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Contents

Contents 1

Introduction 1


Choosing methods and techniques 1

1. Beneficiary Surveys for Business Support Services 3


Description of the technique 3

Circumstances in which it is applied 3

The main steps involved 4

Strengths and limitations of the technique 10

United Kingdom: UKTI - PIMS – A Case Study 11

2. Case studies 15


Description of the technique 15

The purpose of the technique 15

Circumstances in which it is applied 16

The main steps involved 17

Strengths and limitations of the technique 18

Bibliography 18

3. Cost benefit analysis 19


Description of the technique 19

The purpose of the technique 19

Circumstances in which it is applied 19

The main steps involved 20

Strengths and limitations of the technique 24


Bibliography 24

Glossary 25

4. Cost effectiveness analysis 29


Description of the technique 29

The purpose of the technique 29

Circumstances in which it is applied 30

The main steps involved 31

Strengths and limitations of the technique 33

Bibliography 34

5. Delphi survey 35


Description of the technique 35

The purpose of the technique 35

Circumstances in which it is applied 35

The main steps involved 36

Strengths and limitations of the technique 37

Bibliography 37

6. Expert panels 39


Description of the technique 39

The purpose of the technique 39

Circumstances in which it is applied 39

The main steps involved 40

Strengths and limitations of the technique 41

Bibliography 42

7. Focus groups 43

Description of the technique 43


The purpose of the technique 43

Circumstances in which it is applied 44

Strengths and limitations of the technique 46

Bibliography 46

8. Impact evaluation 47


Introduction to Impact evaluation 47

Selected references 50

Theory-based Impact evaluation 51

Counterfactual Impact Evaluation 77

9. Interviews 121


Description of the technique 121

The purpose of the technique 121

Circumstances in which it is applied 122

The main steps involved 123

Strengths and limitations of the technique 124

Bibliography 125

10. Models 127

11. Multi-criteria analysis 129


Description of the technique 129

The purpose of the technique 129

Circumstances in which it is applied 130

The main steps involved 130

Strengths and limitations of the technique 135

Bibliography 136

12. Observation techniques 137


Description of the technique 137

The purpose of the technique 137

Circumstances in which it is applied 138

The main steps involved 139

Strengths and limitations of the technique 139

Bibliography 140

13. Priority evaluation method 141


Description of the technique 141

The purpose of the technique 141

Circumstances in which it is applied 141

The main steps involved 142

Strengths and limitations of the technique 142

Bibliography 143

14. Regression Analysis 145


R&D Expenditure and Firm Size 145

The Impact of R&D Subsidies on R&D Expenditure 147

Regression 148

Strengths and limitations of the technique 154

Concluding Remarks 157

Bibliography 158

15. SWOT Analysis 161

Description of the technique 161


The purpose of the technique 161

Circumstances in which it is applied 161

Strengths and limitations of the technique 163

Bibliography 164



Introduction


This Sourcebook describes a wide range of methods and techniques that are applied in the evaluation of socio-economic development.  The methods and techniques are listed alphabetically, with two large sections on impact evaluation – theory based and counterfactual which discuss a number of approaches within the sections. Users are advised to search for material they want rather than reading through the sourcebook from the beginning to the end. 

Choosing methods and techniques


The choice of methods and techniques stems from the evaluation design or mode of enquiry. Methods and techniques are selected if they are appropriate for answering the evaluation questions.

As elaborated in the GUIDE the choice of methods and techniques depends on:



Additionally, the appropriateness of the methods and techniques depends on the scope of the evaluation - which could range from an overall evaluation of a multi-sectoral programme, to an in-depth study of a particular evaluation question.

The elaborations of the techniques provide users with some ideas on how they can be applied and the main steps involved. It should be stressed, however, that some of the techniques are themselves longstanding and build upon a wealth of experience and literature that is not fully reviewed here. The main purpose of the presentations is to show how the techniques can contribute to the evaluation of socio economic development. Users are encouraged to refer to the references given prior to using the techniques for the first time. The information given here should however be sufficient to enable those reading the findings of evaluation where the techniques have been applied to.



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