Main Employers’ Associations 31.21 As recorded in Europa the main employers’ associations are TÜSIAD (Turkish Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association) TISK (Turkish confederation of employers’ Associations). [1a] (p1202) 31.22 The Turkish Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association (TUSIAD) undated website noted that:
“This is the highest advisory board. All members of the Association are members. The General Assembly shall elect six members from among the members of the High Advisory Council to form the Presidency Board for two years. This Board consists of a chairman, three deputy chairmen and two secretaries. The Council meets at least twice a year as determined by the Chairman of the Council, to debate and decide on issues.
Principal duties of the council are:
a) to review the course and problems of Turkish industry and business and to consider long-term policy measures in relation thereto;
b) to evaluate strategies for the realization of the purpose of the Association and offer advice on such matters.” 
31.23 The Turkish Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association (TUSIAD) US branch website stated that:
“Founded in 1971 and is an independent, non-governmental organization dedicated to promoting public welfare through private enterprise. TUSIAD supports independent research and policy discussions on important social and economic issues in Turkey and abroad. Much like the US Business Roundtable, TUSIAD is comprised of the CEOs and Executives of the major industrial and service companies in Turkey, including those that are among global Fortune 500 companies.” 
31.24 The same website also stated that:
“TUSIAD has expanded its scope to include US-Turkish relations and launched its office in Washington, DC, in November 1998. Within the general framework of the mission of its parent organization, TUSIAD-US strives to:
Be a conduit for exchange of information between Turkey and the United States…
Establish its own line of communication with the US administration and agencies, congressional committees, think tanks, business organizations, media, and international organizations;
Develop suggestions and formulate policy recommendations on ways to strengthen Turkish-US political, economic, and business ties…”  31.25 MUSIAD is a “BUSINESSMEN’S ASSOCIATION” founded on May 5, 1990, in Istanbul, Turkey…MUSIAD is an active and strong “NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION” that has grown to 26 branches and 2000 members since 1990; that, remaining committed to its mission, has shown concern and courage in acting in accordance with its original purposes.  31.26 MUSIAD has also opened a branch in London in Whitchapel and will soon be launching its English webpage.  Return to contents
Go to list of sources Annex A: Chronology of major events
(As reported in the BBC’s ‘Timeline – Turkey, A chronology of key events’ unless otherwise sourced) [66a]
2001 January: Diplomatic row with France after French National Assembly recognises the killings of Armenians under the Ottoman Empire as genocide.
May: European Court of Human Rights finds Turkey guilty of violating the rights of Greek Cypriots during its occupation of northern Cyprus.
June: Constitutional Court bans opposition pro-Islamic Virtue Party, saying it had become focus of anti-secular activities. New pro-Islamist party Saadet is set up by former Virtue Party members in July.
October: The Turkish Parliament approved several amendments to the Constitution, notably to articles concerning the use of the Kurdish language. The amendments were intended to facilitate Turkey’s accession to the EU. [44a]
November: British construction firm Balfour Beatty and Impregilo of Italy pull out of the controversial Ilisu dam project. Swiss bank UBS follows suit in February 2002.
2002 January: Turkish men are no longer regarded in law as head of the family. The move gives women full legal equality with men, 66 years after women’s rights were put on the statute books.
February: Law No. 4744 adjusting some Turkish laws to the October 2001 constitutional amendments, was adopted by the Turkish Parliament. [71a] (p25)
March: Law No. 4748: further reform package. [71a] (p25)
July: Pressure for early elections as eight ministers including Foreign Minister Cem resign over ailing PM Ecevit's refusal to step down amid growing economic, political turmoil. Cem launches new party committed to social democracy, EU membership.
August: Parliament approves reforms aimed at securing EU membership. Death sentence to be abolished except in times of war, bans on Kurdish education, broadcasting to be lifted.
November: General election the AKP won two-thirds of the seats. President Sezer subsequently appointed AKP Deputy Leader Abdullah Gül as Prime Minister. [1a] (p1171)
December: Constitutional changes allow head of ruling AK, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, to run for parliament, and so to become prime minister. He had been barred from public office because of previous criminal conviction.
2003 January: The Turkish Government passes the fifth reform package allowing Turkish citizens who are found to have been denied a fair trial by the ECtHR to be retried in Turkey. [1a] (p1171)
March: AK leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan wins seat in parliament. Within days Abdullah Gul resigns as prime minister and Erdogan takes over.
May: More than 160 people, many of them schoolchildren trapped in a dormitory, die in an earthquake in the Bingol area.
June: Eyeing future EU membership, parliament passes laws easing restrictions on freedom of speech, Kurdish language rights, and on reducing political role of military.
July: The Turkish Parliament passes the sixth reform package aimed at improving human rights. [36c] (p1-3)
September: The PKK/KADEK announced an end to their four year cease-fire with the Turkish Government. [1a] (p1171)
November: On the 20 November two further suicide bombings were carried out one against the British Consulate and the other against the headquarters of the British based HSBC bank in Istanbul. [66i]
2004 January: Turkey signs protocol banning death penalty in all circumstances, a move welcomed in EU circles.
March: Local elections were held and were won overwhelmingly by the ruling AKP. [36g]
May: Passage of constitutional reform package. [1b] (Turkey: The Constitution)
June: PKK ends its five-year unilateral ceasefire begun in 1999. [66f]
Four Kurdish deputies (Leyla Zana, Hatip Dicle, Selim Sadak and Orhan Dogan) released from prison. [44b] First official broadcasts in Kurdish language take place. [4h] (p106)
September: Parliament approves penal reforms introducing tougher measures to prevent torture and violence against women. Controversial proposal on criminalising adultery dropped.
October: European Commission report gives the go ahead for talks to begin on Turkey’s accession to the European Union. [66ak]
December: EU leaders agree to open talks in 2005 on Turkey's EU accession. The decision, made at a summit in Brussels, follows a deal over an EU demand that Turkey recognise Cyprus as an EU member.
2005 January: New lira currency introduced as six zeroes are stripped from old lira, ending an era in which banknotes were denominated in millions.
April: The introduction of the new Turkish Penal Code (due to come into force on that date) is postponed. [66ba]
May: Parliament approves amendments to new penal code after complaints that the previous version restricted media freedom. The EU welcomes the move but says the code still fails to meet all its concerns on human rights.
1 June: A revised version of the new Turkish Penal Code comes into force. [23g]
October: Turkey officially begins membership talks with the European Union. [66bi]
November: DEHAP dissolves. [23h] Democratic Society Movement (DHT) becomes the Democratic Society Party (DTP). [93b] 2006 March: 14 suspected Kurdish rebels killed by security forces.
April: At least a dozen people are killed in clashes between Kurdish protesters and security forces in the south-east. Several people are killed in related unrest in Istanbul.
May: Islamist gunman opens fire in Turkey’s highest court, killing a prominent judge and wounding four others.
July: Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline opened at ceremony in Turkey.
August-September: Bombers target resorts and Istanbul. Shadowy separatist group Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (TAC) claims responsibility for some attacks and warns it will turn ’Turkey into hell’.
30 September: Kurdish separatist group, the PKK, declares a unilateral ceasefire in operations against the military.
2006 December: EU partially freezes Turkey's membership talks because of Ankara's failure to open its ports and airports to Cypriot traffic.
2007 January: Journalist and Armenian community leader Hrant Dink is assassinated. The murder provokes outrage in Turkey and Armenia. Prime Minister Erdogan says a bullet has been fired at democracy and freedom of expression.
April: Tens of thousands of supporters of secularism rally in Ankara, aiming to pressure Prime Minister Erdogan not to run in presidential elections because of his Islamist background.
Ruling AK party puts forward Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul as its candidate after Mr Erdogan decides not to stand. He narrowly fails to win in the first round.
May: Parliament brings forward national elections to 22 July to try end the standoff between secularists and Islamists over the choice of the next president.
Parliament gives initial approval to a constitutional change allowing the president to be elected by a popular vote, but the amendment is vetoed by President Sezer.
May: Tension mounts on Turkey-Iraq border amid speculation that Turkey may launch an incursion to tackle Kurdish rebels.
Bomb blast in Ankara kills six and injures 100. PKK denies responsibility.
July: AK Party wins parliamentary elections.
August: Abullah Gul is elected president.
October: Diplomatic row with United States after a US congressional committee recognises the killings of Armenia under the Ottoman Empire as genocide.
October: Parliament gives go ahead for military operations in Iraq in persuit of Kuirdish rebels.
October: Voters in a referendum back plans to have future presidents elected by the people instead of by parliament.
December: Turkey launches a series of air strikes on fighters from the Kurdish PKK movement inside Iraq.
2008 February: Thousands protest plans to allow women to wear the Islamic headscarf to university.
Parliament approves constitutional amendments which will pave the way for women to be allowed to wear the Islamic headscarf in universities.
July: A move in Turkey’s Constitutional Court to get the governing AK Party banned fails by a narrow margin. The case was brought by the country’s chief prosecutor who accused the party of undermining Turkey’s secular constitution by becoming a focus of pro-Islamist activity.
In a separate development, an indictment is filed against 86 people suspected of plotting to overthrow the government. Those named in the indictment are alleged to have links with a shadowy ultra-nationalist group known as Ergenekon.
Return to contents
Go to list of sources Annex B: Political Organisations Main Parties Information on Political Parties in Turkey as of 3 August 2004 can be found on;
http://www.politicalresources.net/ Democratic Left Party: (DSP Demokratik Sol Parti)
Founded on : November 14, 1985
Chairman : Zeki Sezer
Address : Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak Cad. No: 17 ANKARA
Phone : (0312) 212 49 50 (5 lines)
Web site: http://www.dsp.org.tr/MEP/
Nationalist Movement Party: (MHP Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi)