Correspondence of Rizal to his Family 1876

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Without letters or news -- Application for liberty borne by his brother-in-law -- Tatay (Father) ought to present it on behalf of his son -- House plan -- Consult M. Salvador's father about its cost.

Dapitan, 14 February 1894

Mr. Manuel T. Hidalgo

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      Although I have not yet received your letters, nor do I know if I have any of this mail, nevertheless I presume that nothing unpleasant has happened to you there. "No news is good news," say the English.

      Enclosed I send you a request addressed to the governor general. (1) I do not send it directly to His Excellency, because as he is not there, I am afraid it may be lost in some corner anywhere. If Tatay were not as he is, he would be the most fitting person to present my request to Malakañang on behalf of his son, but I am afraid he may lose it. He is, moreover, very old and those trips can hurt him.

      I have thought of you, but you have much work; by brother is very busy and I say the same about Antonino. As to Silvestre, there is nothing to say; I do not believe he would like to do anything for me; he behaves towards me in a way that I do not believe I deserve. I do not know then how to proceed. In short, I leave to your good judgment to decide who ought to present this request.

      Enclosed is a pan for a house with some suggestions. I should like to know from a contractor how much it would cost. I think that the father of M. Salvador (2) understands much about this.

      Here we are all well, thank God. Our mother is already well.

      I have heard that Sra. Neneng is having a house built in Mainit. I am glad of it.

      Command as always your brother-in-law who loves you truly.

      José Rizal


     (1) Rizal's petition for his freedom. In it he relates that he has been deprived of it without due process of law, without trial and for two years reduced to inactivity after having finished a costly medical course. See Epistolario Rizalino, IV, 193-194.

     (2) Moises Salvador.

His petition unanswered -- Ordering a book on the diseases of the ears -- Much success through little money -- Few patients go away without being cured -- Rizal will represent an association of abaca growers.

Dapitan, 10 March 1894

Mr. Manuel T. Hidalgo

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      I have received your letters, I believe all, and I have read them and I have always answered them. If you do not receive my letters, it will be because either they are lost or they are too much, which amounts to the same thing.

      In fact there are racehorses here . . . but for racing here and for no more. They are not worth much either as horses or as value, for here they do not know how to take care of them or train them. Imagine the curry comb is unknown and there is not a stable anywhere. The horse looks for his own food in the fields and when needed for riding, he is caught with a lasso. Probably there may be better ones in the district of Misamis, for I know that the people there are fond of horses.

      Until now I have not received a reply from the governor general.

      If you can find someone there who has a good treatise on the diseases of the ear, I request you to buy it for me and send it to me at the first opportunity. I have patients here. But you have to get the money from my funds of Trozo.

      Here we are all well. Our house is being enlarged little by little.

      I do not know how Sra. Neneng and Silvestre are getting along with their ailments. I assure you that here my good luck brings me much success, though little money. The only ones who go away uncured are the tuberculosis patients in the third period with cavities and one who had fibrous tumors in the larynx who did not want to inhale chloroform. I have a desire to be there to attend to you.

      It is probable that I may represent here an association of abaca growers and then I shall need you for the sale there. If a commission of 5% is acceptable to you, let me know.

      With nothing more for the present, [I send my] affectionate regards to Sta. Neneng and many kisses to the children.

      Your affectionate brother-in-law,


All well -- Rizal is missing only his books -- His lands dotted with little hospital-houses -- With very many patients -- Are letters lost in the mail?

Dapitan, 13 March 1894

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      This mail has been very odd. I have not received more than your letter of the 10th and that of Antonino of the month of February. I do not know what they have done with mine that you say absolutely nothing about them.

      Tell Silvestre that I do not see the indication of pilocarpine, (1) for I cannot examine his vision from here. But if his sickness arises from paludism (Malaria), I advise him to take arsenic, beginning with ten drops daily of Fowler's arsenical liquor and increasing by two every day until 30 drops.

      We have not received either rice or sugar or anything by this mail boat and I am very much afraid that our supply would be exhausted.

      They do not write us from there whether or not they have received either the 50 pesos we sent through Mateo or the 200 pesos that we sent through Mr. Domingo Orlach.

      Here we continue in good health and I only miss my books that I should like to have beside me for reference. I have very many patients who come from different towns and now I have my lands dotted with little hospital-houses.

      If there is no more safety in the mail, inasmuch as letters are getting lost, we shall have to take another route, which is annoying.

      I have sent you a registered letter with my request to the captain general and you tell me nothing about it. What is happening then?

      With nothing more for the present, we send you many regards and you know we esteem you and love you all.

      [I send my] regards to Sra. Neneng and [my] love to your children.

      Very affectionately yours,

      José Rizal


     (1) An alkaloid, C11H16N2O2, extracted from the leaves of the jaborandi plant and used in medicine to stimulate sweating or to contract the pupil of the eye.

The governor general has not replied -- A reminder of his request -- Abaca agency in Manila -- Rizal's business transactions -- Majority of his numerous patients are poor -- He earns something but not enough for the work done -- Tagalog dictionary.

Dapitan, 5 June 1894

Mr. Manuel T. Hidalgo

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      I have not received a letter from you in the last two mails and I know nothing about you there. His Excellency has not yet written me a word. It will not be useless for you to present yourself to him when he arrives there to remind him of my request.

      I do not know if I can bother you about a business that I have undertaken here. I know that you are devoted to scientific and speculative studies and for this reason I have not written you and I preferred to address myself to Antonino for being more accustomed to these business matters. But I have no doubt that you or Sra. Neneng must know there somebody who wishes to be an agent to sell abaca and copra. We have could give him from 3 to 5% of the sale. I have written to Antonino but he has his lands in Bay to attend to. If Sra. Neneng were not a woman, I would make her my agent. Within a few days I am going to order there unbleached cloth (some three bales) and when I send the abaca, I will order some 300 piculs (1) of rice, and in all these purchases and sales, the agent naturally has his commission. Excuse me then for making you this proposal, but as I know no one to whom to address myself, I am obliged to do so by necessity.

      Here I have many patients, but the majority of them are poor. I earn something but not enough for the work done.

      Heeding what they are asking me insistently from abroad, I have decided to prepare a dictionary of the Tagalog language, a work that I cannot finish unless you help me. You can save me the work of looking for words and give their explanation. I will take care of classifying them grammatically, look for their analogies in Malayan languages and give their equivalent in Spanish, English, French, and German. In that way we can produce a monumental work of the Tagalog language. I realize that in order to finish this work it is necessary to be in the bosom of Tagalism, but I trust that I shall soon be in your midst.

      With nothing more for the present, [I send] many regards from all here to you, Sra. Neneng, the children, etc.

      [I am] your brother-in-law who loves you.



     (1) A unit of weight about 133 pounds (60 kilograms), used in various countries of Southeast Asia.

Eyeglasses or lenses for cataract -- Rizal in business partnership with a man in Dapitan -- Invites his sister to engage in the abaca business -- He lets his family decide his return -- "If with my specialty I can earn more there, I will return to Manila." -- Operated on his mother for cataracts.

Dapitan, 4 July 1894

Mr. Manuel T. Hidalgo

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      I received your two letters together with Valentin Ventura's letter and the little box of eyeglasses or lenses for cataracts. Enclosed with this is a reply to Ventura and I should like you to send it through the same bearer that brought this letter.

      With regard to the partnership proposed by Sra. Neneng, I should be very glad of it. But I should like first to make this experiment in order to see if something is gained or lost. She may lose. I have given 1,000 pesos to a man here to buy abaca; the profit and loss will be divided equally. By this mail boat I am trying to send 150 bundles of abaca and copra to be sold to any foreign firm and after deducting the expenses and the capital, we shall divide the profit or the loss. This is our partnership. If she approves of this, I would like exceedingly that she send me 1,000 pesos.

      With regard to my return there, you decide what is convenient. If there are too many physicians there and I am not needed, it is all right that they leave me here. I shall be able to manage with the little that I earn here. If you think that with my specialization I can earn more there, then it would be better than I return. As to the rest, it is all a question of trying for some months.

      I have operated successfully on Mother for cataracts, inasmuch as she was able to see at once and very clearly. The healing was going to last three days, but encouraged by this, she did not want to follow my prescriptions and got up and went to bed by herself, went out to the service porch, removing and putting on the bandage, always telling me that nothing will happen to her, until her eye became inflamed, (she suspected that she received a blow during the night), and now she is very ill. I do not know if I can pull her out. The wound opened the iris and was ruptured and now she has an acute ophthalmia. Nothing can stop her, she reads, she goes out to the light, [and] she rubs her eyes. What is happening to her is incredible. Now I understand very well why one ought to be forbidden to treat members of his family.

      With nothing more for the present, [I send the] regards of Nanay and Trining to all of you and you command your brother who loves you.

      José Rizal


      For the present, while Tonino is there, as he has offered himself first, I will make him abaca agent of the Dapitanos. We have learned here that you lost your daughter. [We send] our heartfelt condolences. One little angel more and one Filipino girl less.

Subscription to La Oceanía -- Will not write any more to the governor general. -- He is engaged in business with a capital he has earned from his medical practice -- He deplores the misfortunes of his brothers at Kalamba -- "If I could monopolize all the troubles and losses and leave to you all the joys and profits, I would do it with pleasure."

Dapitan, 26 September 1894

Mr. Manuel T. Hidalgo

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      I received your last letter as well as the first subscription numbers of La Oceanía.

      I am not intending to write any more to His Excellency, for I have already written him a second letter and I have not received a reply. Let them do what they want. Take note that I have not asked for anything impossible or absurd.

      I am very sorry that you cannot join me in the abaca business, for although this time we gained almost nothing, we hope that in the following months we could gain more. I am not using any capital except what I have earned here through my practice, for the little that was left to me of the lottery prize (1) I gave to our father who has invested it. I am also very sorry for your misfortunes in Kalamba, but I applaud you because you did not utter the least complaint. Until now no one has complained, at least so far as I know, and nothing is lacking except for a member of our family to complain. It would be a second misfortune, perhaps greater than the first. If it were in my hands to monopolize all the troubles, all the losses, and leave to you all the joys and all the profits, with what pleasure would I do it, God knows! What makes me sorry is not to have won one hundred thousand, a million pesos, in order to remedy so many necessities. But finally let us be patient, and you do well in giving an example of dignity. Happy days will come. The question is to trust and hope, as Montecristo said.

      If you see the Luna brothers, give them my regards. Tell Antonio what a strange thing it was. About two or three weeks ago I dreamed that he had opened a fencing school in Manila! What a coincidence! His vest was made of hemp. (2)

      I do not see any chance of Mr. Juan Luna teaching you shooting. How can he do it, since shooting has played such an important role in the tragedy of his life! (3) And then shooting is not taught much; it is acquired through sheer practice.

      Nanay remembers you often and always asks from the solitaires (4) and cards how you are getting along. She appreciates very much your regards and like the rest of us return them affectionately.

      This is the season of rains here.

      I am very busy with the question of the mail. [I send my] very affectionate regards to Mrs. Neneng and kisses to the little ones. Come here to spend a few days.




     (1) Rizal won one-third of the lottery prize of 20,000 pesos, which he divided between his parents and his sisters.

     (2) In Spanish: cañamo.
     (3) He alludes to the passionate shooting by Juan of his wife and mother-in-law and the wounding of his brother-in-law Felix in 1892. A crime de passion, it was a celebrated case. A French court acquitted Luna.
     (4) Solitaire is a game of cards played alone.

Rizal spoke with His Excellency at Dapitan --He promised to transfer him either to Ilocos or La Unión.

Dapitan, 21 November 1894

Mr. Manuel T. Hidalgo

My dear brother-in-law Maneng,

      I received your letter and I am informed of its contents.

      His Excellency has been here and I talked with him a long time. He told me that he has lifted up your deportation about five or six days ago and he was going to finish the case of Mr. D. Cortéz. (1) With regard to me, he promised to change my residence, talking me to Ilocos or La Unión.

      I thank you for the can of sausages. We have not yet tasted it, for we are leaving it for a better occasion.

      Sra. María has arrived here and told us a great deal about you, mentioning many things that have put me at ease.

      I am very glad of the progress of the business of Sra. Neneng. Forward! I have good news of Alfredo and I congratulate him. I only regret that our Abelardo is not yet as you desire him to be.

      Enclosed are two letters for the Luna brothers.

      On the next mail-boat all the women will return there, for I believe I shall leave this place in January.

      With nothing more, regards to all.

      Ever yours,



     (1) Doroteo José


Recommending Miss Josephine L. Tauffer to his mother -- That she gave her hospitality and treated her like a daughter, as an esteemed and dear person to Rizal.

Dapitan, 14 March 1895

Mrs. Teodora Alonso

My very dear mother,

      The bearer of this letter is Miss Josephine Leopoldine Tauffer (1) whom I was on the point of marrying, counting on your consent, of course. On her suggestion, our relations were broken on account of the numerous difficulties on the way. She is almost alone in the world; she has only very distant relatives.

      As I am interested in her and it is very possible that she may later decide to join me and as she may be left all alone and abandoned, I beg you to give her hospitality there, treating her as a daughter, until she shall have an opportunity or occasion to come here.

      I have decided to write the General (2) to find out about my case.

      Treat Miss Josephine as a person whom I esteem and value much and whom I would not like to be unprotected and abandoned.

      Your most affectionate son who loves you,

      José Rizal

      If Trining can't come alone, it is very easy for her to come with Antonio.


     (1) This is the Irish young woman who accompanied Mr. Tauffer of Hong Kong to Dapitan, seeing Rizal's services as an ophthalmologist. She also called herself Josephine Bracken.
     (2) That is, the governor general.

Miss Josephine is grateful for the hospitality -- Rizal decides that she remain in Dapitan -- The "sweet stranger" is so busy she cannot dry fish or make pickles.

Dapitan (No date. April 1895?)

Mrs. Narcisa Rizal

My dear sister,

      I read your letter yesterday and Miss B. (1) and I thank you very much for your kindness. She above all is grateful to you and Tonino (2) for the hospitality you offer her but for the present we have decided that she should stay here. She cannot send you anything for she has no moment of rest now and although she likes this, she cannot however dry fish or make pickles.

      The jar of pickled fish eggs is very good and we enjoyed eating it.

      Miss J. (1) sends you very affectionate regards.

      If Antonino (3) likes to come, taking advantage of the school vacation, I would be very glad to see him here; but he should stay until June, for it is not worthwhile to stay only for a month and spend 40 pesos for the trip. Moreover he cannot learn much in one moth. I should like to know something of Leoncio (4) and Consuelo. (5)

      Next year I hope to have a large house and by then Antonio would have finished the bachelor's course. Emilio (6) and he can come and stay for a year at least. By then I shall be able to give them practical lessons on physics and chemistry.

      How is Ikang (7) getting along in her piano study?

      With nothing more, many regards to all [are sent] from your brother who loves you dearly.

      J. Rizal.


     (1) Miss B. as well as Miss J. are the same Miss Josephine Bracken, or Tauffer.
     (2) Tonino is Mr. Antonino López, husband of his sister Narcisa 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 are their children.

Invites his sisters to take a vacation in Dapitan -- Engage in some business that will distract you and compensate you for your traveling expenses -- The dam is already high but the work is stopped for lack of lime -- A rich woman who pretended to be poor.

Dapitan, (no date) Wednesday

Miss Trinidad Rizal,

My dear sister Trininig,

      Only today the boat arrived. We received all that you sent us and your letter tells me that the sickness that you had did not last long.

      All of us here miss you and many are asking when you are coming back. I believe that if you wish to come, you can do it by staying some months. You can engage in some business to distract you and at the same time to compensate you for your traveling expenses. If you wish to come, you can bring along Antonino.

      The patients are here. The old man lives in the round house with his son. Sra. Manuela (Orlach) lives with us.

      The dam that I am having built is paralyzed for lack of lime, but it is already very high. There are 14 boys at home and there is one more who lies to come. (1)

      We are sending you fish, cacao, etc. in a box.

      Sra. Maria is very well, but Puence, (2) constantly crys and keeps this poor one very busy. He no longer amuses us with his nose or his eyes as when you were here.

      Send us sago (an edible palm starch).

      Morris (2) now knows how to read very well and speaks Spanish.

      Ever since you left few young men and women come, but on Sundays there are always magugubot.

      We have already caught the sikop and the large iguana. The Subano hen hatched again the mountain eleven chicks, which until now are all well and complete. I have killed a young hen, because it was always climbing to the top of the bed.

      Pastora's (3) cousin has been operated on and is well. A rich woman of Dipolog came but, as she introduced herself as a poor woman, I charged her only 5 pesos for the operation.

      The deaf cannot be operated on for neither does he sleep nor stay quiet.

      Tell Nanay that that of Europe cannot be. (4) The daughter-in-law from Europe is about to be married, according to what my friends tell me. So that nothing from there.

      Have a little patience; I cannot send you anything now, for there is much tintin.

      The boys are wishing that you come back.

      The boys are wishing that you come back.

      Tell Tone to send me half a dozen tableware pieces like those he sent before for 3.50 pesos.

      [I send] many regards to all, to those at home, to Mr. Hino, (5) etc.

      Your brother who loves you dearly,

      José Rizal


     (1) Among these boys were Elum, Rómulo Amat, José Aseniero, José Dalman, Aniceto Bahamonde, Filomeno Acopiado, Melchor Taladua, Capalino Gallemet, José Caangcan, Lucas Adasa, Marcial Borromeo, Marcelino Galleposo, and Adolfo Tantico.

     (2) Puence (Prudencio) and (Mauricio) are sons of his sister María, the wife of Daniel Cruz.
     (3) Pastora is Rizal's laundry woman.
     (4) He is referring to Miss Nelly Boustead of Brussels.
     (5) Mr. Higino Francisco, a distant relative of Rizal and active participant in the patriotic movement.

He asks everybody to have more confidence in him -- He's in the hands of God -- Let us do our duty, what is right, and let God to the rest -- Let us think well of our fellowmen.

Dapitan, 9 May 1895

Miss Trinidad Rizal

My dear sister Trining,

      I received your letter and I am informed of its contents. I am very glad that the fire only frightened you and nothing more. What I regret is the loss of the palasan (1) walking sticks for I have never seen better ones than those. Patience.

      I hope you will tell me when Tatay (Father) is coming, if he is coming, because I will prepare a part of my house for him.

      Tell everybody to have more confidence in me and not to take me always for a child who has to be guided in everything, in what he must like and in what he must not like. If my family has no confidence in me and always treats me like a child, how will others treat me and what confidence will they have in my good judgment. I'm in the hands of God and until the present I have no reason to say that He has abandoned me. Let us do always our duty, what is right, and let Him do the rest. Let us not be hasty in our judgment, but let us think well of our fellowmen.

      Sra. María carries the gold watch chain that you asked of me.

      How is the case of Champopo? (2) I am very much interested in knowing it because of Sra. Concha.

      They carry two jars of pickled mangoes.

      Miss Bracken returns your regards very gratefully.

      By this mail I have written the governor general requesting him to permit my departure for Spain, because I am beginning to fill ill. I believe that I can no longer stand this life here -- much work, little nourishment, and no little displeasures.

      Tell Pangoy to consider this letter hers.

      I send roosters and hens to Nanay (Mother), but I do not send sheep to Mr. Paciano, because what I have are very ugly and I do not know how they will eat during the trip. If he insists on having some, it would be better to buy them in Manila.

      Do not forget to tell me about Tatay (Father).

      In the state of mind in which I am I have not been able to finish the poem. (3) I need tranquility.

      Your brother who loves you,


      Many regards to all -- Sra. Concha, Sra. Ticang, (4) Sr. Hino, etc.


     (1) Pasalan is the popular Tagalog name for a very sturdy rattan found in Philippine forests. It is used for walking sticks.

     (2) He was a Chinese grocery merchant who had a store on Nueva Street, Binondo, and who had a case in court concerning a loan guaranteed by Mrs. Concepción (Concha) Leyba that he could not pay or did not want to pay. (Note: OF Dr. Leoncio López Rizal, nephew of Rizal.
     (3) He refers to the beautiful poem mi retiro that tells of his life at Dapitan.
     (4) Vicente Leyba, sister of Concepción (Concha) Leyba.

Asks his nephew Moris to speak English -- Reports uncollected debts.

Dapitan, 6 June 1895

Mrs. María Rizal

My dear sister:

      I have received your letter and noted its contents. You did not tell me about the case of the chicken of the Commander and of Tom.

      The medicine for ringworm (tinea flaba) is Pomada antiherpética to be applied after washing the skin with soap and water.

      I have received the chocolate, sweets, and cigarettes that you have sent me and I thank you very much. I have already found the tea in the box.

      Enciang has not yet paid her debt. Only Magdalena, wife of Sitas, has given Fiscal Geno 50 or 40 pesos; I have forgotten the correct amount.

      Please tell Moris to speak English so that he would not forget it.

      Please tell Sra. Lucía that she can send me her children as soon as I am settled.

      This is all and command your brother.

      José Rizal

      I'm going to write Moris when he can write me.

      Fiscal Genio says that Sitas has given only 25 pesos; collect the balance from the amount you will receive there.

He will send her a black pearl -- If Father would come -- The fruit trees are in bloom -- Miss Josephine postpones her trip to Manila.

Dapitan, 6 June 1895

Miss Trinidad Rizal

My dear sister Trining,

      I received your letter and I am informed of its contents.

      I have not forgotten what I have promised you. I am going to send you the black pearl as soon as I have someone who can bring it to you.

      I would be glad if Father would come and the sooner the better, for this will please him very much. (1) The house will satisfy him. This time the trees have borne many fruits. The lanzon trees are loaded with flowers as I have never seen before; the cacao trees are the same; the bauno, the mango, the naca are adorned with flowers. My sampaguita, the one that scarcely yielded three flowers a day, now one can pick from it sixty to seventy every morning.

      The minced tobacco and the basin will be delivered to their respective owners.

      Miss Bracken gratefully returns your regards. She was about to go back on this mail boat and take along the cabinet, but she had some trouble and she will go on the next boat.

      [I send] many regards to all, to Aunt Concha, Aunt Ticang, etc.

      Your brother who loves you,


      Enclosed are 2 pesos in stamps; let us see if they can be sold there.


     (1) On account of old age his father never went to Dapitan.

50 pesos of his savings for his mother to buy what she likes -- Rizal praises Miss Bracken -- His father should not worry about him -- He's in the hands of God -- He asks for seeds -- His fruit trees are flourishing.

Dapitan, 4 July 1895

My dear Nanay,

      My sister Sra. María has arrived here and I am very sorry that she has made a useless trip. She returns bringing you 50 pesos that I have been able to save. You may buy with it cloth remnants and rice cakes for your little grandchildren and other things that you like.

      Miss Bracken who has been behaving towards me better than I expected, is leaving now and though she tells me that she is coming back, I do not believe that she will decide to do so afterwards, because this is a very lonely place and everything is lacking here. I shall be alone then, entirely alone; my company will be my patients and the boys.

      Sra. Maria is bringing you also the valise that you made, for I do not want it to be spoiled here. Your grandchildren ought to take care of it as a remembrance of their grandmother.

      Tell Tatay not to worry about every piece of news he hears about me. I'm in the hands of God and if He does not save me, neither can you do it. Please do not send anybody any more here, for that is too risky, too tiresome, and too expensive. Do not believe that I have died because people say so.

      Send me seeds of kasay, chico, ciruelas, cacauate, rimas, duhat, tampoy, iba, etc.; all can be placed in a box with sawdust.

      My trees are full of fruits; the lazon trees are adorned with flowers and if they all become fruits; the branches will break down. The papaya trees that were near the hexagonal house were crashed by a strong wind. However, we have abundant papayas that make me think of you always. When there shall be plenty of lanzon, I shall send them to you dried. I do not know if the nangka can reach there.

      With nothing more. I kiss your hand as well as my father's. With much love to my nephews and sisters [I remain],

      Your son,

He orders petroleum, flour, soap, etc. -- He may change his residence.

Dapitan, 31 July 1895

My dear Sra. María:

      I received your letter and noted its contents. I received all that you have sent me. The rice, however, is lacking, as only two sacks were delivered. The tubes are large.

      Miss B. is sending you here regards and asks me to tell you that the scissors have been lost. Perhaps on the next boat she would take there the wardrobe that I got back from Capitán Venancio. Of your debtors no one has paid me yet.

      Please tell Sr. Pedro that if he cannot come here by October, he had better wait for my message because I may transfer to Ponot.

      Don't send me anything except rice, salt, soap, and postage stamps.

      I was able to save the Alferéz, thank God.

      They say that Suan scolded the supercargo because of your coming here without your name appearing in the list of passengers. They say you might have brought me some news. Sr. Capriano got sick here when he came to get your money for freight.

      They say Tamarong had died of fever. He left 30,000 in addition to land and houses. Arrieta and Ina Pedro have a quarrel over house-rent.

      Please send me a Compendio de Geografía and tell me how much it costs.

      This is all and command me.


      P.S. Greetings to Sra. Tikang, Sra. Concha, Sr. Gino, etc.

      List of my order

      4 boxes of petroleum
      4 sacks of flour
      4 arrobas (100 lbs.) of soap
      2 Compendio de Geografía
      1 large portfolio

      2 cavans (150 liters) of salt

      The money will be taken from the sale of abaca.

Treatment for his nephew, Moris -- If his parents join him at Dapitan, he would remain there to engage in farming.

Dapitan, 28 August 1895 (?)

Mrs. María Rizal

Dear Sister:

      I have received all that you have sent including he sack containing three O.

      Give Moris am (water of boiled rice) and make him sit in warm water and then wrap him. If you wish to send him here, decide it for yourself.

      Tell the blind man that I'll do for him all that is humanly possible to make him well and to bring along all that he would need. Ask him if his head ached very much before his sight became dim and if the pain is on the forehead above the eyebrows. If that is the case, it would be better for him not to come here at all because probably I cannot do anything for him, especially if he is already blind.

      I have already received the missing sacks; they paid me with other sacks that I sold for only 3-7. I lost, but it is done.

      Miss B. is sending you and Moris greetings.

      What you should send me is not Compendio de Geografía but Philippine Geography. I have no news for you; we are very quiet here really. L Our little trouble here is a Spanish patient, suffering from a cataract. He is already well but he has not paid yet. He said he would pay only two hundred.

      María is sending mangosteen to Mother. Tom bade me goodbye.

      Give my greetings to Sr. Hino, Sra. Concha, and Sra. Tikang.

      If Father is coming here I wish he would buy me a velocipede (early form of bicycle or tricycle). If they will come here and can endure our situation, I would not wish to leave this place anymore and I would just engage in farming so long as they live.

      Your affectionate brother,

      José Rizal

      Kiss Moris and En (1) for me. I have an order for small fishhooks.


     (1) Encarnacion

His sister Maria's debtors have not paid -- Orders fishhooks -- Will send friends walking sticks as souvenirs.

Dapitan, 25 September 1895

Mrs. María Rizal de Cruz

My dear Sister:

      We, and all the children, are very much pleased to learn that Moris has recovered. We have all been thinking of him.

      I also know about Father's illness; I'm thankful that he got over it. It might be good for him to bathe in the sea.

      It is good that you have a store; it will serve as a diversion. It would be still better for you all to join together and establish a large store.

      None of your debtors have paid, not even a penny.

      Tell Moris to study hard and learn how to write so that he can write me. I'll send him lanzones, durian, and other fruits.

      Miss B. is sending you best regards.

      Please send me one package of small fishhooks, like those you had here, because there are many who are ordering. Please tell me if Sr. Pedro is coming here and I'll get the house ready.

      Please greet for me. Sr. Gino, Aunt Concha, and Aunt Tikang.

      By the next boat I'm going to send walking sticks as a remembrance to friends.

      This is all and command your brother who does not forget you.

      José Rizal

He encourages his mother to buy a lot in Meisik, Manila -- He asks for family data for a genealogy.

Dapitan, 25 September 1895

My very beloved mother,

      The purpose of these few lines is to tell you that I am in good health as always.

      I have learned through Trining that you intend to buy a lot in Meisik. (1) That seems to me very good. It is a secluded and quiet place and moreover there you were born, which is the principal thing. In my leisure moments I devote myself to doing some things. I should like you to write down everything about your relatives, ancestors etc., because I am planning to prepare a genealogy (2) for the use of our nephews. Likewise, if you could write about my father, I would appreciate it. What I was doing in Hong Kong remained there.

      We had a month of continuous wind and great billows.

      I kiss your hand fondly and I ask you for your blessing.

      J. Rizal


     (1) A lot on Alvarado Street, near Soler and Reina Regente Streets.
     (2) This genealogical tree made by him at Dapitan was published for the first time by Austin Craig in Lineage, Life, and Labors of J. Rizal, Manila, 19 . . .

Rizal sends his mother his poem Mi Retiro -- Also Himno a Talisay written for his pupils -- He vows not to buy anything from the local Chinese stores -- Sends honey and fruits to his mother -- Sitjes, former Dapitan politico-Military Commander.

Capitan, 22 October 1895

      Though I have no letter from you, nevertheless I write you this sending you the enclosing poem that I promised you. (1) Many months have already passed but I have not been able to correct it yet on account of my numerous tasks. Besides I follow that advice of Horace to let manuscripts sleep a long time in order to correct them better later. Enclosed also is the poem for the boys or rather the Himno a Talisay. On the 14th of this month the boys had their examination and many came to witness it. The examiners are all outsiders. Rómulo, José, Lucas, Anis, Elum, and Marcel won prizes.

      A new commandant has come and I believe he is called Mr. Rafael Morales. He seems to be a very good man and is winsome, at least by sight. Let us see how he will behave later.

      On account of Adolfo I had a lawsuit with the Chinese and I vowed not to buy any more from them, so that sometimes I find myself very hard up. Now we have almost neither dishes nor tumblers.

      By this mail boat I'm sending you a demijohn of honey, some boxes of lanson, etc.

      With nothing more, I kiss affectionately your hand and father's.

      Your son who loves you sincerely,


      Mr. And Mrs. Juan Sitjes say that they will call on you there. It is probable that they may really do so. I would be much pleased if you will receive them well, better than when he was governor.


     (1) The poem Mi Retiro.

He asks his family not to urge patients to go to him -- He is willing to teach his nephews -- Sends honey and fruits to his family.

Dapitan, 25 October 1895

Mrs. María Rizal

My dear sister,

      I have received your letter and noted its contents. No fishhooks have arrived and I have not received the passionflower.

      Please tell Sr. Pedro that if he does not need very much my medical assistance, he should not take the trouble of coming here. He might think that I need badly his help. Some day he might blame me for his coming here. If there is another doctor there, he should go to him. Please tell him this and also Trining, and don't urge anyone to come to me here. It seems that they do not have such a great desire to be treated by me and they are waiting to be urged. God willing, I can get along through thrift. I don't wish them later to remind me of my indebtedness to them and to almost enslave me and interfere in my personal affairs. Therefore, let the sick that really need me come, but not those who think that they would help me with their fee. Tell this to Mang Pedro and Trining's acquaintances.

      If because of what I have said and if there is a doctor there who can treat him, Sr. Pedro will not come here, you may let Moris and Tan come with Tom and Mate and I can teach there here. In that case I'm going to build a large house in which my nephews can live. Miss B. is sending you her regards.

      List of my remittance:

      1. Demijohn of honey
      2. Tojicanes (one for Sra. Concha, the other for Sra. Tikang)
      3. Durian for Sr. Paciano
      4. Lansones for all
      5. Mangosteen skins.

      This is all and command your brother.

      José Rizal

Prescription for toothache -- Would like Miss Bracken to stay -- Carpentry is his diversion.

Dapitan, 21 November 1895

Mrs. María Rizal

My dear sister:

      I have received your letter including the bottle of Cologne and a sack of flour. I thank you for them.

      Concerning your toothache maybe you have been given a medicine containing mercury. You can tell this if your mouth waters. Buy lozenge of chlorate of potash. You gargle with the water of boiled areca nut. If Moris wants to come let him do so. It would be very nice if Miss B. would not go away yet, but it seems that she will. In that case, no one will take care of him.

      Miss B. is sending you greetings.

      Lucas' mother says that she has already paid you what she owes Trining.

      Sra. Neneng, Sra. Sisa, and Sra. Lucía have not written me for a long time.

      Because of the frequency of the visit of my guest partients, my chickens are almost gone. I'm going to let the hens hatch again. One Spaniard whose eyes I treated paid 200 pesos.

      My diversion is carpentry; I know how to do it so so, as Father would say. This is all and command your brother who does not forget you.

      José Rizal

He does not want his mother to appeal to the governor general for his freedom -- He has written him again -- He has applied for enlistment in the army as a physician -- Sends his parents some money -- The new politico -- Military commander.

Dapitan, 21 November 1985

My dearest mother,

      I received your affectionate letter and I answer it at once.

      With respect to your appearance before the captain general, frankly, though I appreciate it, I cannot advise it. You have to trouble yourself a great deal, going, coming, waiting, and for what? Perhaps [it is only] to receive a refusal. I do not want you in your old age to be exposed to more displeasures. I have written again now to His Excellency asking for my freedom or to the review of my case. I ask also for my enlistment as physician in the army of Cuba. (1) Blumentritt advised me to do so and I believe he is right.

      I was unable to pay the freight of the goods because the supercargo told me he didn't know it. You don't tell me if you have received the honey and the durians.

      By this mail boat I send you 150 pesos; the 30 pesos must be given to Trining as payment from Rommy's mother. I issued a receipt to them. The 120 is for you and Tatay (Father) after deducting the cost of my orders and those of persons here.

      One box of cheap tableware
      One tin of tea (Calle Nueva)

      15 cavanes of salt.

      You collect a commission of 5% for your expenses in addition to the expenses of cartage, for here I shall not collect a single cent.

      My orders are reduced to
     2 toothbrushes
     1 ball of twine for sewing shoes.

      Please pay my bills with Schadenberg.

      [I send] my felicitations to Pepe on his triumph in cycling.

      [I give] many thanks to Ñor Gino for the seeds, sausage, and sweets.

      When you want to come, please know that you will be received, as a loving mother deserves to be received.

      I congratulate my brother on his new purchase. What a pity that I can't help him in his new purchase. What a pity that I can't help him in his planting. I would be very glad to see him if I shall still be here.

      I'm very much pleased with the dishes and tumblers as well as the two bolts of dimity.

      The half arroba (2) of chocolate that I received by the previous mail boat came from a patient of mine.

      The new commandant that we have is very winsome and it seems we shall become very good friends, indeed, true friends. (3)

      If the sugar is sold and you want to buy a house in Meisik, you can dispose of the little money I have there which I give to you and my father for your whims and fancies.

      With nothing more for the present, with regards to all, I kiss affectionately your hand and father's.

      Your son who loves you sincerely,

      José Rizal

      Get the money from the boat, showing this letter.


     (1) See Epistolario Rizalino, IV, 266.

     (2) A Spanish weight of 25 pounds or 11.5 kilos.
     (3) Captain Rafael Morales, cultured gentleman who spoke several languages; but he held the post for only a short time, for he was promoted to major. Ricardo Carnicero, the same one who was there in 1892, took his place.

Allaying his parents' fears about his proposed service in Cuba -- He would welcome an inexpensive bicycle -- He sends money to his parents -- Presents to his family -- He has many patients but few pay.

Dapitan, 18 December 1895

My dear mother,

      I received your letter of 14th instant and I understand perfectly your and Father's fears about my going to Cuba; however, as you say, we should have faith in God. Until now He has saved me from all dangers; why will He not save me from others in the future? I have therefore reiterated my request to serve in Cuba in view of the fact that I have not received a reply to my first.

      If you hear nothing about my departure, I should like you to buy me a second-hand bicycle, neither very bad nor very good and which would not cost more than 100 pesos. Pepe Leyva could do me the favor of buying one to use in my trips to town; it should be neither very good nor very bad. In the next mail, I'll send you the money together with another 100 pesos for Father and you.

      You'll receive from Capiz 50 pesos and another 10 pesos from Zamboanga, being fees paid by several patients of mine. I have money here but I have no means of sending it to you.

      If Schadenberg and also Mr. M. de los Reyes present new bills, please pay them. I'll pay you afterward.

      Many thanks for the ham, wine, butter, etc. which we have received.

      Through this boat I'm sending a box that contains.

      1 American balance that I'm presenting to Sr. Paciano.
      1 sack of cacao for you there.

      2 bottles of lard, 1 for you and the other for Sra. Sisa (without failure)

      2 bottles of pickles for you (1 for Sra. Sisa, without failure).
      1 roll of snamay for Trining.

      Please send without failure to Sra. Sisa the lard and bottle of pickles. You may give away as you please the other bottles of pickles.

      The material for pantaloons, which you sent me, was sold very well at one peseta a yard; so that if you can send other textiles like that or better ones, with their prices, we can do a little business here. I'm not sending you honey now because the demijohn is not Yet full.

      If you would like to buy a lot, tell me the size you need and I'll look for one. If I don't leave this place, I'm thinking of buying a coconut plantation of more than 4,000 trees for 1,500 pesos, all about 4 or 3 years old. I hope my brother could give me money after the sale of the sugar. I believe it is good business. For the erysipelas of Mr. Hino, I would recommend three grams of boric acid in 100 grams of water for washing it.

      Through the next mail, as I have told you, I'll send you a little money. I have many patients but many are gratis.

      On the 8th of this month Mr. Cosme gave a dance in the Casa Real that I attended. There were games, etc. etc.

      I kiss your hand and that of my good old father and wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.

      Your son,

      José Rizal

      The box needs no bill of landing. Just see the purser and ask for the box marked T. A. The 100 pesos also go along with it.

      Give 6 pesos as a Christmas gift to my godson Antonio Lopez.


     The original of this letter in Spanish is found in the collection of Dr. Leoncio Lopez Rizal, nephew of the hero.

Miss Josephine's regards and Christmas greetings -- Rizal sends some affectionate lines in English to his nephew Moris.

Daptian, 18 December 1895

Mrs. María Rizal

My dear sister:

      I received your letter and we thank you for your regards. Miss Josephine is sending regards and Christmas greetings to you and Moris. If I do not leave this place, send Moris over here. It is useless for you to come here for there is no business.

      Enclosed are some lines for Moris.

      Columbia has died according to news; Lohia got married; so did Pastora. (1) The husband of Lohia is from Capiz who is somewhat elderly, 45 years. The husband of Pastora is still young a clerk.

      This is all and command your brother,


      For Moris
      In Manila:

      Study hard because he who does not know will get blows on the head. (In Spanish)

      I wish you Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. (In Spanish)

      Felices Pascuas in English: Merry Christmas,

      Feliz Año Nuevo: Happy New Year

      Moris, you must be a good boy.

      Your uncle,

      J. Rizal


     (1) Columbia, Lohia, and Pastora were girls who served at Rizal's house at Dapitan.

The progress of the education of his nieces is the fruit of the troubles in Calamba.

Dapitan, 18 December 1895

My dear sister Sra. Lucía,

      I have seen your daughter's letter and I note that they are progressing. It's an ill wind that blows nobody good. The troubles in Calamba (1) brought about your daughter's education.

      If I do not leave this place, Teodosio, Tan, Emilio, and Moris can come.

      Your brother who loves you,

      José Rizal


     (1) He refers to her eviction by the Hacienda de Calamba.

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