Dial Tone + Video Display Terminal

VDU Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit

VEGA Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.]

VEMM Virtual Expanded Memory Manager

VEMMI Versatile Multimedia Interface

VER Verify + Version

VERONICA Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-Wide Index to

Computer Archives [Internet]

VERR Verify Read Access

VERW Verify Write Access

VES Video Encoding Standard [Oracle]

VESA Video Electronics Standards Association

VF Virtual Floppy

VFAT Virtual File Allocation Table [Microsoft]

V.FC Version.First Class (communications standard)

VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display

VFW Video For Windows [Microsoft]

VGA Video Graphics Array

VGC Video Graphics Controller

VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language

VHF Very-High Frequency

VHS Very High Speed + Video Home System +

Virtual Host Storage

VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit

VI Visual Interactive (editor) [UNIX]

VIA Virtual Interface Architecture [Intel]

VIE Virtual Information Environment

VIF Virtual Interface + Virtual Interrupt Flag

VIM Vendor Independent Mail +

Vendor Independent Messaging + Video Interface Module

VIO Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output

VINES Virtual Networking System [Banyan]

ViP Visual Programming [Lotus]

VIP Variable Information Processing +

Video Information Provider +

Virtual Interrupt Pending

VIPER Verifiable Integrated Processor for

Enhanced Reliability

VIS Video Information System [Tandy] +

Visual Instruction Set [Sun] +

Voice Information System

VJ HEADER Van Jacobsen Header (compression) [Unix]

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network

VL-BUS Vesa Local-Bus [VESA]

VLD Variable-Length Decoder

VLF Very Low Frequency

VLINK Visited Link [HTML]

VLIW Very Large Instruction Word

VLM Virtual Loadable Module

VLSI Very Large Scale Integration

VLSIPS Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis

VLT Variable List Table

VM Virtual Machine + Virtual Memory

VMA Virtual Memory Address

VMB Virtual Machine Boot

VME Versa Module Eurocard +

Virtual Memory Environment

VML Vector Markup Language

VMM Virtual Machine/Memory Manager

VMOS Vertical MOS

VMP Virtual Modem Protocol

VMS Virtual Machine Storage + Virtual Memory System +

Voice Message System

VMT Virtual Memory Technique

VNA Virtual Network Architecture

VOC Creative Voice (format) [Sound Blaster]

VOD Video On Demand

VOL Volume

VOM Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter

VOR Visions Of Reality

VOS Verbal/Voice Operating System

VP Virtual Path

VPD Virtual Printer Device + Vital Product Data [IBM]

VPDN Virtual Private Data Network

VPDS Virtual Private Data Service [MCI]

VPE Video Port Extensions [Microsoft] +

Visual Programming Environment

VPL Virtual Programming Language

VPM Video Port Manager

VPN Virtual Page Number + Virtual Private Network

VPS Voice Processing System

VPSC Vault, Process, Structure, Configuration

VPT Virtual Print Technology [Dataproducts]

VR Virtual Reality + Voltage Regulated/Regulator

VRAM Video Random Access Memory

VRD Virtual Retinal Display

VRE Voltage Regulated Extended

VRM Voltage Regulator Module

VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language

(originally named Virtual Reality Markup Language)

VROOMM Virtual Real-time Object Oriented

Memory Manager [Borland]

.VRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)

VRT Voltage Regulation Technology [Intel]

VRU Voice Response Unit

VS Virtual Storage

VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method

VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal

VSE Virtual Storage Extended

VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency

VSI Virtual Socket Interface

VSIO Virtual Serial Input Output

VSM Virtual Shared Memory + Virtual Storage Management +

Visual System Management [IBM]

VSN Volume Serial Number

VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System

VSYNC Vertical Sync

VT Vertical Tab

VTAM Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]

VTNS Virtual Telecommunications Network Service

VTS Volume Tracking Driver

VUI Video User Interface

VUP VAX Unit of Performance

VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System

VWB Visual WorkBench [Microsoft]

VWM Virtual Window Manager

VxD Virtual Extended Driver [Microsoft]

.VXD Virtual Device (file name extension) [Microsoft]

V&V Verification and Validation

W/ With

W3 (see WWW)

W3A World Wide Web Applets

W3C World Wide Web Consortium

W4 What-Works-With-What

WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System

WABI Windows Application Binary Interface [SunSoft]

WAI Web Application Interface [Netscape]

WAIS Wide Area Information Server

WAITI Wait-For-Interrupt

WAITS Wide Area Information Transfer System

WAN Wide Area Network

WATS Wide Area Telecommunications Service

.WAV Waveform Audio (file name extension)

WBEM Web-Based Enterprise Management

WC Word Count

WCS World Coordinate System

WDL Windows Driver Library [Microsoft]

WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing +

Windows Driver Model [Microsoft]

WDRAM Windows Dynamic Random Access Memory

.WEB Entities Emphasizing the WWW (Domain Name) [Internet]

WebNFS Web Network File System [Sun]

WELL Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (BBS)

WFM Wired For Management [Intel]

WFW Windows For Workgroups [Microsoft]

WGS Work Group System

WHAM Waveform Hold and Modify [Microsoft]

WHC Workstation Host Connection

WINE Windows Emulator

WINForum Wireless Information Networks Forum

WINS Windows-Internet Naming Service [Microsoft]

WINSOCK Windows Open Systems Architecture [Microsoft] +

Windows Sockets

WINWORD Word For Windows [Microsoft]

WISE WordPerfect Information System Environment

WIT Web Interactive Talk [Internet]

.WKB Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

.WKE Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]

.WKQ Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]

.WKS Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]

.WKZ Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]

.WK1 Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]

WL Word Line

WMC Workflow Management Coalition

.WMF Windows Metafile Format (file name extension) [Microsoft]

WNIC Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor

WNIM Wide-Area Network Interface Module

W/O Without

WORM Write Once, Read Many

WOS Workstation Operating System

WOSA Windows Open Services/Systems Architecture [Microsoft]

WP WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected

.WPD Windows Printer Description (file name extension)

.WPG WordPerfect Graphics (file name extension)

WPHD Write-Protect Hard Disk

.WPK Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

WPM Words Per Minute

.WPM Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

WPOS Workplace Operating System

WPS Windows Printing System [Microsoft] +

Workplace Shell [OS2]

WPVM Windows Parallel Virtual Machine

.WQ1 Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]

.WQ! Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]

WRAM Windows Random Access Memory

.WRI Write (file name extension)

WRK Windows Resource Kit [Microsoft]

WS WordStar + Workstation

WSAPI Web Site Application Program Interface [O'Reilly]

WSH Windows Scripting Host [Microsoft]

WT Write Through

WTM Wired For Management

WWIS World Wide Information System [Internet]

WWW World-Wide Web [Internet]

WYSBYGI What You See Before You Get It

WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get

XA Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute

XAPIA X.400 Application Program Interface Association

X2B Hexadecimal to Binary [REXX]

.XBM X-Windows Bitmaps (file name extension) (black and white)

.XPM X-Windows Pixelmaps (file name extension) (color)

X2C Hexadecimal to Character [REXX]

XCHG Exchange

XCMD External Command

XCOPY Extended Copy

X2D Hexadecimal to Decimal [REXX]

XDF Extended Density Format [IBM]

XDR Extended/External Data Representation

XFCN External Function

XGA Extended Graphics Array [IBM]

XID Exchange Identifier

XIOS Extended Input/Output System

.XLA Add-In (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]

XLAT Translate

XLF Exceptional Fortran [IBM]

.XLK Backup (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]

XLL Extensible Link Language

XLM Excel Macro Language [Microsoft]

.XLT Template (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]

XMIT Transmit

XML Extensible Markup Language

XMM Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST]

XMS Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST]

XNS Xerox Network System (protocol) [Xerox]

XOFF Transmitter Off

XON Transmitter On

XOR Exclusive OR (Also EOR)

XPRM Xerox Print Resources Manager [Xerox]

XRT Extensions for Real-Time

XSL Extensible Style Language

XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive (interface)

XSSI Extended Server Side Includes

XTAL Crystal

XTCLK External Transmit Clock

YAM Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology]

YAHOO Yet Another Hierarchically Officious Oracle [Internet]

Y2K Year 2000

(Y/N)? (Asks for a YES or NO decision)

YTD Year To Date

.z Packed file (file name extension - using Pack/Unpack

program)..lower case z..[Unix]

.Z Compressed file (file name extension - using

Compress/Uncompress program)..upper case Z..[Unix]

ZAK Zero Administration Kit [Microsoft]

ZAW Zero Administration for Windows [Microsoft]

ZBR Zone-Bit Recording [IBM]

Z-CAV Zoned Constant Angular Velocity

ZDL Zero Delay Lockout

ZDS Zenith Data Systems

ZIF Zero-Insertion Force (socket)

ZIP Zigzag In-Line Package +

Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode)

.ZIP Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare]

.ZOO Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi]

ZPV Zoomed Port Video [Toshiba]

ZSL Zero Slot LAN

@ At + Commercial At

~ Tilde

* Wildcard character (asterisk)

*.* Star-Dot-Star (represents

Any file name.Any file name extension)

.$$$ Temporary File (file name extension)

1GL First General Language (machine language)

286 80286 (microprocessor)

2GL Second Generation Language (assembly language)

386 80386 (microprocessor)

3COM 3 Com Corporation (The 3 Coms are

Computer, Communications and Compatibility)

3GL Third Generation Language (programming language)

486 80486 (microprocessor)

4GL Fourth Generation Language (descriptive language)

6DOF Six Degrees Of Freedom



At the present time there are over 200 recognized Country

Domain names. Two-letter abbreviations that represent the

country names are used in addresses seen on the Internet. The

following names (138 to date) represent the country of origin

from where someone has downloaded BABEL (babel.html). This list

should be useful when checking the origin of your own mail.
.ad Andorra

.ae United Arab Emirates

.ag Antigua and Barbuda

.ai Anguilla

.al Albania

.am Armenia

.ar Argentina

.at Austria

.au Australia

.aw Aruba

.ba Bosnia-Herzegovina

.be Belgium

.bg Bulgaria

.bh Bahrain

.bm Bermuda

.bn Brunei Darussalam

.bo Bolivia

.br Brazil

.bs Bahamas

.bw Botswana

.by Belarus

.bz Belize

.ca Canada

.ch Switzerland

.ci Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

.cl Chile

.cn China

.co Colombia

.cr Costa Rica

.cu Cuba

.cy Cyprus

.cz Czech Republic

.de Germany

.dk Denmark

.dm Dominica

.do Dominican Republic

.ec Ecuador

.ee Estonia

.eg Egypt

.es Spain

.et Ethiopia

.fi Finland

.fj Fiji

.fm Micronesia

.fo Faroe Islands

.fr France

.gb Great Britain

.ge Georgia

.gl Greenland

.gr Greece

.gt Guatemala

.gu Guam

.gy Guyana

.hk Hong Kong

.hn Honduras

.hr Croatia

.hu Hungary

.id Indonesia

.ie Ireland

.il Israel

.in India

.ir Iran

.is Iceland

.it Italy

.jm Jamaica

.jo Jordan

.jp Japan

.ke Kenya

.kg Kyrgyzstan

.kr Korea (South)

.kw Kuwait

.kz Kazakhstan

.lb Lebanon

.lc Saint Lucia

.li Liechtenstein

.lk Sri Lanka

.lt Lithuania

.lu Luxembourg

.lv Latvia

.ma Morocco

.mc Monaco

.md Moldova

.mk Macedonia

.mn Mongolia

.mo Macau

.mt Malta

.mu Mauritius

.mv Maldives

.mx Mexico

.my Malaysia

.na Namibia

.nc New Caledonia (French)

.ng Nigeria

.ni Nicaragua

.nl Netherlands

.no Norway

.np Nepal

.nu Niue

.nz New Zealand

.om Oman

.pa Panama

.pe Peru

.pf Polynesia (French)

.pg Papua New Guinea

.ph Philipines

.pk Pakistan

.pl Poland

.pt Portugal

.py Paraguay

.qa Qatar

.ro Romania

.ru Russian Federation

.sa Saudi Arabia

.se Sweden

.sg Singapore

.si Slovenia

.sk Slovak Republic

.su USSR (former)

.sv El Salvador

.th Thailand

.tn Tunisia

.tr Turkey

.tt Trinidad and Tobago

.tw Taiwan

.ug Uganda

.uk United Kingdom

.us United States

.uy Uruguay

.uz Uzbekistan

.ve Venezuela

.vi Virgin Islands (USA)

.vn Vietnam

.ye Yemen

.yu Yugoslavia

.za South Africa

.zm Zambia

.zw Zimbabwe


In email and news, "smiley faces" (emoticoms), rather than


are used to express the writer's feelings. Turn your head to the

side to read them.
:-) Smile :-D Laughing
:-] Smirk :-( Frown
;-) Wink :-X Close-mouthed

8-) Wide-eyed :-O Open-mouthed

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