Country report england and wales



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When the subjective stress of the flood event was considered as a measure of vulnerability, introducing the social dimension revealed the importance of social inequalities in vulnerability to flooding. In the model shown in Table 6.21, three flood characteristics, contamination of flood waters, the extent, and to a lesser degree, the depth of flooding were important predictors. Warning lead time emerged as a weak predictor of reduced stress. However, the inclusion of social and dwelling variables greatly enhanced the albeit still limited explanatory power of the model with 18% of the variance in subjective stress explained by the predictors. In this model living in lower house price and thus less affluence areas was a predictor of higher stress levels and being in social grades AB was a predictor of lower stress levels. Renting the dwelling was another factor reflecting social disadvantage that was a predictor of higher stress levels, although not a very significant one (not significant at <0.05 level). Gender was a factor for stress, as it was for worst time GHQ12 scores, with men as predictors of lower scores. There were some factors in the model that were counter to expectations although generally consistent with the bi-variate analyses. Thus living alone was a predictor of lower stress scores. The same was true of being in the 65 and over age group.


Table 6.21: Social, dwelling and flood event characteristics and stress and overall severity

Stress of the flood event

Number of cases = 816, R2 = 0.189, R2 (adjusted) = 0. 180





Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.




B

Std. Error

Beta







(Constant)


3.887

.387




10.042

.000

Contamination of floodwaters

1.648


.255

.210

6.464

.000

Number of main rooms flooded


.546

.103

.182

5.291

.000

Maximum depth of main room flooding

.004

.002

.084

2.401

.017

Warning lead time included those not warned as zeros (log normal transformation)

-.067


.038

-.057

-1.746

.081

Area house price rating

.342

.065

.180

5.249

.000

Gender

-.620

.194

-.103

-3.192

,001

AB Social grade

-.722

.242

-.098

-2.977

.003


Living alone

-.548

.219

-.082

-2.498

.013

Renting

.586

.302

.064

1.941

.053

Overall severity of the flood

Number of cases = 815, R2 = 0.174, R2 (adjusted) = 0.167




Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.





B

Std. Error

Beta







(Constant)


4.820

.454




10.609

.000

Contamination of floodwaters


1.267

.222

.181

.5.572

.000

Number of main rooms flooded


.547

.092

.215

6.231


.000

Maximum depth of main room flooding

.006

.002

.144

4.070

.000

Gender

-.759

.176

-.141

-4.323

.000

Area house price rating

.229

.057

.135

4.020

.000

Aged 65 and over living alone


-.521

.254

-.070

-2.051

.041

Prior health

-.152

.081

-.062

-1.889

.059




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