Cornerstone Christian Academy Parent/Student Writing Handbook Table of Contents Grades 9-12



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High School

Writing

Handbook


Grades 9-12

4th Edition

Cornerstone Christian Academy

Parent/Student Writing Handbook Table of Contents

Grades 9-12
I. Cornerstone Christian Academy Writing

A. Writing Curriculum Overview (Page 3)

B. Portfolio Explanation (Page 4)

C. Portfolio Collection Grades 9-12/MLA Format (Page 5)


II. Writing Process – step-by-step process that is utilized every time a paper is written (Page 8)
III. Student Support- different strategies to be utilized while writing all papers

Areas covered include:

A. Paper Types

1. Description of Paper Types (Page 10)

2. Essay Outlines and blank Outlines for Students to fill in (Page 12)

B. Focus Control Areas/IEW by Grade Level (Page 25)

1. Dress-ups

2. Sentence Openers

3. Banned Words

4. Strong Verbs

5. Quality Adjectives

6. –ly Adverbs

7. Decorations

8. Triple Extensions

IV. Editing and Evaluation

A. Rubric (Page 42)

B. Revisions Checklist

C. Proofreading Marks

V. Exemplars – examples of student work (Page 44)


  1. Narrative

  2. Opinion Paper

    1. Literature Critique


    2. Agree/Disagree

    3. Persuasive

  3. Biblical Analysis

  4. Informative Research

**Research Paper – Because this is such a specialized type of writing, instructions will be provided in class

Writing Curriculum Overview

The purpose of this curriculum is to align our teaching standards, expectations, and assessments of writing from K-12th. This type of alignment is instrumental in creating solid, well-rounded, complete writers. Following an organized and consistent method for teaching writing has three main purposes. The first is to create a unified approach to writing, so all grade levels are working toward the same goals/outcomes. No more guessing if previous grade levels have done a persuasive paper, it’s clear that it is introduced in 4th, while further, more challenging dimensions are added subsequently in middle school and high school. It is not necessary to introduce or teach each paper type every year. This overview not only simplifies teaching practices but also provides direction. The second purpose of unifying the approach to writing in grades K-12 is to eliminate student frustration. Anytime curriculum is viewed in isolation from year to year, students suffer most. Utilizing common story maps/outlines, writing guidelines, and rubrics in each grade level greatly simplifies the writing process. Students don’t have to learn new practices each year. Instead, they may simply progress from grade to grade, building upon what was previously taught. The third reason for unifying our approach to writing is to have a record of student progression over the years. This issue will be discussed further in the portfolio and rubric sections.

Portfolio Explanation

The following page is a graphic organizer specifying the writing expectations at Cornerstone Christian Academy for grades 9-12. These outcomes represent what papers are placed into each student’s portfolio at all grade levels. It, by no means, limits teachers from having other writing assignments throughout the year. In fact, this is encouraged in the form of journal and reflective writing, which is far less formal. The more students write, the more comfortable and experienced they become with the task. Collecting the same samples from all students provides consistency in measuring student growth and progress.

Each student has an individual portfolio, which is used to accumulate samples throughout the each students’ education. Ideally, portfolios are meant to accomplish a few different things: monitor and track individual student progress, clearly communicate that growth to students, parents, teachers and administrators, and serve as a means with which to evaluate the overall curriculum design and implementation. In other words, viewing various grade level samples of student work show how well students are mastering and applying various writing or grammatical technique. For example, the best way to judge how well figurative language is being taught is to examine its representation and usage in student papers.

English teachers keep all student portfolios for the year. The paper and the rubric used for assessment are entered in the portfolio. Once the year is complete, the portfolios follow the students to the next grade level. Portfolios are used to communicate progress to parents.

Cornerstone Christian Academy

Portfolio Writing Samples

Grades 9-12

2012-2013

Paper Types and Number of Samples per Year

Collected for the Writing Portfolio



Grade

Opinion-

(All English Papers)




Informative

(based upon Unit Essential Questions)



Narrative

Biblical

Analysis


Research

(using and citing primary/secondary sources)



Informal

Writing


Samples

9th

2

Literature Critiques

1 Persuasive

1 Agree/Disagree



2 Science

2 History

( 1 per semester)


1

English


1

English





2-3 per

semester


(all classes)

10th

2

Literature Critiques

1 Persuasive (English)

1 Agree/Disagree



2 Science

2 History

(1 per semester)


1

English


1

English




2-3 per

semester


(all classes)

11th

1

Literature Critiques

1 Persuasive

(English)

1 Agree/Disagree

2 Science

2 History

(1 per semester)


1

English


1

English

1 traditional research paper – English (in collaboration w/ History) (5-8 pp)


2-3 per

semester


(all classes)

12th

1

Literature Critiques

1 Persuasive

1 Agree/Disagree



2 Science

2 History

(1 per semester)


1

English


1

English


1 traditional research paper – English (5-8 pp)

2-3 per

semester


(all classes)
All papers, unless otherwise specified, should be 2-4 pages, double-spaced, 12-point, Times New Roman font. All papers should follow MLA formatting, which is specified on the following two pages. They should be typed and submitted to the portfolio with a rubric attached. Please see Definition of Paper Types, Writing Process, and Story Maps (in Writing Curriculum Handbook) and Cornerstone Christian Academy Literacy Standards (by grade level) for clarification of guidelines on each paper type.

Header: include student’s last name and the page # of the essay (insert)



Heading: double spaced; follow order and date format exactly

S up arrow 3tudent’s Name

Ileft arrow 2nstructor’s Name

Course Title

16 July 2013




Title: centered; no bold, underline, or italics unless the title of a book is included
E left arrow 5 right arrow 6ssay Title


Paragraph:

1 tab for the first line of each new paragraph


Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, ligula suspendisse nulla pretium, rhoncus tempor placerat fermentum, enim integer ad vestibulum volutpat. Nisl rhoncus turpis est, vel elit, congue wisi enim nunc ultricies sit, magna tincidunt. Maecenas aliquam maecenas ligula nostra, accumsan taciti. Sociis mauris in integer, a dolor netus non dui aliquet, sagittis felis sodales, dolor sociis mauris, vel eu libero cras. Interdum at. Eget habitasse.


Block quote: used when quotes are longer than 4 lines, typed; begin on a new line, are double spaced, indented 1” from margin

E left arrow 8lementum est, ipsum purus pede porttitor class, ut adipiscing, aliquet sed auctor, imperdiet arcu per diam dapibus libero duis. Enim eros in vel, volutpat nec pellentesque leo, temporibus scelerisque nec.

Aright arrow 7c dolor ac adipiscing amet bibendum nullam, massa lacus molestie ut libero nec, diam et, pharetra sodales eget, feugiat ullamcorper id tempor eget id vitae. Mauris pretium eget aliquet, lectus tincidunt. Porttitor mollis imperdiet libero senectus pulvinar. Etiam molestie mauris ligula eget laoreet, vehicula eleifend. Repellat orci eget erat et, sem cum, ultricies

sollicitudin amet eleifend dolor nullam erat, malesuada est leo ac.



Do not add extra spacing between paragraphs




MLA requires double spacing throughout the document. CCA also requires Times New Roman 12 point font.
Consectetuer arcu ipsum ornare pellentesque vehicula, in vehicula diam, ornare magna erat felis wisi a risus. Justo fermentum id.

Wright arrow 13orks Cited




MLA now requires all sources to have a publication marker; books receive the marker “Print”
left arrow 9Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Book Title is Italicized not Underlined. City Name: Publisher, Date. Print.

Bartusiak, Mauris. Pellentesque . Cras porttitor felis eu semper sodales: Risus Curabiyur Fringilla Venenatis, 1993

Caoreet Venenatis, Egestas A. Mari. Sociosqu netus semper: A Faucibus Luctus Auctor Condimentum, 1993. 115.

Destibulum, Ipsum R. “Morbi Auctor: A Sodales.” Interdum. Quisque. 2000: 46




Works Cited: begins on a new page, center the title “Works Cited” without underlining, bold, or italics




MLA no longer requires URLs in the Works Cited; use the publication marker “Web” before the date of access
“Historical Census Browser.” University of Virginia Library. 2007. Web. 6 Dec. 2008.

up arrow 11

Writing Process


This is the model to structure formal paper-writing. The teacher will guide students through this process. Students should only be on their own with this process when they are very familiar with the particular paper type.
Writing Process:

  1. “Power write’ - Start with an informal ‘power write’. Give students a broad topic that all are familiar with, like winter. Set a timer for 2-3 minutes. Students are to use this time to write down as many words that ‘pop’ into their mind. It’s a good idea to review the different parts of speech briefly before doing this, like adjectives, adverbs, nouns, verbs, etc. For older grades, you may even remind them of the most recent figurative language you’ve discussed, like similes, for example. This is free-writing time. Some students jot down series of words, while some choose to start forming sentences or mini stories. Anything is acceptable. The purpose is to start the free flow of ideas. This can also be a journal writing activity. A brief journal entry or question about a previous day’s lesson are also good ideas for ‘Power Write’.
  2. Introduce IEW Strategy – See the IEW writing techniques to see what is expected at each grade level. These are the same strategies that teachers are looking for while assessing papers. All of the techniques/strategies are taught and reviewed according to the chart. Reviewing these writing skills ensures that students know how they are assessed with each paper.


  3. Complete the Outline – Good writing starts with an organized outline. Depending on how familiar students are with the particular type of writing, this may be teacher-led, partner work, or done individually. No matter what stage a writer is at, the teacher refreshes students on outlines and how to complete them. Please see the explanation on the purpose of outlines/story maps and how to use them.

  4. Write the first draft - Students are ready to create a first draft using the story map/outline. Students are reminded that each Roman Numeral on the outline represents one paragraph. Similarly, each box on a story map represents one paragraph. Students generate papers using a computer. Remind students again of IEW strategies. Students should use the rubric to guide in the paper-writing process.

  5. Edit - Once the first draft is complete, it is time to edit. Students need to be sure that they have incorporated the proper IEW techniques. Students can print out a hard copy and self-edit or edit with parent. Both are recommended.

  6. Final paper - Once the paper has been edited, print out the final draft for submission.

Description of Paper Types

Cornerstone Christian Academy


Cornerstone Christian Academy strives to maintain a comprehensive approach to writing, beginning at Kindergarten. Our standards are aligned with the Common Core State Standards. The following is a brief description of the basic paper types that are taught at Cornerstone. Writing procedures are consistent from elementary to secondary. The only difference includes the complexity of the topic and the expanded development of said topic. We believe that this consistency produces confident and capable writers.

Narrative- tells a story. Students must have the elements of plot present- characters, setting, rising action, crisis, climax, falling action, and resolution. All grade levels will do various versions of this paper type with the lower grades starting with simplified versions. The paper continues to get more complex in high school.

Opinion – Agree/Disagree - A critical aspect in the reading/thinking/writing process, is to be able to investigate/read about a topic or author’s viewpoint, critically analyze the ideas being expressed, form your own thoughts in relation to the new information learned, and then be able articulate your opinion on the topic. Opinion papers are such an important part of the CCA writing process, because everything we study must be examined from the Christian Worldview. In this society, we are bombarded with so many conflicting viewpoints (from that of the Bible). It is an invaluable tool to train children to be critical thinkers in examining all information that they take in.

Opinion - Persuasive- persuades a specified audience on a given topic. A good example would be: “ You are a fourth grade student; write a letter persuading your principal to let your class have an extra 10 minutes of recess a day.” Students are taught to create three great arguments that would win the audience over to their side. In this case, the students would be trying to win over the principal. Understanding the audience is a pivotal part of this writing, as proper arguments need to be tailored to ‘win’ that side over to the writer’s line of reasoning.
Opinion – Literature Critique- used to analyze a literary piece. Areas examined are characters, setting, theme, climax, conflict, and mood. Students will voice their own opinion in the conclusion of this paper, stating (without using the word ‘I’) whether they enjoyed the story or not.

Informative- conveys complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. Informative essays fully explain why something is as it is or how something comes about. It makes a point about a subject, problem, issue, or question. It generally requires some research on a topic in order to develop a refined understanding before analysis. Attention to support details is crucial.

Biblical Analysis- take one book of the book of the Bible and fully analyze it’s meaning, context, themes, and implications for current understanding. Students writing this paper will have an opportunity to explain what this book means to their lives.
Informative Research- focus on refining research skills, organizing information in a logical format, and utilizing proper citations. In the lower grades, this type of paper is done as a whole class, small group, or in partners. Research topics and depth of analysis are also greatly simplified. Traditional Research Papers with footnoting and quotes are reserved for upper high school.

Paper Outlines

One of the keys to a consistent approach to writing is using the same method in each grade level to create a paper, no matter what type of writing it is. Many students, as well as adults, do not like to write. One main reason for this is the lack of consistent guidelines and expectations. Not to mention, students do not know where to begin, which is where story outlines come in. Using outlines provide great structure and organization. They also help students understand how to create a paragraph – where does it start, when does it end? This is a very ambiguous aspect of writing that even stumps adults. Students are taught that each section of the outline represents one paragraph. When done discussing the items in section, the paragraph is complete.

Copies can be generated of these story outlines as students are new to these paper types. After that, they are simple to construct, and students should think of them as being able to recreate on a ‘scratch’ piece of paper at anytime. An example when this would come in handy is while taking any standardized test where writing is assessed. An outline will not be available for them, but a student will realize he or she could simply create one. No ready-made form is needed. Until students are really confident with a paper type, they may be prompted on what information goes in each area.

Narrative Outline

6th-12th Grade

Story Title

I. Setting & Characters

1. When and where does the story take place?

2. Describe the setting & communicate the mood (bright, dark, mysterious, humorous, solemn, suspenseful, scary, peaceful, chaotic...)

3. Describe the characters (include their thoughts and emotions)


II. Rising Action

1. This is where the main conflict begins

2. What are characters doing, saying, feeling?

3. What events happened before the main conflict?


III. Conflict – highest point of action in plot

1. What is the problem, want, or need?

2. What happens?

3. What do the characters do, say, think and feel?


IV. Falling Action and Resolution

1. What leads to the problem being solved or the need being met?

2. What is the end result?

V. Conclusion and Theme

1. Theme/Moral: What was learned?

2. Be sure to answer all unanswered questions.

3. Final Clincher: repeat 2–3 key words in your title




Narrative Outline

6th-12th Grade (Student Copy)

Story Title

I. Setting & Characters

1.
2.


3.
II. Rising Action

1.
2.


3.

III. Conflict – highest point of action in plot

1.

2.


3.
IV. Falling Action and Resolution

1.
2.



V. Conclusion and Theme

1.
2.


3.

Informative/Research

6th-12th Grade

Five Paragraphs



Title of Essay

I. Introduction

Grab Attention

Introduce subject & background information

State three topics



II. Topic Sentence A

Find 5 items about subject, including details, example, facts, explanation of topic

1.

2.

3.



4.

5.

Good closing sentence, summing up topic of essay



III. Topic Sentence B

Find 5 items about subject, including details, example, facts, explanation of topic

1.

2.

3.



4.

5.

Good closing sentence, summing up topic of essay



IV. Topic Sentence C

Find 5 items about subject, including details, example, facts, explanation of topic

1.

2.

3.



4.

5.

Good closing sentence, summing up topic of essay




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