Cours de conception de jeux : notes 2004

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Cours de conception de jeux : notes 2004

par Mark Overmars


Cours de conception de jeux : notes 2004 1

1. Introduction and History 2

2: Game Play 6

3. Designing a game 8

4. Game architecture 12

5. Designing Games with Game Maker 17

6. Game Worlds 23

7. Game Balance 28

8. Storytelling and narrative 33

9. Interactivity 39

10. Game Graphics 1: Isometric Games 43

11. Game Graphics 2: 3D Games 48

12. Behavior 51

13. Motion Control 54

14. Animation and Simulation 58

15. Motion Planning 60

16. A game company 62


version originale :

http://www.cs.uu.nl/docs/vakken/gds/notes2004.doc


traduction française (à compléter !) :

http://www.ordiecole.com/gm/notes2004fr.doc



1. Introduction and History





  • Presence List

    • Explain what it means

    • Presence is mandatory

  • Schedule

    • 10 weeks (9 with meetings)

    • new 4 period system: 7.5 ECTS, more weeks and more work

The goals of the course

  • Game design, both technique and design issues


  • Contents and structure

    • Game design (main focus)

      • what is a good game

      • storytelling

      • interaction

      • balance

      • genres

    • Game development

  • Literature

    • The book

    • Search the web sites (in particular GamaSutra), see the links on the course page

    • Game Developer Magazine

  • The way we work

    • No exam but lots of work expected

    • You read the material, I only talk about it

    • 2 projects

  • Software environment

    • Software: Game Maker

      • Why we use this

      • Version 6.0 (beta)

      • Registration

    • Home use or on the computers in the departments

      • zip version

    • Many other tools on the web

  • Examination

    • No final exam (so we can go on for 10 weeks, but we most likely won’t)

    • Involvement (you have to be present during the lectures)

    • Game presentation

    • Review

    • Simpe game (individual)

    • More involved game (pairs)

  • Why the course is being taught

    • Important application domain (lots of money going around)

    • Multi-disciplinary

    • Area starts getting mature, need for educated people
    • Fits in with our research area (GIVE)


    • Minor and masters

    • the Netherlands is slowly starting to play a more important role

  • Relation to research and how it fits in GIVE

    • Simulation

    • Graphics

    • Path planning/animation

    • Geometric problems

      • Visibility computations (portals, bsp's)

      • Collision detection

      • Terrain computations (vision, routes, etc.)

  • What after the course

    • minor

      • other courses (3D modeling)

      • go to masters afterwards

    • masters

      • other courses (Virtual worlds, Robotics, …)

      • Larger project

      • Seminars

      • Masters project (on the underlying algorithmic issues)

        • path planning for a camera

        • finding routes in terrains

        • automatic levels of detail

        • fast collision checking

        • automatic terrain generation

        • human figure animation

        • tissue simulation



  • Questions?

Who we are and why we are here


Everybody introduces himself and indicates why he is here and what he knows about games and game design and why he is interested.
Myself:

  • Mark Overmars

  • the teacher

  • always interested in computer games

  • reviewed games in the eighties for Atari ST journal

  • wrote some games myself (Beehive: life, Unix: character based, Atari: Super Breakout, snake, gobang)
  • am not much of an artist


  • wrote software to create games in an easy way (Game Maker)

  • related research

  • one of the founders of ILS design

All the others


History of computer games hardware


  • Pong

    • 1958 Brookhave National Laboratory (on an oscilloscope)

    • Lots of legal battles

    • Later (1972) adapted and published by Atari

  • Spacewar

    • 1961/62 at MIT on a PDP 1 (cost about $120.000)

    • Other games from that period: Lunar landing

    • Hunt the wumpus

  • Coin-up machines

    • Started in the 70's

    • Extremely simple games, e.g. pong

    • Still a big hit

    • Some Names: Shark Gun Fight, Death Race (banned because you had to hit pedestrians)

    • Breakout

      • Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak (Jobs cheating Wozniak)

      • Atari

    • Star wars (vector machine)

    • Grew from here until the current state

  • TV gaming systems

    • Odyssey (1970)

      • Analog

      • Overlays for playfield

      • $100

      • 100.000 units in one year

    • Channel F (1976)

      • programmable with game cartridges

      • digital

    • Video Computer System (VCS) (in 1982 renamed 2600) THE MOST CRUCIAL SYSTEM

      • 1977


      • Atari

      • Expensive: $250

      • Did not sell well

      • Then came Space Invaders , resulted in selling 25 million VCS's in 2 years.

      • 120 million Game cartridges sold, 200 different games

      • Other games: Pitfall (1982)

      • Pacman boosts again the sale (Original name: Puck-Man)

      • Bought by Commodore in 1984. Production ends in 1991!

    • Around 1985 things went really bad

      • Too many different systems

      • Too much competition

      • Many companies went bankrupt in particular in console market)

    • Revival by the survivors: NES (1985), Sega Master System (1986),

    • Handhelds: Gameboy (1989), SEGA Genesis, Atari Lynx

    • Next generation (1994-1995): Sega Saturn, Playstation, N64

      • Polygon count went up (around 300.000 per second

      • Better sound systems

    • Even better (1998-200): SEGA Dreamcast, Playstation 2, X-Box

      • Polygon counts in the hundreds of millions

      • Ethernet access

    • Most game sales come from consoles

    • Not all games are suitable for consoles (no mouse, keyboard, resolution issues)

  • PC's

    • Apple
    • PC (not a gaming system originally but games where created)


    • Commodore 64 (1983)

    • ATARI ST (1985)



  • Special 3D graphics hardware ( only since about 1995)

    • A problem is that all games start looking similar (because that is what the hardware supports)

  • CD-ROM and DVD

  • New trend: Mobile gaming

For some information see http://www.emuunlim.com/doteaters/index.htm


History of graphics technology


  • Analog

  • bits

  • sprites

  • fake 3D

  • isometric

  • 2.5 D (Wolfenheim DOOM)

  • true 3D (Descent, Quake, …)

  • what next??? Virtual reality?? Why not?

History of interaction techniques


  • special build devices (knob for Pong was the best)

  • joystick

  • keyboard/mouse

  • gamepads

  • steering-wheels

  • force-feedback

  • using cameras

    • Eye-toy

  • Dance mats

  • what next? Sensing?

  • And again special build devices



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