This technique works well in classrooms where students have mixed levels of reading fluency. It keeps readings actively involved and allows shy readers to feel confident enough to read single words or short passages.
Jigsaw Strategy (attached)
This allows all students to become experts and cuts down on total amount of reading.
Selective Underlining/Highlighting – pp. 26-27
Helps students understand the author’s craft and for organizing information from selections.
Power Notes – pp. 27-30
Helps students differentiate between main ideas and details.
Pattern Puzzles – pp. 30-31
Helps students understand patterns and structures by moving sentences around to form well-organized paragraphs and essays.
Think-Pair-Share – p. 34
Discussion strategy used in order to assure every student becomes an active participant. It works well as a pre-reading activity, as a problem-solving strategy, as a break in a lecture,, or as a follow-up activity.
Sticky-Note Discussions – pp. 35-36
This works effectively when students are working in literature groups. As students read or after they have read a selection, they use sticky notes to mark the places they want to talk about.
Read-and-Say-Something – pp. 36-37
This works effectively for difficult materials. Rather then having students struggle alone with the meaning, have them struggle together.
Authentic Questions – pp. 37-39
As students read or listen, have them record questions about material they do not understand. Having questions is not a sign of comprehension failure, but a sign of a successful reader who monitors his or her own comprehension.
Seed Discussions – pp. 39-41
Helps students lead their own discussions by writing down one important thing about what they are reading.
Question Answer Relationships (QAR’s) – pp. 41-45
Students who understand how questions are written do better in answering questions. Moreover, this system also helps students develop and analyze their own questions.
Know-Want to know-Learned: (KWL) – pp. 55-58
It involves three overlapping events: students brainstorm what they know, record what they want to know, and then list what they learned.
Pre- and Post-Reading Journal Entries – p. 58
Students write about what they know before reading and then write what they learned from their reading.
Graphic and Pictorial Organizers – pp. 58-63
They instill active comprehension and dynamic discussion. They also organize and assist students in transforming information from one form to another.
Includes Power Map – p. 63, Free-Form Map – p. 63, Sequence Map – p. 66, Comparison Map – p. 69, Summary Worksheet – p. 72, Framed Sentence – p. 72, One-Sentence Summary Frames – p. 73,
Reciprocal Teaching – p. 74
It involves showing students how to do learning strategies and then having them take turns teaching these strategies. These strategies include summarizing, asking questions, making predictions, and noting any difficulties in the materials.
Two-Column Notes Main Idea-Detail Notes – pp. 82-87
Helps students organize main ideas and details from subject area reading assignments.
Opinion-Proof Notes – pp. 87-92
Students learn how to develop and support arguments with evidence. It stresses critical thinking skills with both expository and narrative text. The student writes down their thesis or opinion in the left-hand column and uses the space in the right-hand column for recording evidence. They should find supporting evidence in their reading.
Hypothesis-Proof Notes – pp. 92-93
Helps students begin to think like a researcher. Integral to teaching the research process is analyzing written materials according to theoretical assumptions and evidence.
Problem-Solution Notes – pp. 94-97
This is organized so that students list four questions in the left-hand column: problem?, effects of problem?, causes of problem?, and solutions to the problem?. They then answer the questions on the right portion of the page.
Process Notes – pp. 98-99
Helps students work through the steps of problem solving in mathematics and conducting scientific experiments.
Content Frames – pp. 100-103
This provides another way to organize information. Frames work well in situations where you want students to understand the inter-relationships of ideas. They are visual representations of content. They include character frames, mood frames, geometry helpers, and comparison frames.
Story Plans – pp. 104-108
They are visual displays used as tools for understanding an author’s craft. Teaching students about the plan of a story leads to improved comprehension.
Free-Response Entries – pp. 114-115
These entries occur whenever students read and then write without any content focus. It helps students react emotionally and to think about their reading. Readings learn to trust their own thinking as they speculate, questions, and find meaning as they write. It also helps students connect with the piece and assists students in untangling challenging ideas.
Dialogue Logs – pp. 115-117
Peer Response – After students write, ask them to trade logs and comment back to their partners. Peer response becomes very motivating. It makes learning more social, and writers get a response right away.
Teacher-Student Journals – This provides a way to respond to individual students about books they are reading or about concerns and ideas that they have about content. It is also an excellent way to learn more about individual students in your classroom.
Pre and Post-Reading Responses – pp.117-118
This provides a natural avenue for students to link their own background knowledge to content.
Perspective Entries – pp. 120-121
Students can take on the roles of characters, animals, or famous people. This helps students empathize with a character’s feelings and problems.
Explanation and Process Entries – pp. 121-124
When students write explanations of ideas and concepts, they discover whether or not they really understand a concept. Moreover, writing is a powerful tool to help students identify, sequence, and use the steps in a process.
Literacy Elements – pp. 124-127
As students read a novel, they can note with sticky notes or record information in their journal about the character, setting, and problems. They can also include information about the author’s craft. Students then bring this information to their discussion groups.
Framed Paragraphs – pp. 130-131
These are pre-writing tools which guide the development of well-formed paragraphs. They are skeleton formats containing information about the main idea and transition words that guide the organization and the development of supportive details. Frames are particularly effective for assisting students with essay examinations. Once students understand how to compose a well-organized response to an essay question, framing the answer will no longer be necessary.
Spool Papers – pp. 131-135
This provides a system for organizing information through the use of an introductory paragraph containing a definite thesis, supporting paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. Spool papers are basically several paragraphs combined into a longer paper.
RAFT – pp. 136-138
This is a system for making sure that students understand their role as a writer, their audience, the format of their work, and the expected content. It also incorporates strong verbs for focusing and energizing the piece.
Mapping Complete Definitions – pp. 142-150
Word maps and charts help students expand word meanings and discover relationships. They also help children develop elaborated definitions of words rather then simple one or two word definitions. In addition, they provide students with a way to learn vocabulary independently.
Semantic Feature Analysis – pp. 151-152
This is a procedure which students use to link key vocabulary to major ideas contained in a content selection. The procedure helps both students and teachers select only those words that are essential to developing the major concept sin a selection. Students then learn to understand the relationships among the words and key concepts.
Capsule Vocabulary – p. 152
This employs four steps: talking, listening, writing, and reading. This can be used as a review of key vocabulary for a test.
Sentence and Word Expansion – pp. 152-156
This is a brainstorming procedure for helping students elaborate on concepts and words. Students can then use the expanded vocabulary in their speaking and writing. It works well as a revision procedure for incorporating more precise vocabulary in writing.
Sentence Synthesis – p. 156
These are “quick writes” where students combine new or previously introduced words into original sentences and short paragraphs. Students must have some familiarity with the words in order to use them successfully in their writing.