Country of Origin Information Report


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Homeland Party; (Yurt Partisi)

Founded on : March 14, 2002

Chairman : Sadettin TANTAN

Address : Öveçler Mah. 8. Cad. No: 25 Dikmen - ANKARA

Phone :(0312) 4785700

Web site:

Eurasia Party: (Avrasya Partisi)

Founded on : May 9, 2002

Chairman : H.Hüsnü DOĞAN

Address : Çetin Emeç Bulvarı No : 57 Öveçler - ANKARA

Independent Republic Party; (Bağımsız Cumhuriyet Partisi)

Founded on : July 24, 2002

Chairman : Prof. Mümtaz SOYSAL

Web site:

Republican Democrat Turkey Party: (Cumhuriyetçi Demokrat Türkiye Partisi)

Founded on : September 3, 2003

Chairman : Serap Gülhan
New Faces Party; (Yeni Yüzler Partisi)

Founded on : August 2, 2002

Chairman : Münci İnci

Web site:

Turkey Party; (Türkiye Partisi)

Founded on : February 23, 2004

Chairman : Tekin Enerem,

Katılımcı Demokrasi Partisi: (Participatory Democracy Party KADEP)

Founded on : December 20, 2006

Chairman : Şerafettin ELÇİ

Web site:

Now banned

Fazilet Partisi (FP) (Virtue Party)

Founded 1997, banned June 2001. Fazilet replaced Refah Partisi (Welfare Party), which was dissolved by the Constitutional Court. Islamic fundamentalist. Interest in free market economy. Leader Recai Kutan. [1c]

Halkin Demokrasi Partisi (HADEP) (People’s Democracy Party)

Founded 1994. Pro-Kurdish nationalist party. Chairman Murat Bozlak. [1a] On 20 September 2002 Mr Bozlak was barred from running in the November 2002 general election because of his conviction in the past for sedition. [66b] In March 2003 HADEP was banned by the Constitutional Court on the grounds that it aided and abetted the PKK. [63c]

Refah Partisi (RP) (Welfare Party)

Founded 1983, closed by a Constitutional Court ruling in January 1998 that it had become the focal point of anti-secular activity. Islamic fundamentalist. Chair Prof. Necmettin Erbakan. [1b]

Main leftist and/or illegal political organisations
IMPORTANT. This section consists of the names of both legal and illegal organisations. Those organisations which are known to be illegal have this fact recorded in their entry below. It is not possible to have a fully comprehensive list of illegal parties, because of their constantly changing and clandestine nature.
Information on the current situation regarding leftist Parties in Turkey can be found on [52a] and [108]
For general information on terrorist organisations in Turkey:®ionid=1 [63a]

List of proscribed terrorist groups outlawed in the UK. [101]
The Turkish State sees three main threats: militant Kurdish nationalism/separatism; militant Marxist-Leninist groups; and armed radical Islamic movements. [2a]
Brief glossary

cephe = front

devrimci = revolutionary

emek = labour

halk = people

hareket = movement

işçi = worker

köylü = peasant, villager

kurtuluş= liberation

örgüt = organisation, association

özgür = free

özgürlük = freedom, liberty

Aczi-Mendi Group. Radical Islamic group.

Founded by Müslüm Gündüz in Elaziğ in 1985. The meaning of Aczi-Mendi is the “Sect of the Helpless Servants of Allah”. All group’s members dress in the same style, with black robes, turbans, and baggy trousers, and they carry sceptres. They hold their meetings in Elaziğ and in dervish lodges, which they have established in different cities. Dervish convents in Elaziğ, Gaziantep and Izmir have been closed by court order. [65]

Akabe. A radical Islamic group.

Author Mustafa Islamoğlu leads it. The legal branch of the group is AKEV (Akabe Education and Culture Association). [65]

BCH (Independent Republic Movement) (Bağimsiz Cumhuriyet Hareketi). [52b]

BDGP (United Revolutionary Forces Platform)

(Birleşik Devrimci Güçler Platformu) (Turkish)

(Platforma Hezen Soresgeren Yekgirti) (Kurdish)

Founded 1998. Radical left. [52b]

BP/KK-T (Bolshevik Party/North Kurdistan - Turkey) (Bolşevik Partisi/Küzey Kürdistan - Türkiye)

Illegal. Formed 1981 as TKP/ML (Bolsevik). Ex-Maoist, Stalinist. Publications - “Bolsevik Partizan”, “Roja Bolsevîk”. [52b]

Ceyshullah (Army of Allah).

Founded in Istanbul in 1995. Its aim is to bring about a theocratic regime in Turkey by “holy war”. Between 1994 and 1999 the Turkish police conducted six operations against Ceyshullah, and apprehended 33 members, as well as guns, pistols, bombs and other munitions. The members stated that they had been trained in Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan. [65]

Dev Sol See DHKP-C
Dev Yol (Revolutionary Path) (Devrimci Yol). See THKP/C

Founded 1975. Radical left. Part of ÖDP (see Annex B). Publications – “Bir Adim” (One Step), “Hareket” (Movement), “Devrimci Hareket” (Revolutionary Movement). [48] [18c]

Devrim Partisi-Kawa. See PS-Kawa
Devrimci Gençlik See DHKP-C
Devrimci Halk Hareketi (Revolutionary People’s Movement).

Split of TKIP in 1999. Radical left. Publication - “Devrimci Halk” (Revolutionary People). [52a]

Devrimci Hareket (Revolutionary Movement). [52b]

Devrimci Işçi Partisi - Insa Örgütü (Revolutionary Workers Party - Build up Organisation).

Trotskyist. Publication - “Enternasyonal Bülten”. [52a]

Devrimci Mücadele (Revolutionary Struggle).

Founded 1977 as Devrimci Derleniş. Radical left. Publication - “Devrimci Mücadele”. [52a]

Devrimci Sosyalist Yön (Revolutionary Socialist Direction) [52b]
DHKP-C / DHKP/C now known as the DHKC (Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party - Front) (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi - Cephesi) [54]

Illegal. Radical left. It was formed in 1993 as a splinter faction of Dev Sol (Devrimci-Sol, Revolutionary Left), which was founded in 1978 and which went out of existence following the split. The other splinter faction, known as THKP/C Devrimci Sol, is on hostile terms with DHKP/C, but constitutes a far smaller group in scale and significance. Although DHKP/C has long had a difficult relationship with the PKK, it has repeatedly expressed is solidarity with the Kurdish armed struggle.

DHKP/C seeks to overthrow the existing Turkish system of government by armed revolution and to replace it with a Marxist-Leninist state. Its terrorist operations are aimed in particular at the Turkish security forces and public figures, as well as at bodies seen by the group as “symbols of imperialism”. An attack on a bank in Istanbul in September 1999 left 23 people injured. The authorities struck a major blow at DHKP/C in 1999, arresting 160 members and seizing a large quantity of arms and explosives. In August 2000 the police caught seven DHKP/C members trying to plant a bomb at an airforce base. DHKP/C was in action again in 2001 with various operations, including an attack on a police car on 10 April, in which a passer-by was killed and two police officers injured. The US State Dept. report for 2001 records that DHKP-C suicide bombers attacked police stations in Istanbul in January and September 2001, killing several police officers and civilians.

Many of those involved in the hunger strikes in Turkish prisons in late 2000 and early 2001 came from among DHKP/C’s ranks. The group drummed up large-scale support throughout Europe for protests in connection with those events. In Turkey itself the protests included a bomb attack on a police station in Istanbul on 3 January 2001, following which the organisation announced that this was in retaliation for the deaths of 30 prisoners in a prison clearance operation. Turkey’s Anatolia news agency reported that, according to a circular distributed to police stations in Istanbul, the organisation had planned further attacks. [2a] Ankara State Security Court prosecutor Talat Salk alleged in a 1999 court case that DHKP/C conducts its activities under the names of HÖP (Haklar ve Özgürlükler Platformu) (Rights and Freedoms Platform), the outlawed Devrimci Gençlik (Revolutionary Youth), and TODEF (Türkiye Öğrenci Dernekleri Federasyonu) (Federation of Turkish Students and Youth Associations). [23a] Publications - “Yaşadiğimiz Vatan”, “Devrimci Sol”, “Kurtuluş” (Liberation). [52a] In UK the DHKP-C is part of the List of Proscribed international groups under the Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations). [101]
DHP (Revolutionary People’s Party) (Devrimci Halk Partisi)

Founded 1994. Close to the PKK. Publication - “Alternatif” (Alternative). [52a]

Direniş Hareketi (Resistance Movement)

Founded 1978 as THKP/C - Üçüncü Yol. Radical left. Publication - “Odak”. [52a]

Dördüncü Sol - Insa Örgütü (Fourth Left - Construction Organisation)

Trotskyist. Publication - “Son Kavga” (Last Fight). [52a]

DPG (Revolutionary Party Forces) (Devrimci Parti Güçleri)

Radical left. Illegal. [52a]

DSIH (Revolutionary Socialist Workers Movement) (Devrimci Sosyalist Işçi Hareketi)

Illegal. Radical left. Publication - “Kaldiraç” (Lever); Isçi Gazetesi [52a] [52a]

DSIP (Revolutionary Socialist Workers Party) (Devrimci Sosyalist Işçi Partisi).

Founded 1997. Legal. Trotskyist. Publication - “Sosyalist Işçi” (Socialist Worker); Enternasyonal Sosyalism. [52a]

ESP (Socialist Platform of the Oppressed) (Ezilenlerin Solyalist Platformu). Founded in 2002. [52a] In December 2004, the group’s publication Atilim reported that 46 of its members were arrested as members of the illegal MLKP and that a court claimed that ESP which is a legitimate organisation was in fact the legal branch of the MLKP.
Gerçek (Truth)

Publication – Gerçek. [52b] [52a]

Hareket (Movement) [52b]
HDÖ (People’s Revolutionary Leaders) (Halkin Devrimci Öncüleri)

Illegal. [48] [18c]

Hevgirtin Welatparez (Patriotic Union) [52a]
Hizb-I Kuran. See Med-Zehra
Hizbullah/Ilim Gruhu and Hizbullah/Menzil Grubu.

Both are illegal. Hizbullah/Hezbollah is a very shadowy Islamist group which originated in the 1980s in southeast Turkey. It advocates the establishment of an Islamic state by violent means. When a major Hizbullah leader was killed by PKK fighters in 1991, a difference of opinion emerged within the organisation as to whether the time was yet right to wreak revenge on the PKK, and also to take up arms in pursuit of its own objective. One faction, centring on the Menzil publishing house (and known as the Menzil group), took the view that the organisation was not yet sufficiently well-developed to pitch into armed struggle. The other, centred on the Ilim publishing house and known as the Ilim group, thought the time was ripe for armed revenge on the PKK. Its idea was as far as possible to let the Turkish State do the dirty work for it in combating the PKK. The Ilim group bore particular responsibility for the atrocities committed by Hizbullah. The group had an ideological aversion to Iran, which adhered to Shia Islam; the Ilim group was striving for a Sunni Islam state. When the Ilim group managed to kill some of the Menzil group’s main leaders in 1996, the Menzil group disintegrated and faded away. Some former Menzil members then joined the Ilim group, and, from 1996, Hizbullah become synonymous with the violent Ilim faction. Rumours were rife that Hizbullah was at least tolerated by the security forces because it was fighting against a common enemy, and it has been held responsible for a large number of disappearances and killings. Its victims included a former DEP member of parliament, Mehmet Sincar, and an Islamic feminist writer, Konca Kuris. President Demirel denied allegations that there were links between Hizbullah and Turkish officialdom, while the general staff of the armed forces issued an angry statement condemning such allegations as slander.

From 1997 onwards the Turkish authorities began to take tougher action against Hizbullah, with a reported 130 supporters arrested in 1998, 250 in 1999 and 3300 in 2000. In a raid on a home in the Üsküdar area of Istanbul on 17 January 2000 Hüseyin Velioğlu, Hizbullah’s founder and leader, was killed, and two other people arrested. On the basis of evidence found in the home, many other premises were searched, revealing the bodies of thirteen missing businessmen. With many more corpses being uncovered in the following months, the public prosecutor was able to press charges against 21 people on 156 counts of murder in the major Hizbullah trial which opened on 10 July 2000. During an interrogation, a Hizbullah suspect reportedly confessed to killing moderate Islamic scholar Konca Kuris in the early 1990s. In November 2002 an appeals court acquitted five defendants and sentenced the others to prison terms ranging from life to 45 months. The security forces’ many operations against Hizbullah have inflicted heavy setbacks on it, and the number of bombings carried out by the group has fallen from 302 in the first eight months of 1999 to 94 in the corresponding period of 2000. However, the provincial governor of Diyarbakır stated in October 2000 that, in spite of those serious setbacks, Hizbullah could certainly not yet be considered to have been eliminated. There are said to be many teachers and religious officials involved in the organisation. As of February 2000, Hizbullah was said to have had in Turkey some 20,000 members, who were organised in tight cells and knew a few of their fellow members because they were sworn to strict secrecy. They were said to operate in teams of two or three people, who “would stalk their victim before one member of the group carried out the execution by shooting the target in the neck with a single bullet, while the other kept a watch. A third militant may have assumed the duty of protecting the executioner.” Up to the time of the security forces’ major action in January 2000, there were no known instances of Hizbullah’s having targeted the authorities in its operations. Since then, however, armed incidents have taken place. On 11 October 2000 in Diyarbakır a policeman was killed in a gunfight with Hizbullah, which has also been linked with the shooting dead of the province’s chief of police, Gaffar Okkan, and five of his officers in January 2001. In April 2001 a Hizbullah member was arrested on suspicion of involvement in that attack. The USSD 2004 reported that the Government continued to detain persons, particularly in the southeastern province of Batman, on suspicion of links to Hizballahan that 1,500 political prisoners were alleged members of Hizballah or other radical Islamist political organizations. On 5 February 2005 Turkish Daily News reported that, acting upon intelligence that the group was trying to regroup the security forces had arrested 22 suspected Hizbullah militants in 18 provinces.

[2a] [5a] [5c] [7a] [23r] [32b] [48] [65]
Hizbullah Vahdet

Radical Islamic group, which centred on the Vahdet publisher in the 1980s. The group’s leader is Abdulvahap Ekinci. The group’s legal foundations are Davet Education and Culture Association and Abdulkadir Geylani Trust. The group publishes a periodical called “Vahdet”. [65]

IBDA-C (Islamic Great East Raiders - Front) (Islami Büyük Doğu Akincilar Cephesi)

Illegal Iranian-backed fundamentalist group which seeks the establishment of an Islamic republic based on strict Shariah or religious law. It attacks the PKK as well as the Turkish establishment.

IBDA-C is reportedly organised in small, isolated cells. Members organise independently without any hierarchical authority. Usually each cell does not have information about another cell’s actions. There are two different types of cell. One type carries out propagandist actions, publishing books and periodicals, and organising meetings, conferences or exhibitions. The other type includes such cells as “Ultra Force”, “Altinordu”, “Lazistan”, and “Union of Revolutionist Sufis”. IBDA-C is active in publication, and has many bookstores, websites and print-houses. Meetings are held in bookstores. Some of its periodicals are “Ak-Doguş”, Ak-Zuhur”, Akin Yolu”, “Taraf”, and “Tahkim”. IBDA-C has been linked with a number of terrorist attacks, especially in the early 1990s. It frequently makes use of explosives and Molotov cocktails in its attacks, and has often targeted banks, casinos, Christian churches and Atatürk monuments. IBDA/C has been linked with the fatal bomb attack in October 1999 on a secular professor, Ahmet Taner Kişlali, who was best known as a journalist for the Cumhuriyet newspaper. In December 1999 and February 2000 IBDA/C members sparked off bloody clashes in Metris prison when they attempted, by armed force, to prevent guards from entering their cell. In the December riot, 54 soldiers were injured and 100 hostages taken by IBDA/C, which also laid claim to the fatal attack on two police officers in Istanbul on 1 April 2001. Proceedings were brought against IBDA/C’s leader, Salih Izzet Erdiş, known by the nom de guerre Salih Mirzabeyoğlu, before Istanbul State Security Court in February 2000, seeking to have the death penalty imposed on him for leadership of an illegal organisation working for the establishment of an Islamic state. On 3 April 2001 he was sentenced to death by that court. [2a] [48] [34] [65]

IHÖ (Islamic Movement Organisation) (Islami Hareket Örgütü)

Illegal. [48]

Ilerici Gençlik (Progressive Youth) [52b]
IMO (Islamic Movement Organisation)

Its goal was to found an Islamic State in Turkey. Members were trained in Iran. Usually high level militants were sent abroad for training in guerrilla tactics, using weapons, and producing bombs. Irfan Cagrici, the director of the operations team, was caught by police in Istanbul in 1996. After the command and control of IMO had been weakened, IMO collapsed, and today most of its members are in prison. [65]

Işçi Demokrasisi (Workers Democracy)

Founded 1998; split of DSIP. Trotskyist. Publication - “Işçi Demokrasisi”. [52a]

Jerusalem Fighters See Kudüs Savaşçilari
Kaplancilar /Sözde Hilafet Devleti.

Illegal. [48]

KDB (Communist Revolutionary Union) (Komünist Devrimci Birlik)

Illegal. [48]

KDH (Communist Revolutionary Movement) (Komünist Devrim Hareketi) Publications - “Maya” (Ferment), “Parti Yolunda” Illegal. [48] [52a]
KDH/L (Communist Revolutionary Movement/Leninist) (Komünist Devrim Hareketi/Leninist)

Illegal. Publication – “Köz”. [52b] [52a] [48]


Kongra-Gel See PKK
KKP (Kurdistan Communist Party) (Kürdistan Komünist Partisi)

Illegal. [48]

Kongreya Azadî û Demokrasiya (Kurdistan Freedom and democracy Congress) [52b]
KP(IÖ) (Communist Party (Build Up Organisation)) (Komünist Partisi (Inşa Örgütü))

Illegal. Ex-Maoist, Stalinist. Split of MLKP in 1995. Publication - “Halkin Birliği”. [52a] [48]

KSB (Communist Fighters Union) (Komünist Savaşçilar Birliği)

Publication – “Işçi Davasi”. [52a]

Kudüs Savaşçilari (Jerusalem Fighters)

Islamic splinter group, said to have links with Iran. Police operations in May 2000 brought the arrest of some members and the discovery of various arms caches. [2a]

KUK (Kurdistan National Liberationists) (Kurdistan Ulusal Kurtulusculari)

Marxist-Leninist. Established 1978. Its initial aim is to establish an independent Kurdistan in east and southeast Turkey, and then to unite this republic with territories in which Kurds live in Iran, Iraq and Syria. KUK-MK leaders are Dasraf Bilek (General Secretary), Sait Özsoy, Vasfi Özdemir, Mahfuz Yetmen, Şevket Kaçmaz, Lütfi Baksi. KUK-SE leaders are K. Başibüyük, Yalçin Büyük (Gen. Sec.), Abdurrahman Bayram, Abdurrahman Esmer, Yasemin Çubuk, Zeynel Abidin Özalp, and Yusuf Ahmet Bartan. [65]

M-18 See MLKP

Malatyalilar (From Malatya/Malatyaites)

This radical splinter group, also known as Şafak-Değişim, advocates establishment of an Islamic state. The group first attracted attention at demonstrations against the ban on wearing the veil, in 1997 and 1998, and related disturbances in Malatya. Apart from Malatya, the organisation is reported also to be active in Istanbul, Gaziantep, Erzurum and Kayseri. In October 2000 the security forces carried out a large-scale operation against the group, arresting some 250 people in 28 provinces. Although there have (as of May 2001) been no known Malatyalilar acts of violence, a large number of arms were found in that swoop by the security forces. [2a] The group’s leader is Zekeriya Şengöz. The group’s leading members come from the city of Malatya in southeast Turkey. The group publishes “Değisim” (Metamorphosis) periodical. In addition, it has founded a legal trust named “Islamic Solidarity Trust”, which is active in Istanbul. The group calls itself “Şafak” (Down Group), and in university circles they use the signature of “Muslim Youth”. [65]

Marksist Tutum (Marxist Attitude). [52b]
Mezhepsizler Grubu. Illegal. [48]
Med-Zehra, also called Hizb-i Kuran (The Party of Q’uran)

A radical Islamist group, named after the university, Medresetu’z-Zehra, which Said Nursi (who was the originator of the Nurcu movement (probably the most important religious movement in Turkish Kurdistan), and who died in 1969) wished to establish in Kurdistan. Med-Zehra is an important representative of Kurdish Islamic movements. It opposes the Turkish Government, and refuses to employ constitutional methods. [7c]

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