Country of Origin Information Report

MIB (Marxist Workers League). (Marksist Isçi Birligi) Trotskyist. [52a]


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MIB (Marxist Workers League). (Marksist Isçi Birligi)

Trotskyist. [52a]

MLKP (Marxist Leninist Communist Party) (Marksist Leninist Komünist Partisi)

Illegal. Founded in September 1994; merger of TKP/ML - Hareketi, TKIH, TKP/ML(YIÖ). Stalinist. It seeks the armed overthrow of Turkey’s present political system. It also sees itself as representing the Kurdish community, and wants to throw off the “fascist colonial yoke” by means of armed struggle, having its own armed wing, known as M-18. In May 1998 MLKP abducted Tacettin Asci, treasurer of the Bursa branch of the Turkish Human Rights Association, and Ahmet Aydin, and on 7 June 1998 it issued a statement saying that the two had been “executed” as police informers. Amnesty International said that it was appalled to learn of the killings, and added that the fact that the bodies had not been recovered suggested that the victims may have been interrogated under torture by their captors. Amnesty urged that the bodies be surrendered, and also that those responsible for the murders be brought to justice. Publications - “Partinin Sesi”, “Atilim” (Progress); Teori’de; Dogrultu. [2a] [52a] [85] See also ESP

MLSPB (Marxist-Leninist Armed Propaganda Unit) (Marksist Leninist Silahli Propaganda Birliği)

Illegal. Founded 1975 as split from THKP/C; political military. Radical left. Publication - “Barikat” (Barricade). [48]

Müslüman Gençlik Grubu (Muslim Youth Group)

Illegal. [48]

PADEK (Freedom and Democracy Party of Kurdistan)

(Partiya Azadî û Demokrasî ya Kurdistanê) (Kurdish)

(Kürdistan Özgürlük ve Demokrasi Partisi) (Turkish)

Founded 2000 by faction of PYSK (Kurdistan Sosyalist Birlik Partisi). Left, Kurdish nationalist. Illegal. [52b] [52a]

PDK (Kürdistan Demokrat Partisi)

Illegal. [48]

PDK/Bakur (Democratic Party of Kurdistan/North)

(Partî Demokratî Kurdistan/Bakur) (Kurdish)

(Kürdistan Demokrat Partisi/Küzey) (Turkish)

Illegal. Founded 1992 as PDK/Hevgirtin. Left, Kurdish nationalist. It aims to unite Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey under the flag of an independent Socialist Kurdistan Republic. Publication - “Dênge Bakur”. [52a] [48] [65]

PDK(T) (Democratic Party of Kurdistan (Turkey)

(Kürdistan Demokrat Partisi (Türkiye) (Turkish)

(Partîya Demokrat a Kurdistan (Türkiyê) (Kurdish)

Left, Kurdish nationalist. Illegal, founded 1965. Publication - “Xebat”. [52a]

PIK (Islamic Kurdistan Party) (Partiya Islamiya Kurdistan)

Founded 1979. PIK’s main aim is to establish an Islamic state, and its members see this as a holy mission. Its strategy is allegedly to create chaos in Turkey, to destabilise government institutions, to start a nationwide revolt, and to establish an Islamic Kurdistan. It is active in eastern and southeastern Turkey, especially in Malatya. It has branches in Ankara and Istanbul. Leaders of the party include Prof. Dr, Muhammad Salih Mustafa (Party President and General Emir/Governor), Osman Caner (Emir of Students and Youth) and Sukuti Evcim (Director of Youth. [65]

PKK also known as KADEK and more recently KHK or Kongra-Gel (Kurdistan Workers’ Party)

(Partîya Karkerên Kurdistan) (Kurdish)

(Kürdistan Işçi Partisi) (Turkish) and

Illegal. Founded on 27 November 1978. It advocates armed struggle both at home and abroad, to achieve an independent Kurdish state slicing through Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran, and launched the struggle in 1984. 57-member directorate. Its components include ERNK (the National Liberation Front of Kurdistan), the PKK’s “popular front and propaganda division”, and ARGK (the Kurdistan National Liberation Army), the PKK’s “popular army”. Leadership: Abdullah “Apo” Öcalan. The PKK’s armed operations in south-eastern Turkey, starting in 1984 and peaking from 1990 to 1994, involved attacks on civilians (in many cases Kurdish) and military targets, causing very many deaths. The PKK was guilty of human rights violations, including murders, especially in rural parts of the south-east, but also in other areas. The victims were mainly Jandarma officers, mayors, teachers, imams, village guards and their families, reluctant recruits, young villagers, refusing to fight for the PKK, and (former) PKK members acting as informants for the Turkish authorities. From the outset, the Turkish army took tough action against the PKK. The PKK attempted to make the south-east ungovernable, by systematically destroying economic and social infrastructure etc., and by deliberately polarising the local population. Many village schools were closed down, not least as a result of the PKK’s policy, up until 1996, of killing schoolteachers. According to information from the Turkish authorities, a total of just over 23,000 PKK fighters and around 5000 members of the armed forces and security forces have been killed since 1987 in the conflict with the PKK. Just over 4400 civilians are reported to have been killed. The Injured number just over 11,000 armed forces and security forces members, and around 5400 civilians. No figures are given for injured PKK fighters. On 3 August 1999 Abdullah Öcalan called on PKK fighters to end their armed struggle and withdraw by 1 September to beyond Turkey’s borders. On 1 September his brother Osman, a member of PKK’s command council, announced that the PKK would do this with immediate effect. The extent to which Öcalan’s call has been followed by PKK fighters can be seen from figures from the Turkish army high command in May 2000, showing only 500 out of 5500 PKK fighters still to be in Turkey. In the first five months of 2000, the number of clashes between the army and guerrillas had fallen to 18, as against 3300 at its peak in 1994 and 48 in 1999. There were few armed clashes in 2001, and a near absence of PKK violence in 2002. In April 2002 the PKK announced that it had ceased activities and had regrouped as KADEK, the Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress (Kürdistan Özgürlük ve Demokrasi Kongresi). The change of name did not affect the policy of the Turkish State towards members of the PKK/KADEK. Publication - “Serxwebûn” (written in Turkish).

[1a] [2a] [5a] [18c] [63a] [67] [52a] [48] In the UK PKK is part of the List of Proscribed international groups under the Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations). [101]
On the 29 May 2004 the BBC reported that Kongra-Gel declared that its five-year unilateral cease-fire would end in three days time (on the 1 June 2004) and that it would start to target Turkish security forces. [66w] In January 2005 the Turkish Daily News reported that, according to a report released by the Diyarbakir Human Rights Associations, the number of armed conflict between security forces and the Kurdistan’s Workers Party (PKK/Kongra-Gel) increased. While 104 people died and 31 were wounded in armed clashes in 2003, 219 people died and 126 were wounded in 2004. [23l] On 8 October 2005, the Turkish Daily News reported that the PKK had said it ended a unilateral ceasefire against Turkey. [23ac]
PKK-DCS (PKK – Devrimci Çizgi Savasçilari) (PKK-Serwanên Xeta Soresgerî) (PKK – Revolutionary Line Fighters). Radical leftist, Kurdish-nationalist, illegal, split from PKK 1999. Publication: Devrimci Çizgi. [52b] [52a]
PKK/KKP (Communist Party of Kurdistan)

(Partiya Komunistê Kurdistan) (Kurdish)

(Kürdistan Komünist Partisi) (Turkish)

Founded 1990 by Kurdish section of TKEP. Communist. Publication – “Dengê Kurdistan”. [52a]

PKK Vejin (Resurgence)

As noted in the website Terror Organisation in Turkey:

”After the Fourth [KADEK] Congress, three opposing members Sari Baran, Mehmet Sener and Faik (K) have formed another organisation called Vejin (Resurgence). This organisation was in the same direction with KADEK but it was giving its members more social rights, [such] as marriage and the right to resign from the organisation in [sic] every time the member wished. The leaders of Vejin have stated that their objective is to establish a Federal Kurdistan in the Turkish territories. Mehmet Sener was killed in Syria with A. Ocalan’s command. After Mehmet Sener’s death, Vejin and KADEK began to fight against each other.” [65]

PNBK (National Platform of North Kurdistan)

(Platforma Neteweyî ya Bakûrê Kurdistanê) (Kurdish)

(Kuzey Kurdistan Ulusal Platformu) (Turkish)

Founded 1999. Left, Kurdish nationalist. Illegal. [52a]

PRK/Rizgari (Liberation Party of Kurdistan)

Partîya Rizgariya Kurdistan (Kurdish)

Kürdistan Kurtulus Partisi (Turkish)

Illegal. Founded 1976. Radical left, Kurdish nationalist. The party’s aim is to establish an independent Kurdistan, and extend this to an independent United Socialist Kurdistan with territory which is at present part of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. Publications - “Rizgari”, “Stêrka Rizgarî”. [52a] [48] [65]

PRNK (National Liberation Party of Kurdistan) (Kürdistan Ulusal Özgürlük Partisi)

Illegal. Probably disbanded. [48]

PS-Kawa (Revolutionary Party) (Partîya Sores)

Illegal. Founded 1998 as split of PYSK (Kurdistan Sosyalist Birlik Partisi). [48] [52a]

PSK (Socialist Party of Kurdistan)

(Partîya Sosyalist a Kurdistan) (Kurdish)

Kürdistan Sosyalist Partisi (Turkish)

Illegal. Founded 1974. Left, Kurdish nationalist. Its legal wing is the DBP (see Annex B). Publications - “Roja Nû”, “psk-bulten”. Leader Kemel Burkay. [48]

PSK- (Kurdistan Revolutionary Party)

(Devrimci Kürdistan Partisi) (Turkish)

(Partîya Soreşa Kürdistan) (Kurdish)

Illegal. [48]

Revolutionary Marxist League

Trotskyist. [52a]

RNK/KUK (Kürdistan Ulusal Kurtuluşçular)

Illegal. [48]

RSDK (Socialist Democratic Organisation of Kurdistan)

(Rêxistina Sosyalîst a Demokratîk a Kurdistanê) (Kurdish)

(Kürdistan Demokratik ve Sosyalist Örgütü) (Turkish)

Split of PYSK (Kurdistan Sosyalist Birlik Partisi). [52a]

Şafak-Değişim See Malatyalilar
SED (Social Ecological Transformation) (Sosial Ekolijist Dönüsüm)

Green. Publication – Kara Toprak. [52a]

SEH (Socialist Labour Movement) (Sosyalist Emek Hareketi)

Publication – “Siyasi Gazete” (Political Gazette). [52b] [52a]

Selam Grubu.

Illegal. [48]

Selefi (from the Arabic “Salafi”, referring to an Islamic revivalist movement which seeks to emulate the lives of the earliest Muslims).

The organisation, which was established in 1993 by an imam, supports religious law. In raids in 1999, the Turkish authorities seized eight rocket rifles, one Kalashnikov, and 650 rounds of ammunition. The Turkish State considers the organisation to be terrorist. [20] [30d]

SIP See Sosyalist Iktidar Partisi - Komünist Parti
Sosyalist Alternatif (Socialist Alternative).

Part of ÖDP (see Annex B). Trotskyist. Publication - “Sosyalist Alternatif”. [52a]

Sosyalist Iktidar Partisi - Komünist Parti (Party for Socialist Power – Communist Party)

Founded 1993, Communist, legal, gained 0.12% of the national vote in the April 1999 general election. Changed its name in November 2001 to TKP (Türkiye Komünist Partisi) (Turkish Communist Party); it is unclear whether this is different from, or identical to, the TKP which is listed later in this annex. Gained 0.19% of the national vote in the November 2002 general election. Publications – “Sosyalist Iktidar” (Socialist Power), “Sol” (Left). [30a] [52a]

Sosyalist Politika (Socialist Politics)

Part of ÖDP (see Annex B). Publication - “Sosyalist Politika”. [52a]


Illegal. [48]

TAYAD (the Solidarity Association of Prisoners’ Families) (Tutuklu ve Hükümlü Aileleri Yardimlasma Dernegi)

In January 2001 the headquarters and various branches in Istanbul of the TAYAD were closed after it had held weekly demonstrations over a period of months against the introduction of the new cell system in prisons. Various executive members were arrested. The authorities regard TAYAD as a cover for the revolutionary DHKP/C. The organisation was consequently proscribed for a few years in the early 1990s. [2a]

TAK (Kurdish Liberation Hawks/Falcons) a radical Kurdish group said to have carried out various actions including the bombing in Cesme and Kusadasi in July 2005, two bomb explosions in Istanbul in February 2006, an explosion at the Mezitli offices of AKP in the same month, a bomb attack targeting a police building in Izmir in March 2006. The Tak is considered an offshoot of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) and a cover group for PKK although the PKK denies any links. [23g] [23f] [66az] [66bj] [66bk]
TDKP (Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Devrimci Komünist Partisi).

Illegal. Founded 1980. Ex-Maoist, Stalinist. Its legal wing is Emep (Labourers Party) (see Annex B). Publication - “Devrimin Sesi”. [47] [52a]

TDP (Revolution Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Devrim Partisi)

Illegal. Founded 1978, formerly TKP (Birlik). Radical left. Publication - “Hedef” (Target). [52a] [48] [52a]


Islamic splinter group said to have links with Iran. The group adopts Hizbullahi ideas, and is closely related to the Hizbullah and Menzil groups. It began to publish “Şehadet” (Testimony) and “Tehvid” (Unification) periodicals, and nowadays publishes “Selam” (Greeting, Salute), a weekly newspaper. Police operations in May 2000 brought the arrest of some members and the discovery of various arms caches. [2a] [65]

THKP/C Acilciler (Turkish Peoples’ Liberation Party and Front – The Urgent Ones) (Türkiye Halk Kurtuluş Partisi/Cephesi Acilciler)

Illegal. Probably disbanded. [52a] [48]

THKP/C- Dev Sol (People’s Liberation Party/Front of Turkey - Revolutionary Left) (Türkiye Halk Kurtuluş Partisi/Cephesi - Devrimci Sol)

Illegal. Founded 1993 as split of Dev Sol. Political military. Radical left. Publication - “Devrimci Çözüm” (Revolutionary Solution). [52a] [48] [52b]

THKP/C- Dev Yol.

Illegal. [48]

THKP-C/HDÖ (People’s Liberation Party/Front of Turkey - People’s Revolutionary Vanguards) (Türkiye Halk Kurtulus Partisi ve Cephesi - Halkin Devrimci Öncüleri) Founded 1977. Political military. Radical left. Publications - “Cephe” (Front, Façade), “Kurtuluş” (Liberation), “Kurtulus Cephesi” (Liberation Front). [52a] [52b]

THKP/C-MLSPB (People’s Liberation Party/Front of Turkey – Marxist Leninist Armed Propaganda Unit) (Türkiye Halk Kurtulus Partisi ve Cephesi – Marksist Leninist Silahli Propaganda Birligi)

Publication – “Barikat” (Barricade). [52b] [52a]

TIKB (Revolutionary Communists Union of Turkey) (Türkiye Ihtilalci Komünistler Birliği)

Illegal. Founded 1977. Political military. Ex-Maoist, Stalinist. Publications - “Ihtilalci Komünist”, “Orak-Çekiç”, “Devrimci Proletarya”, “Alinterimiz”. [48] [52a]

TIKB - B (Revolutionary Communists Union of Turkey - Bolshevik) (Türkiye Ihtilalci Komünistler Birliği - Bolşevik)

Illegal. Split of TIKB. Radical left. Publication - “Devrimci Duruş” (Revolutionary Attitude). [48] [52a]

TIKKO (Turkish Workers’ and Peasants’ Liberation Army) (Türkiye Işçi Köylu Kurtuluş Ordusu or Türk Işçiler Köylüler Kurtuluş Ordusu).

Illegal armed resistance movement, which was set up in 1972 by TKP/ML. It advocates the violent overthrow of the Turkish government and abolition of the entire Turkish political system. Members (a maximum of several thousand people) are scattered in small cells throughout Turkey. The armed guerrilla units are used by both TKP/ML and TKP(ML) in common for their terrorist operations. Amnesty International notes that in the early 1990s TIKKO and other organisations would frequently announce, that this journalist, or that Kurdish villager, had been “punished”. Since then, the numbers of such killings have fallen notably. In September 2000 a police operation against TIKKO in Istanbul brought the arrest of the head of its local section. On 6 October 2000 a suicide squad attacked the military training college in the Harbiye district of Istanbul. TKP/ML also claimed responsibility for an attack on a police car on 11 December 2000, in which two policemen were killed. February 2001 saw two armed clashes between TIKKO and the security forces. The attack on a Jandarma general in Çorum on 22 March 2001 was said by the authorities to have been carried out by TIKKO, which reportedly itself on 28 March 2001 laid claim to the attack. [2a] In June 2002 TIKKO reportedly abducted and killed Muharrem Hız from Sırçalı village, Tokat province. [9a] There used to be a division of labour between PKK and TIKKO guerrillas, with the PKK carrying on the combat in south-eastern Turkey and TIKKO in the Black Sea region. In October 1999 TKP/ML announced its complete disagreement with Öcalan’s call to end the armed struggle. [2a]

TIP (Workers Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Isci Partisi) [52a]
TKEP (Communist Labour Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Komünist Emek Partisi)

Illegal. Founded 1980, part of ÖDP (Özgürlük ve Dayanisme Partisi - see Annex B). Communist. [48] [52a]

TKEP- Leninist (Communist Labour Party of Turkey - Leninist) (Türkiye Komünist Emek Partisi - Leninist)

Illegal. Split of TKEP in 1990. Political military. Communist. Publications - “Devrimci Emek” (Revolutionary Labour), “Devrim Iscin Mücadele Birligi. [48] [52b] [52a]

TKIP (Communist Workers Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Komünist Işçi Partisi)

Illegal. Founded 1998. Ex-Maoist, radical left. Publications - “Ekim” (Sowing, Planting), “Kizil Bayrak” (Red Flag) [52a] [48] [72]

TKKKÖ (Turkey and North Kurdistan Liberation Organisation) (Türkiye ve Kuzey Kürdistan Kurtuluş Örgütü)

Illegal. [48]

TKP (Communist Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi)

Founded 1980 as TKP - Iscinin Sesi. Communist. Publication - “Iscinin Sesi” (Workers’ Voice). [52a]

TKP/IS (Communist Party of Turkey/Workers Voice) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi/Işçinin Sesi).

Illegal. [48] [52a]

TKP- Kivilcim (Communist Party of Turkey - Spark) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi - Kivilcim). Illegal. Founded 1989 by Socialist Homeland Party (SVP). Communist. Publications - “Kivilcim” (Spark), “Zafere Kadar Direnis”, “Yol” (The Way), “Widerstand”. [48] [52b]

TKP/ML (Communist Party of Turkey/ Marxist Leninist) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi/ Marksist-Leninist).

Founded 1972. Political military. Based on Maoist ideology. The party has suffered several divisions, with each faction claiming to be “the real party”. In 1994 it split into two wings: a partisan wing, retaining the old name TKP/ML, and an Eastern Anatolian regional committee, assuming the almost identical name TKP(ML). Talks have been under way since late 1999 concerning reunification of the two wings. In 1972 TKP/ML set up armed guerrilla units, known as TIKKO (Türk Işçiler Köylüler Kurtuluş Ordusu - Turkish Workers’ and Peasants’ Liberation Army), which are used by both TKP/ML and TKP(ML) in common for their terrorist operations. In October 1999 TKP/ML announced its complete disagreement with the call by Abdullah Öcalan, PKK leader, to end the armed struggle. TKP/ML claimed responsibility for an attack on a police car on 11 December 2000; two policemen were killed in the attack. Publications - “Partizan”, “Isci-Köylü Kurtuluşu”, “Özgür Gelecek” (Free Future). [2a] [67] [52a] [52b] [69]

TKP(ML) (Communist Party of Turkey (Marxist-Leninist) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi (Marksist-Leninist).

Split of TKP/ML in 1994. Political military. Maoist. Publications - “Isçi Köylü Kurtuluşu”, “Devrimci Demokrasi” (Revolutionary Democracy), “Öncü Partizan” (Pioneer Partisan). [52a]

TKP/(M-L) DABK (Communist Party of Turkey (Marxist-Leninist) East Anadolu Area Committee) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi (Marksist-Leninist) Doğu Anadolu Bölge Komitesi)

Illegal. [48]

TKP/M-L Kons. Kes (Communist Party of Turkey/ Marxist-Leninist Conferencing Body) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi/Marksist-Leninist Koferansçi Kesim).

Illegal. [48]

TKP/ML (Maoist Parti Merkezi) (Communist Party of Turkey/ Marxist-Leninist (Maoist Party Centre)) (Türkiye Komünist Partisi/ Marksist Leninist (Maoist Parti Merkezi))

Illegal. Split of TKP/ML in 1987. Political military. Maoist. Publication - “Iktidara”. [48] [52b]

Toplumsal Özgürlük Platformu (Social Freedom Platform).

Part of ÖDP (see Annex B). [52a]

TSIP (Socialist Workers Party of Turkey) (Türkiye Sosyalist Isçi Partisi).

Founded 1993. Legal. Communist. Publication - “Kitle” (Mass, Crowd). [52a]

Türkiye’de Marksist-Leninist Parti (Marxist Leninist Party in Turkey).

Founded in 1980 as TKP/ML Spartakus. Stalinist. Publications - “Spartakus”, “Bilimsel Komünizmin Sancaği Altinda”. [52b]

UIC (Union of Islamic Communities)

Founded 1983. Its initial goal is to unite Muslims living in Europe under one roof. Its main goal is to establish a Federal Islamic State in Anatolia. Its founder Cemalettin Kaplan declared himself the “caliph” of all Muslims in 1994, and from then on UIC called itself the “Caliphate State”. After he died in 1995, his son Metin Kaplan replaced him as “caliph”. Some members of UIC have rejected Metin Kaplan’s caliphate, and UIC has divided into three groups. UIC has 200-300 members in Turkey, largely in Istanbul, Konya, Adana, Sivas, Aydin, and Maraş, and 1300 members in Germany. In Germany in 1999 Metin Kaplan declared a holy war against In Turkey. The German authorities arrested Metin Kaplan in March 1999. He was extradited from Germany in 2004 after Turkey banned the death penalty. The Turkish police have conducted operations against UIC militants in Sivas, Sakarya, Erzurum, Bursa and Çanakkale. As reported by BBC News on 20 June 2005, Metin Kaplan was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to overthrow Turkey’s secular system. However, on 30 November 2005, BBC News reported that the appeals court had ruled that there had been inadequate investigation and procedural deficiencies in the case and Kaplan’s conviction was overturned. [65] [66bf] [66bm]

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