Curriculum for b. Sc (hons) cardiac perfusion technology



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CURRICULUM FOR


B.SC (HONS) CARDIAC PERFUSION TECHNOLOGY















SCHEME OF STUDIES

Semester/Year

Name of Subject

COURSE CODE

Credits

First

BIOCHEMISTRY-I

PMS-101

3+1




HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY-I

PMS-102

3+1




HUMAN ANATOMY-I

PMS-103

3+1




ENGLISH-I

PMS-104

2+0




PAK STUDIES

PMS-105


2+0




COMPUTER SKILLS

PMS-106

2+0










18

Second

BIOCHEMISTRY-II

PMS-107

3+1




HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY-II

PMS-108

3+1




HUMAN ANATOMY-II

PMS-109

3+1




ENGLISH-II

PMS-110

2+0




ISLAMIC STUDIES

PMS-111

2+0








16

Third

HEMATOLOGY-I

PMS-204

2+1




MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY-I

PMS-207

2+1




CARDIOPULMONARY ANATOMY

PMS-213

2+1




GENRAL PHARMACOLOGY-I

PMS-202

2+1



  1. BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES


PMS-225

2+0




GENRAL PATHOLOGY-I

PMS-201

2+1










17

Fourth


GENRAL PATHOLOGY-II

PMS-221

2+1




MICROBIOLOGY-II

PMS-227

2+0




ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY-I

PMS-242

2+1




CARDIOPULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY

PMS-218

2+1




HEMATOLOGY-II

PMS-226

1+1




GENRAL PHARMACOLOGY-II

PMS-220

2+1




COMMUNICATION SKILLS

PMS-206

2+0








18

Fifth

CLINICAL MEDICINE

PMS-346

2+1




PERFUSION TECHNOLOGY-I

PMS-352

2+1




ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

PMS-320

2+1




ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY-II

PMS-372

2+1




VENTRICULAR ASSISTANT DEVICES

PMS-353

2+1




MEDICAL PHYSICS

PMS-374

2+1










18

Sixth

ECMO


PMS-358

2+1




PHARMACOLOGY RELATED TO PERFUSION

PMS-354

2+1




CARDIAC SURGERY

PMS-376

2+1




DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENTS IN CARDIOLOGY

PMS-377

2+1




CRITICAL CARE

PMS-328

2+1




PULMONARY DISEASES

PMS-379

2+1










18

Seventh

PERFUSION TECHNOLOGY-II

PMS-466

2+1





HEART DISEASES

PMS-443

2+1




RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

PMS-447

2+1




BIOINFORMATICS

PMS-448

2+1




EPIDEMIOLOGY

PMS-404

2




BIOSTATISTICS

PMS-449

2+1










17

Eight

RESEARCH PROJECT

PMS-406

6




SEMINAR

PMS-408

1




SUBJECT OF OWN INTEREST

PMS-450

2+2




TOTAL – 124-136

PMS-

11




TOTAL CREDIT HOURS

PMS-

133



PMS-101 BIOCHEMISTRY-I Credit Hours: 4(3+1)
Aims and Objectives

  • To understand the chemical composition of macro and micro molecules of the cell

  • To understand different biochemical reactions in the cell

  • To utilize their knowledge scientifically

Course Detail:

Biochemical composition and functions of the cell membrane; Chemistry of signals and receptors; Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins and lipids; biochemical functions of vitamins; biochemical function of Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iodine and fluoride; Composition and function of saliva, gastric juice, gastric acid(HCL), pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal secretion; Digestion and absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and minerals; Body buffers and their mechanism of action; Acid base regulation in human body; Biochemical mechanisms for control of water and electrolyte balance; Mechanism of action of hormones.


Practical:

  • Good laboratory Practices


  • Preparation of Solutions

  • Principles of Biochemistry analyzers (sphectrophometer, flame photometer)

  • Determination of Cholesterol, Tg, HDL, LDL, sugar, calcium and phosphorus in blood

  • Introduction to electrophoresis, PCR, gel documentation

  • How to operate centrifuge, water bath and microscope

Recommended Books:


  • Harper‟s Biochemistry Robert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner 28th edition 2009

  • Medical Biochemistry Mushtaq Ahmad vol. I and II 8th edition 2013

PMS-102 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY-I Credit Hours: 4(3+1)
Aims and Objectives:


  • To understand the basic concepts of physiology beginning from the cell organization to organ system function.

  • To understand the organization of cell, tissue organ and system with respect to their functions.

  • To Understand the physiology of Respiration, G.I.T, Urinary system and Endocrine system

Course Detail:

Functional organization of human body, Mechanism of Homeostasis, Cell structure and its function, function of different Tissue, Functions of the skin, , Types and function of muscle, Neuromuscular junction, functions of the endocrine glands, Breathing Mechanism, Exchange of respiratory Gaseous, Transport of respiratory gases, Function of different part of Digestive system, Function of liver and pancreas, Digestion and Absorption in Gastrointestinal tract, Patho-Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Formation of Urine by the Kidney, Glomerular filtration, Renal and associated mechanism for controlling ECF, Regulation of Acid-Base Balance, Male Reproductive System ( Male ), Prostate gland, Spermatogenesis, Female Reproductive System, Menstrual Cycle and Pregnancy and parturition, Mammary Glands and Lactation and Fertility Control

Practical:

1. Introduction to microscope

2. Bleeding time

3. Clotting time

4. WBCs count

5. RBCs count

6. Platelets count

Recommended Books:


  • Guyton test book of Physiology (Text Book) by Guyton published by W.B Saunders company

  • Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Seelay, Stephens and Tate. 4th edition

  • Ross & Wilson Anatomy and Physiology.

  • Human Physiology. Stuart Ira Fox. 7th edition

  • Text Book of Medical Physiology Guyton

  • Essential of Medical Physiology Vol. I & II by Mushtaq Ahmad.

  • Lecture notes on human physiology by Bray JJ, Cragg, PA MacKnight


PMS-103 HUMAN ANATOMY-1 Credit Hours: 4(3+1)
Aims and objectives

  • To understand the basic concepts of anatomy beginning from the cell organization to organ system function

  • To understand the basic concepts of general anatomy including skeleton and musculo skeleton.

  • To Understand the anatomy of Thorax Abdomen and pelvis

Course Contents:

Musculoskeletal system(Axial and Appendicular),Axial Skeleton, Different bones of human body, Axial and Appendicular Skeleton, Classification on the basis of development, region and function, General concept of ossification of bones, parts young bone, Blood supply of long bones. Joints Structural Regional and functional classification of joints, Characteristics of synovial joints, Classification of synovial joints, Movements of synovial joints. Muscular System Parts of muscle Classification of muscles (skeletal, Cardiac, smooth) Thoracic wall: Muscles of thorax, Surface Anatomy, Trachea, lungs, pleura, mammary glands (breast), Heart and thoracic vessels. Thoracic cavity: Mediastinum, Lungs, bronchi, blood supply and lymphatic Abdominal wall: Skin, nerve and blood supply, Muscles of anterior abdominal wall. Abdominal cavity: General Arrangement of the Abdominal Viscera, Peritoneum, Omenta, mesenteries, Stomach, blood, nerve, lymphatic supply, Small intestine, blood, nervous and lymphatic supply, Large intestine: blood nerve and lymphatic supply. The pelvic wall: Anterior, posterior wall, diaphragm. Pelvic cavity: Ureters, urinary bladder Male genital organs, Female genital organs, Muscles of pelvic region, blood supply, nerve supply, Special Senses.

Practical:


  1. Study Axial and Appendicular skeleton on human skeletal model.

  2. Study musculoskeletal system on human musculoskeletal model.

  3. Study organs of special senses.

  4. Study and understand anatomy of Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis through:

  5. Human Models

  6. Video demonstration.

Recommended Books:


  • Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in helth and illness 11th Edition Waugh Grant.

  • Clinical Anatomy (By regions) 9th edition, Richard S. Snell.


Reference books:


  • Netter Atlas of human anatomy 5th Edition Saunders.

  • Gray’s Anatomy for students 2nd Edition Drake Vogal Mitcell.

  • Clinical Anatomy (By regions) 9th edition, Richard S. Snell.

PMS104 ENGLISH –I Credit Hours: 2+0

Aims and Objectives:

  • To enhance language skills and develop critical thinking

  • To enable the students to meet their real life communication needs

Course Contents:

Vocabulary Building Skills: Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, One word Substitute, Prefixes and suffixes, Idioms and phrasal verbs, Logical connectors, Check spellings, Practical Grammar & Writing Skill: Parts of Speech, Tenses, Paragraph writing: Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph, Précis writing and comprehension, Translation skills: Urdu to English, Reading skills: Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary and comprehension Paragraphs, Presentation skills: Developing, Oral Presentation skill, Personality development (emphasis on content, style and pronunciation)

Recommended books:


  • Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Third edition. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.

  • Reading. Advanced. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.

PMS-105 Pakistan Studies Credit Hours: 2(2+0)
Aims and Objectives

  • To develop vision of Historical Perspective, Government, Politics, Contemporary Pakistan, ideological background of Pakistan.

  • To study the process of governance, national development, issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan.

Course Contents:

Historical Perspective: Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Factors leading to Muslim separatism, People and Land, Indus Civilization, Muslim advent, Location and Geo-Physical features. Government and Politics in Pakistan, Political and constitutional phases:1947-58,1958-71,1971-77,1977-88,1988-99,1999 onward Contemporary Pakistan: Economic institutions and issues, Society and social structure, Ethnicity, Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges, Futuristic outlook of Pakistan



Books Recommended:


  • Akbar, S. Zaidi. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2000.

  • Mehmood, Safdar. Pakistan Kayyun Toota, Lahore: Idara-e-Saqafat-e-Islamia, Club Road, nd.
  • Amin, Tahir. Ethno - National Movement in Pakistan, Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.


  • Afzal, M. Rafique. Political Parties in Pakistan, Vol. I, II & III. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research, 1998.



PMS-106 COMPUTER SKILLS Credit Course: 2(2+0)

Aims and Objectives


  • To understand the basic of computer

  • To utilize the MS office, internet and email


Courses Contents:

Introduction to Computer and Window XP/7; MS Office 2007 (Word, Excel, PowerPoint); Internet access and different data bases available on the internet; Email.




Recommended Books:



  • Computer science by Muhammad Ashraf, edition 1st 2010



2nd Semester Courses


  1. Biochemistry-II




  1. Human Physiology-II




  1. Human Anatomy-II




  1. English-II




  1. Islamic Studies


PMS-107 BIOCHEMISTRY-II Credit Hours: 4(3+1)
Aims and Objectives:


  • To understand the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

  • To understand clinical role of enzymes in human being.

  • To understand about the nutrition.

Course Contents:

Balance food, Major food groups, Nutritional status of Pakistani nation, Metabolic changes in starvation, Protein energy malnutrition, Regulation of food intake, Obesity; metabolism of carbohydrates (Citric Acid Cycle, Glycolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway), proteins (urea and corie cycle), nucleotides (uric acid formation) and lipids (beta oxidation); Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation, components of respiratory chain, electron carriers, ATP synthesis coupled with electron flow, phosphorylation of ADP coupled to electron transfer; clinical diagnostic enzymology: clinical significance of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, CK, CKMB, Pancreatic lipase and amylase, cholinesterase, G6PD, GGT.


Practicals:
1. Determination of liver, cardiac, pancreatic enzymes

2. Determination of urea and uric acid


Recommended Books:


  • Harper‟s Biochemistry Robert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner 28th edition 2009

  • Medical Biochemistry Mushtaq Ahmad vol. I and II 8th edition 2013


PMS-108 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY-II Credit Hours: 4(3+1)

Aims and Objectives

  • To understand the basic concepts of physiology beginning from the organization of the systems to their role in the body.

  • To Understand the organization and function of various systems

  • To Understand the physiology of Blood, CVS, Nervous System and special senses

  • Students will be able to understand immunity, its types and immune reactions

Course Contents:

Physiology of Nervous System, Function of various cranial nerves, Functions of somatic motor nervous system Functions of the autonomic nervous system, function of neurons, neuroglial cells and their components. Resting membrane potential and an action potential, function of a synapse and reflex arc, functions of the specialized sense organs: Eye, physiology of site, accommodation, optic nerve and optic chiasma, Ear, functions of the internal, middle and external ear Physiology of the hearing and balance, Smell, physiology of olfactory nerve. Taste, physiology of taste Location of the taste buds Physiology of speech, Blood: Composition and function of Blood , haematopoisis, Blood grouping, Coagulation mechanism, Physiology of Cardiovascular system The Physiology of Pulmonary Systemic Circulation: Arteries Veins Local Control of Blood Vessels Nervous Control of Blood Vessels Regulation of Arterial Pressure, The function of Lymphatic System, tonsils, lymph nodes, the spleen and the thymus, Classification and physiology of Immune system, Antigens and Antibodies, Primary and secondary responses to an antigen Antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity Role of lymphocyte in immunity regulation.

Practical:


  • Spirometry

  • Electrocardiography

  • Blood Pressure Measurement

  • Normal and abnormal ECG interpretation

  • Pulse rate measurement

  • Heart sounds


Recommended Books:



  • Essentials of Medical Physiology K Sembulingam, Prema Sembulingam Sixth Edition 2013

  • Guyton And Hall Textbook Of Medical Physiology John E. Hall, Arthur C. Guyton Professor and Chair 2006

  • Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health And Illness 11th Edition Anne Waugh, Allison Grant 2010


PMS-109 HUMAN ANATOMY-II Credit Hours: 4(3+1)
Aims and objectives

  • To understand the basic concepts of anatomy beginning from the cell organization to organ system function

  • To understand the anatomy of upper limb, lower limb and head and neck.

  • To understand the knowledge about endocrine system

Course Detail:

The upper limb Bones of shoulder girdle and Arm, Muscles, Axilla, Brachial plexus, Cubital fossa, the forearm, hand bones, muscles, Blood supply, Nerve supply, lymphatics, The lower limb Fascia, Bones, Muscles, Femoral triangle, Blood supply, Nerve supply, Lymphatic supply. Head and neck Skull, Mandible, Cranial nerves, cranial cavity, Meninges, Brain, Orbit, Neck, Endocrine System Classification of endocrine glands, Pituitary glands, Thyroid Glands, Adrenal gland and differences between the cortex and medulla.


Practical:

Study and understand the anatomy of Upper limb, Lower limb, Head and Neck through:



  • Human Models
  • Video demonstration


  • Study radiographs of upper and lower limb.

Recommended Books

Essential books (text books)



  • Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in health and illness 11th Edition Waugh Grant.

  • Clinical Anatomy (By regions) 9th edition, Richard S. Snell.

Reference books

  • Netter Atlas of human anatomy 5th Edition Saunders.

  • Gray’s Anatomy for students 2nd Edition Drake Vogal Mitcell.

  • BD. Churasia Human Anatomy (All regions)


PMS-110 ENGLISH –II Credit Hours: 2(2+0)

Aim and Objectives:

  • To enable the students to meet their real life communication needs

  • To enhance language skills and develop critical thinking

Course Contents

Writing Skill: CV and job application, Technical Report writing, Writing styles, Changing narration: Converting a dialogue into a report, Converting a story into a news report, Converting a graph or picture into a short report or story, Active and Passive voice, Letter / memo writing and minutes of the meeting, use of library and internet recourses, Essay writing, Phrases - Types and functions, Clauses - Types and functions, Punctuation: Tenses - Types, Structure, Function, Conversion into negative and interrogative. Speaking Skill: Group Discussion (Various topics given by the teacher), Presentation by the students (individually), Role Play Activities for improving Speaking. Listening Skill: Listening Various Documentaries, Movies, and online listening activities to improve the listening as well as pronunciation of the words.



Recommended Books:


  • Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Third edition. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.

  • Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 1. Third edition. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0194313492.

  • Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Third edition. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0194313506

  • Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin, Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.

  • Reading. Upper Intermediate. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.


PMS-111 ISLAMIC STUDIES Credit Hours: 2(2+0)

Aims and Objectives:

  • To learn about Islam and its application in day to day life.

  • To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies

  • To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization

  • To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships

  • To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.

Course Contents:

Fundamental beliefs of Islam, Belief of Tawheed, Belief in Prophet hood, Belief in the Day of Judgment, Worships, Salaat / Prayer, Zakat /Obligatory Charity, Saum / Fasting, Hajj / Pilgrimage, Jihad, Importance of Paramedics In Islam, Ethics, Religion and Ethics, Higher Intents / Objectives of Islamic Sharia and Human Health, Importance and Virtues of Medical Profession, Contribution and Achievements of Muslim Doctors, Knowledge of the Rights, Wisdom and Prudence, Sympathy /Empathy, Responsible Life, Patience, Humbleness, Self Respect, Forgiveness, Kindhearted, Beneficence, Self Confidence, Observing Promise, Equality, Relation among the Doctors, Jealousy, Backbiting, Envy, Etiquettes of Gathering, Relation between a Doctor and a Patient, Gentle Speaking, Mercy and Affection, Consoling the Patient, To inquire the health of Patient, Character building of the Patient, Responsibilities of a Doctor


Recommended Books:


  • Islamiyat (Compulsory) for Khyber Medical University, Medical Colleges and Allied Institutes

3rd Semester


  1. Hematology – I

  2. Microbiology – I

  3. Cardiopulmonary Anatomy

  4. General Pharmacology

  5. Behavioral Science

  6. General Pathology – I

PMS-204 HEMATOLOGY-I Credit Hours: 3(2+1)

Course Objectives:

  • To familiarize the students with basic concepts and skills in Hematology

  • To equip students with latest advancements in the field of hematology.

Course Contents:


Introduction to hematology and blood, bone marrow and its structure, Hematopoiesis, Erythropoiesis,Granulopoiesis, Megakariopoiesis, Hemoglobin structure and function, morphology of red blood cells and white blood cells, Anemia and its classification. Leukemia and its classification, Leukocytosis, Leukopenia, neutrophilia, Neutropenia, Eosinophilia, Eosinopenia, monocytosis, monocytopenia, lymphocytosis, Lymphopenia Basophillia, Hemostasis, Mechanism of Hemostasis, Function of Platelets and coagulation factors, coagulation cascade, Quantitative disorder of platelets, Qualitative disorder of platelets.

Practical:

  1. Collection of Blood Sample

  2. Preparation and Staining of Peripheral Blood Smear

  3. Total Leucocyte Count; Red Blood Cell Count, determination of Absolute Values; differential Leucocyte Count; Platelets count and Reticulocytes count

  4. To determine the ESR
  5. Determine Bleeding Time; Prothrombin Time; Activated partial thromboplastin time


  6. ABO blood grouping; Cross matching; Coombs tests

  7. Separation of different blood components and its importance

Recommended Books:

    • Essential of Hematology,A.V Hoff Brand, 6thedition 2006

    • Clinical Hematology, G.C Degrunchi, 5th edition 2002

    • Practical Hematology,Dacie J.V. 10th edition 2012


PMS-207 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY - I Credit hour: 3(2+1)

Course objectives:

• To introduce the students with basic concepts in bacteriology and mycology

• To introduce the students with common bacterial and fungal infections

• To introduce the students with diagnosis of common bacterial and fungal infections



Course contents:

Historical review and scope of microbiology, sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, structure and function of prokaryotic cell, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, bacterial growth and metabolism, bacterial classification, normal microbial flora of human body, mechanism of bacterial pathogenesis, host parasite interaction, Immune response to infection, common bacterial pathogen prevailing in Pakistan, introduction to fungi, fungal characteristic, morphology, structure, replication and classification, mechanism of fungal pathogenesis, common fungal pathogen prevailing in Pakistan.


Practical:

1. Introduction and demonstration of Laboratory Equipments used in Microbiology.

2. Inoculation and isolation of pure bacterial culture and its antibiotic susceptibility testing.

3. Demonstration of different types of physical and chemical methods of sterilization, and disinfection.

4. Students should be thorough to work with compound microscope.

5. Detection of motility: Hanging drop examinations with motile bacteria, non-motile bacteria.

6. Simple staining methods of pure culture and mixed culture.

7. Gram‟s staining of pure culture and mixed culture.

8. AFB staining of Normal smear, AFB positive smear.

9. KOH preparation for fungal hyphae.

10. Germ tube test for yeast identification.

11. Gram stain for candida.

Recommended books:


  • Sherris Medical Microbiology: An Introduction to Infectious Diseases. Ryan, K. J., Ray, C. G., 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2003.

  • Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple. Gladwin, M.,& Trattler, B., 3rd ed. MedMaster, 2004.

  • Medical Microbiology and Infection at a Glance. Gillespie, S., H., Bamford, K., B., 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

  • Medical Microbiology, Kayser, F., H., & Bienz, K., A., Thieme, 2005.

  • Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. Levinson, W., 10th ed. McGraw Hill Professional, 2008.

  • Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology. Brooks, G., Carroll, K., C., Butel, J., & Morse, S., 26th ed. McGraw-Hill Medical, 2012.



PMS-213 CARDIOPULMONARY ANATOMY Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives:

    • To identify the bones, structures and their relations with other structures

    • To examine the respiratory and cardiovascular system

    • To analyze the effects of physical and pathological diseases on normal anatomy of systems.

    • To explain clinical procedures related to cardiac and pulmonary anatomy

    • To choose quality patient care in routine as well as advanced cardiopulmonary procedures


Course Contents:

Structure of the thoracic wall, Suprapleural Membrane, Diaphragm, The Thoracic Cavity Basic Anatomy, Anterior Chest Wall Posterior Chest Wall, Lines of Orientation Mediastinum and its contents Relations of the contents of the Mediastinum, Pleurae, Anatomy of Larynx and trachea, Anatomy of lungs, The anatomy of Heart, Relations of heart to other Structure within the Thorax, The general Structure of arteries and veins, The embryonic period and fetal development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, Cardiovascular and respiratory changes at birth



Practicals:


  • Identification of different organs and their components

  • Radiological Presentation & Pathological Findings on Radiographs

  • Identification of cardiac valve areas on the Thoracic wall

  • Identification of labeled structures, their features and relations with other structures

  • Identification of given ribs with their features

  • Identification of normal apex beat anatomically

  • To identify major coronary arteries and their branches


Recommended Books:

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