English World Series Entertainment and Mass Media Lecturer: Zhang Lei
Foreign Language College, Hunan University
2006. 11. Changsha
Chapter 1 Oscar and Other Film Festivals……………………………3
Chapter 2 Directors and Their Films…………………………………….19
Chapter 3 Grammy and the Hits……………………..………………………39
Chapter 4 Bands Conquer the World………………………………………47
Chapter 5 TV Series Walk into People’s Hearts ………………57
Chapter 6 Anecdotes and Pink News…….……………………………….65
Chapter 7 Interview of Great Stars…………………………………73
Chapter 8 Media Has Greatly Influenced the Society……81
Chapter 9 Show Business……………………………………………….89
Chapter10 Media and Entertainment…………………………….…….97
Oscar and Other Film FestivalsIntroduction:
When we begin to choose what kind of western movies are worth of watching, the first idea popping into our minds should be – those films won some awards. To most of us audiences, the Academy Award winners are always good enough for us to pay attention to, however, how much do we know all the history, or the customs, or the importance, or even the names of those film awards or film festivals?
In this chapter, we are going to learn something about Oscar and some other film festivals.
What kind of film festivals you’ve ever heard? Can you name the host city or country of the festivals?
What kind of impression you have on those film festivals? Why?
Section One Oscar
Part One History of OSCAR
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization comprised of over 6,000 motion picture artists and craftsmen. Though most famous for its yearly awards, the Academy's general goal is the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. Within that, the Academy fosters cultural, educational and technological cooperation among its members; it provides a forum for various branches of the industry; it represents the viewpoint of its members; and it encourages educational activities between the professional community and the public.
What it does not do is promote economic, labor, or political matters. Organized in May 1927 as a nonprofit corporation, its original 36 members included both production executives and film luminaries. Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. was the first president. Others have included Frank Capra, Bette Davis, Jean Hersholt, George Stevens, Robert E. Wise, Karl Malden, Arthur Hiller and Robert Rehme. Current president Frank Pierson took office in August 2001.
From its founding until 1946, when it moved into a building in Hollywood, the Academy occupied a number of rented offices. In December of 1975, the Academy dedicated its seven-story headquarters at 8949 Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills and for the first time in its history, the Players Directory, the Margaret Herrick Library, the Samuel Goldwyn Theater and the administrative offices were all under one roof.
The rapid growth of the holdings of both the Margaret Herrick Library and the Film Archive eventually made a separate facility necessary. In 1988, a 55-year lease was arranged with the City of Beverly Hills for the conversion of its historic Waterworks building in La Cienega Park into the new home of the Academy's film research facilities, now known as the Center for Motion Picture Study.
Membership in the Academy is by invitation of the Board of Governors and is limited to those who have achieved distinction in the arts and sciences of motion pictures. Some of the criteria for admittance are: film credits that reflect the high standards of the Academy, receipt of an Academy Award nomination, achievement of unique distinction, earning of special merit, or making an outstanding contribution to film.
Members represent 14 branches — Actors, Art Directors, Cinematographers, Directors, Documentary, Executives, Film Editors, Music, Producers, Public Relations, Short Films and Feature Animation, Sound, Visual Effects, and Writers.
Candidates for membership in the Academy must first receive the endorsement of the appropriate branch executive committee before their name is submitted to the Board of Governors for approval. The Board of Governors also may invite to membership members-at-large and associate members.
Members-at-large are those engaged in theatrical film production, but for whose craft there is no separate branch. They have all the privileges of branch membership except for representation on the Board. Associate members are those closely allied to the industry but not actively engaged in motion picture production. They are not represented on the Board and do not vote on Academy Awards. Life members are designated by unanimous vote of the Board of Governors and have full privileges of membership, but pay no dues.
The Board of Governors
Corporate management, control and general policies are administered by the Board of Governors. This group consists of three representatives from each of the 14 Academy craft branches. Governors are elected for three-year terms, with one representative from each branch being elected annually. This method assures a certain continuity from year to year.
Officers are elected from the Board for one-year terms. They include a president, first vice president, two vice presidents, treasurer and secretary. No member of the Board of Governors may serve more than three consecutive three-year terms and no officer may serve more than four consecutive one-year terms in the same office.
Administrative activities of the Academy are conducted under the supervision of an executive director who is appointed by the Board of Governors. Bruce Davis, Executive Director since 1989, and his staff of 153 conduct the day-to-day business of the Academy.
The operating revenues of the Academy are obtained from membership dues, rental of its theater to film companies for previews and other screenings, publication of the Players Directory, the sale of rights to televise the annual Academy Awards Presentation, and from other special programs.
When the first Academy Awards were handed out on May 16, 1929, movies had just begun to talk. That first ceremony took place during a banquet held in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. The attendance was 250 and tickets cost $10.
Unlike today's ceremony, suspense was in short supply. Back then, the winners were known prior to the banquet. Results were given in advance to the newspapers for publication at 11 p.m. on the night of the Awards. In 1940, guests arriving for the affair could actually buy the 8:45 p.m. edition of the Los Angeles Times and read the winners. As a result, the sealed-envelope system was adopted the next year and remains in use today.
Interest in the Academy Awards has always run high, though not at today's fever pitch. While the first presentation escaped the media, an enthusiastic Los Angeles radio station covered the second banquet during a live one-hour broadcast. Every presentation since then has had broadcast coverage.
The first 15 Award presentations were banquet affairs held first in the Blossom Room, then at the Ambassador and Biltmore hotels. After 1942, increased attendance and World War II made banquets impractical, and the Awards moved to theaters, where they've been held since.
The 16th Awards ceremony was held at Grauman's Chinese Theater and was covered by network radio for the first time and broadcast overseas to American GI's. After three years at Grauman's, the Awards moved to the Los Angeles Shrine Auditorium.
In March 1949, the 21st Awards were held in the Academy's own Melrose Avenue theater. For the next 11 years the Awards were held at the RKO Pantages Theater in Hollywood. It was there, on March 19, 1953, that the presentation was first televised. The NBC-TV and radio network carried the 25th Academy Awards ceremonies live from Hollywood with Bob Hope emceeing and from the NBC International Theater in New York with Fredric March making the presentations. In 1961, the Awards moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium and for the next 10 years the ABC-TV and radio network handled the broadcasting duties.
The Oscars were first broadcast in color in 1966. From 1971 through 1975 NBC carried the Awards. ABC has televised the show since 1976 and is under contract through 2008.
On April 14, 1969, the 41st Academy Awards ceremonies moved to the brand new Dorothy Chandler Pavilion of the Music Center of Los Angeles County. It was the first major event for this world-renowned cultural center.
The Awards remained at the Music Center until 1987, when they returned to the Shrine Auditorium for the 60th and 61st Awards. Subsequently the Awards moved back and forth between the Shrine and the Music Center. The Shrine Auditorium, with seating for 6,000, was used mainly to accommodate as many Academy members as possible; the Music Center seats only about 2,500. The Awards returned to Hollywood for the 2001 (74th) Awards Presentation at the state-of-the-art 3,300-seat Kodak Theatre.
In the first year, Janet Gaynor was the lone woman among 15 Award winners. In the second year, only seven awards were given — two for acting and one each for Best Picture, Directing, Writing, Cinematography and Art Direction. Since then, the Awards have grown slowly and steadily in both the size of its audience and the fields of achievement covered.
The need for special awards beyond standard categories was recognized from the start. Two were awarded for the 1927/28 year: one went to Warner Bros. for producing the pioneer talking picture, THE JAZZ SINGER, and the other went to Charlie Chaplin for producing, directing, writing and starring in THE CIRCUS.
In 1934, three new categories were added: Film Editing, Music Scoring and Best Song. That year also brought a write-in campaign to nominate Bette Davis for her performance in OF HUMAN BONDAGE. The Academy now forbids write-ins on the final ballot. Price Waterhouse (now known as PricewaterhouseCoopers) signed with the Academy that year and has been employed ever since to tabulate and ensure the secrecy of the results.
In 1936, the first Supporting Actor and Actress Oscars were given to Walter Brennan for COME AND GET IT and Gale Sondergaard for ANTHONY ADVERSE, respectively. The following year saw the first presentation of the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, which went to Darryl F. Zanuck. The Special Effects category was added in 1939 and was first won by THE RAINS CAME.
In 1941, the documentary film category appeared on the ballot for the first time. The Academy brought foreign countries into the field of Oscar recognition in 1947, with a Special Award going to the Italian film, SHOE-SHINE. The following year the Academy placed Costume Design on the ballot. The Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award was established in 1956 and presented to Y. Frank Freeman. In 1963, the special effects award was split into two: Sound Effects and Special Visual Effects. Makeup was added in 1981, along with the Gordon E. Sawyer Award for technological contributions. In 2001, the first Animated Feature Oscar was awarded.
The scheduled Awards ceremony has been interrupted three times. The first was in 1938 when floods all but washed out Los Angeles and delayed the ceremonies one week. The Awards ceremony was postponed two days in 1968 out of respect for Dr. Martin Luther King, whose funeral was held on April 8, the day set for the Awards. And the Awards were postponed for 24 hours in 1981 due to the assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan.
Attendance at the Annual Academy Awards is by invitation only. No tickets are put on public sale.
Part Two OSCAR Statuette
It's been called "the Academy statuette," "the golden trophy" and "the statue of merit." The entertainment trade paper, Weekly Variety, even attempted to popularize "the iron man." Thankfully, the term never stuck. Born in 1928, the Academy Award of Merit — which we know as simply "the Oscar" — depicts a knight holding a crusader's sword, standing on a reel of film with five spokes, signifying the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers and Technicians.
Weighing 8.5 pounds and standing 13.5 inches tall, the statuette was designed by MGM's chief art director Cedric Gibbons. Frederic Hope, Gibbons' assistant, created the original Belgian black marble base; artist George Stanley sculpted the design; and the California Bronze Foundry hand cast the first statuette in bronze plated with 24-karat gold.
The Origin of the Oscar Name
A popular but unsubstantiated story has been that the moniker caught on after Academy librarian and eventual executive director Margaret Herrick said that the statuette resembled her Uncle Oscar. Its first documented mention came after the sixth Awards Presentation in 1934 when Hollywood columnist Sidney Skolsky used it in reference to Katharine Hepburn's first Best Actress win. The Academy itself didn't use the nickname officially until 1939.
Oscar has changed his look on occasion. In the 1930s, juvenile players received miniature replicas of the statuette; ventriloquist Edgar Bergen was presented with a wooden statuette with a moveable mouth; and Walt Disney was honored with one full-size and seven miniature statuettes on behalf of his animated feature SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS. In support of the World War II effort between 1942 and 1944, Oscars were made of plaster, to be traded in for golden statuettes after the war. Additionally, the base was raised and changed from marble to metal in 1945. And in 1949, Academy Award statuettes began to be numbered, starting with No. 501.
Manufacturing, Shipping and Repairs
Approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago by the manufacturer, R.S. Owens. If they don't meet strict quality control standards, the statuettes are immediately cut in half and melted down.
Each award is individually packed into a Styrofoam container slightly larger than a shoebox. Eight of these are then packed into a larger cardboard box, and the large boxes are shipped to the Academy offices in Beverly Hills via air express, with no identifiable markings.
On March 10, 2000, 55 Academy Awards mysteriously vanished en route from the Windy City to the City of Angels. Nine days later, 52 of the stolen statuettes were discovered next to a Dumpster in the Koreatown section of Los Angeles.
For eight decades, Oscar has survived war, weathered earthquakes, and even managed to escape unscathed from common thieves. Since 1995, however, R.S. Owens has repaired more than 160 statuettes. "Maybe somebody used chemicals on them to polish them and the chemicals rubbed right through the lacquer and into the gold," says Owens president Scott Siegel, "or maybe people stored them someplace where they corroded." Although he stresses that the statuette is made to endure, Siegel offers this sage advice to all Oscar winners: "If it gets dusty, simply wipe it with a soft dry cloth."
Oscar's height: 13 1/2 inches
Oscar's weight: 8 1/2 pounds
Number of Oscars presented at Academy Awards shows or to winners absent from show to date: 2,455
Number of competitive categories in 1927: 12
Number of competitive categories in 2002: 24
How many people it takes to make a statuette: 12
How long it takes to make a statuette: 20 hours
Number of Oscars manufactured each year: 50-60
How many Oscars have been refused: 3
Number of decorative prop Oscar statues: 65
Smallest decorative prop Oscar statue: 1-?feet
Tallest decorative prop Oscar statue: 24 feet
Part Three Let’s get more about Oscar:
Q. Which person has more Oscar nominations than any one else in Academy history?
Walt Disney holds that record with 64 Academy Award nominations. John Williams' 42 nominations make him the most nominated living person.
Q. Who has the most acting nominations? Who has the most wins?
Meryl Streep has 13 nominations. Katharine Hepburn holds the distinction of the most wins with four Leading Actress Oscars.
Q. Who has won the most Academy Awards in total?
Walt Disney is the all-time winner with 26 Academy Awards to his name, including three Special Awards and the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.
Q. Is there anybody who has won an Oscar every time he or she has been nominated?
Dozens of people have that honor, but four-time Academy Award winner Mark Berger holds the record for the most. Berger won his Oscar statuettes in the Sound category for APOCALYPSE NOW (1979), THE RIGHT STUFF (1983), AMADEUS (1984) and THE ENGLISH PATIENT (1996).
Q. Has a woman ever been nominated for a directing Oscar?
Two women have been nominated for achievement in Directing: Jane Campion in 1993 for THE PIANO and Lina Wertmüller in 1976 for SEVEN BEAUTIES.
Q. How many times did Alfred Hitchcock get nominated? Did he ever win?
Hitchcock was nominated in the Directing category five times: for REBECCA (1940), LIFEBOAT (1944), SPELLBOUND (1945), REAR WINDOW (1954) and PSYCHO (1960). He did not win a Directing Oscar but was presented with an Irving G. Thalberg Award in 1967.
Q. Where have the Academy Awards presentations been held over the years?
The Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel (1st presentation), the Cocoanut Grove of the Ambassador Hotel (2nd, 12th, 15th), the Fiesta Room of the Ambassador Hotel (3rd, 5th, 6th), the Sala D'Oro of the Biltmore Hotel (4th), the Biltmore Bowl of the Biltmore Hotel (7th through 11th, 13th, 14th), Grauman's Chinese Theatre (16th, 17th, 18th), the Shrine Civic Auditorium (19th, 20th, 60th, 61st, 63rd, 67th, 69th, 70th, 72nd, 73rd), the Academy Award Theater (at the Academy's former Melrose Avenue headquarters) (21st), the RKO Pantages Theatre (22nd through 32nd), the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium (33rd through 40th) and the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion (41st through 59th, 62nd, 64th through 66th, 68th, 71st). Bicoastal presentations were staged for the 25th through 29th ceremonies, and the East Coast components were held at the NBC International Theater, NYC (25th), the NBC Center Theatre, NYC (26th) and the NBC Century Theatre, NYC (27th through 29th). The Kodak Theatre played host to the 74th Academy Awards, and will do so again for the upcoming ceremony.
Q. Why are Academy Awards called Oscar?
How the statuette got the nickname Oscar isn't clear. A popular story has been that Academy librarian and eventual executive director Margaret Herrick said that it resembled her Uncle Oscar. A reporter allegedly overheard her and helped brand the golden guy. In any case, by the sixth Awards Presentation in 1934, Hollywood columnist Sidney Skolsky used the name in his column in reference to Katharine Hepburn's first Best Actress win. The Academy itself didn't use the nickname officially until 1939.
Q. What material was the Oscar statuette made of during World War II?
In support of the war effort, the Academy handed out plaster Oscar statuettes during WWII. After the war, winners exchanged the plaster awards for golden statuettes.
Q. Which country has the most Foreign Language Film nominations? Which has themost wins?
France holds the record for nominations by having a film nominated in the Foreign Language Film category 32 times. Italy holds the record with 10 wins in the category.
Q. For how many Academy Awards was CITIZEN KANE nominated?
A. CITIZEN KANE was nominated for Academy Awards in nine categories: Leading Actor (Orson Welles), Art Direction (Black-and-White) (art direction Perry Ferguson, Van Nest Polglase; interior decoration Al Fields, Darrell Silvera), Cinematography (Black-and-White) (Gregg Toland), Directing (Orson Welles), Film Editing (Robert Wise), Music (Music Score of a Dramatic Picture) (Bernard Herrmann), Best Picture (Mercury) and Sound Recording (RKO Radio Studio Sound Department, John Aalberg, Sound Director). It won the Oscar for Writing (Original Screenplay) (Herman J. Mankiewicz, Orson Welles).
Q. Who makes up the Academy membership?
Membership in the Academy is limited to those who have achieved the highest level of distinction in the arts and sciences of motion pictures. Members currently represent 14 branches — Actors, Art Directors, Cinematographers, Directors, Documentary, Executives, Film Editors, Music, Producers, Public Relations, Short Films and Feature Animation, Sound, Visual Effects, and Writers. At this time, there are over 5,700 voting members of the Academy.
Q. Has any actress ever been nominated in both the Leading Actress and Supporting Actress categories in the same year?
Several actresses have this distinction. In 1938, Fay Bainter was nominated for Leading Actress for WHITE BANNERS and won the Supporting Actress Oscar for JEZEBEL. In 1942, Teresa Wright was nominated for her leading performance in THE PRIDE OF THE YANKEES and won the Supporting Actress Oscar for MRS. MINIVER. In 1982, Jessica Lange was nominated in the Leading Actress category for FRANCES and won the Supporting Actress award for TOOTSIE. In 1988, Sigourney Weaver was nominated for a Leading Actress Oscar in GORILLAS IN THE MIST and for her supporting role in WORKING GIRL. 1993 saw two sets of double nominees. Holly Hunter won the Leading Actress Academy Award for THE PIANO and was nominated in the Supporting category for THE FIRM, while Emma Thompson was nominated in the Leading Actress category for THE REMAINS OF THE DAY and in the Supporting category for IN THE NAME OF THE FATHER.
Q. How does a film or performance get nominated for an Academy Award?
Awards are presented for outstanding individual or collective efforts of the year in up to 25 categories. Up to five nominations are made in most categories, with balloting for these nominations restricted to members of the Academy branch concerned. Directors, for instance, are the only nominators for Achievement in Directing. Nominations for awards in the Foreign Language and Short Film categories are made by large committees of members drawn from all branches. Documentary nominees are selected by the Documentary Branch Screening Committee made up of active and life members of the Documentary Branch who serve on a voluntary basis. Best Picture nominations and final winners in most categories are determined by vote of the entire voting membership of over 5,700 individual filmmakers.
Q. Who was the youngest person ever to receive an Oscar statuette? And who was the youngest person ever to win in a competitive category? Shirley Temple was the youngest recipient when she was presented a juvenile Academy Award at age 6 years, 310 days. The youngest winner of a competitive Academy Award was Tatum O'Neal, who at age 10 years, 148 days won a Supporting Actress Oscar for her work in PAPER MOON.
Q. What movies have won Academy Awards in all of the following categories: Best Picture, Directing, Actor, Actress and Writing?
In the Academy's 74-year history, only three films have swept those five awards: in 1934, IT HAPPENED ONE NIGHT; in 1975, ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST; and in 1991, THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS.
Q. Has anyone ever won an Oscar on a write-in basis?
In 1934 and 1935 the Academy allowed write-in votes. Cinematographer Hal Mohr is the only person to have won an Academy Award as a write-in candidate. His work on A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM earned him the 1935 Academy Award for Cinematography. Write-in votes were not allowed after 1935.
(All abstract from http://www.oscar.com/legacy/)
Please summarize Oscar.
Try to work in groups and role-play an interview about Oscar.