Curriculum for b. Sc (hons) cardiac perfusion technology


Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, 21st edition



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Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, 21st edition

  • Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine (Kumar, Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine), 8th edition

  • Clinical Medicine by Parveen Kumar, Michalclark in by ELBS



    PMS-352 Perfusion Technology-I Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:


    • To Introduce Perfusion of the heart

    • To list the various Perfusion techniques

    • To illustrate various protocols for various procedures

    • To select an appropriate procedure for various pathologies

    • To plan and prepare for Complications during Cardiac surgery

    • To design set up for Cardiac Surgery

    • To set up Circuit designs for perfusion


    Course Content:
    Introduction to heart perfusion, Equipment and monitoring , Priming solutions for cardiopulmonary bypass circuits , Anticoagulation, coagulopathies, Metabolic management during cardiopulmonary bypass , Myocardial protection and cardioplegia , Mechanical circulatory support , Organ damage during cardiopulmonary bypass , Acute kidney injury , Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation , Intra-aortic balloon.

    Practical:

    • Identification of various parts of oxygenator

    • Designing Circuit for various perfusions

    • Steps and protocol of perfusion

    • Application of various devices used in perfusion

    • Identification of various cannulas


    Recommended Books:


    • Manual of Perfusion 1st edotion

    • Cardiovascular perfusion by Cambridge 4th edition

    • On Bypass 2nd edition


    PMS-371 ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY Credit Hours: 3(2+1)

    Course objectives:


    • To explain basic physical principles of ultrasound and instrumentation.

    • To Correlate cardiac gross pathology with echocardiography images.

    • To evaluate cardiac chamber size, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and right ventricular systolic function.

    • To Analyze and interpret echocardiographic derived hemodynamic data.

    • To interpret trans esophageal images and distinguish attributes and limitations versus transthoracic echocardiography

    Course Contents:

    History of echocardiography, Development of various echocardiographic Technologies, Recording Echocardiograms, Cardiac Sonographers, Physics and Instrumentation, Physical Principles, Definition of Basic Terms, Principles of cardiac ultrasonography, Principles of ultrasound physics and instrumentation, The Doppler principles, The anatomical echocardiographic examinations (Basic Views), Examination and appearance of the normal heart, Quantification of the ventricular performance, Principles of the Doppler examination, Additional imaging formats and techniques, Contrast echocardiography, Artifacts


    Practical:

    Clinical application of echocardiography in:



    • Acquired valvular heart disease

    • Evaluation of prosthetic heart valves

    • Congenital heart disease of the pericardium

    • Cardiomyopathies

    • Ischemic heart disease

    • Diseases of the aorta

    • Cardiac masses and tumors

    • Pericarditis

    Recommended Books:

    • Feigunbaum’s Echocardiography,6th Edition

    • Echo Made Easy, by Sam Kaddoura, 2nd Edition

    PMS-372 ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY – II Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:


    • To describe the basic concepts of EKG

    • To recognize the basic electro-physiology using EKG

    • To compute different basic technical ECG abnormalities

    • To infer different types of arrhythmias

    • To identify different heart pathologies on the basis of EKG

    • To relate the EKG abnormalities with the heart and lung pathologies


    Course Contents:

    Review of electrocardiography-I. Q Wave Abnormalities, Atrial and Ventricular Hypertrophy, T Wave Abnormalities, Electrical Axis and Fascicular Block, Miscellaneous Conditions, Arrhythmias, EKG of different Myocardial infarctions, EKG of Different congenital as well as acquired Heart pathologies; Aortic disease, valvular diseases, Pericardial disease, dextrocardia and EKG of different syndromes causing heart disease




    Practical:

    • Identification of different EKG electrodes

    • Placement of Electrodes on the body

    • Demonstration of EKG procedure

    • Finding heart rate, Rhythm, axis and intervals

    • Different types of EKG waves and correlation with different heart chambers

    • Interpretation of different type of arrhythmias

    • Interpretation of Myocardial infarction

    • Interpretation of cardiac chamber hypertrophy and enlargements

    • Interpretation of Cardiac myopathies

    • Interpretation of valvular pathologies

    • Interpretation of different aortic pathologies


    Recommended Books:
    • EKG by Dale Dubin 6th edition


    • ECG made Easy by Jhon R 6th edition

    • Rapid ECG interpretation by Mr. M. Gabriel Khan 3rd edition

    • An Introduction to ECG by Leo Schamroth 6th edition

    • ECG Interpretation for the clinical exercise 3rd edition

    • EKG book by Malcolm. S 4th edition

    • Manual Of ECG 4th edition


    PMS-373 Ventricular assistant devices Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:

    • To outline various Cardiac assistant devices

    • To identify various Cardiac assistant devices

    • To select various devices in a particular procedure

    • To recognize various cardiac procedures

    • To predict possible complications of various procedures

    • To set up the machine and other necessary equipment needed

    • To judge the procedure and finding out any problem

    • To prepare the things for the smooth running of the procedure

    • To plan a particular procedure with a Surgeon


    Course Contents:

    Indications for Ventricle Assist Devices, Echocardiographic Evaluation of Ventricular Assist Devices


    Altered Expression of mRNA and miRNA during Mechanical Support of the Failing Human Heart, Ventricular Assist Device – How to Obtain Optimal Benefits?, Cardiac Support and Multi-organ Dysfunction Syndrome, Future Treatment of Acute Cardiac Collapse - A Role for Percutaneous Circulatory Assist Devices, Future Treatment of Acute Cardiac Collapse - A Role for Percutaneous Circulatory Assist Devices, Initial Experience of Lower Limb Thermal Therapy for Patients with an, Extracorporeal Left Ventricular Assist Device Awaiting Heart Transplantation, Treatment of Ventricular, Arrhythmias in Patients Undergoing LVAD Therapy, Community Based Management of Ventricular Assist Devices, Long-Term Management of Pulsatile Extracorporeal Left Ventricular Assist Device, Outcomes Following Heart Transplantation among Those Bridged with VAD


    Practical:


    • Identification of various Cardiac assistant devices

    • Identification of procedures and devices and planning for the procedure

    • Analyzing the procedure by knowing the disease

    • Steps of various procedures

    • Identification of various lesions

    • Handling the complications



    Recommended Books:


    • Ventricular Assist Devices By: Dr. jeffrey Shuhaiber

    PMS-374 MEDICAL PHYSICS Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:

    • To list S.I units of physical quantities

    • To describe the various conversions of S.I units into other units

    • To interpret various equations used in medical physics

    • To recognize various principles of fluid dynamics

    • To sketch different graphs and their interpretation

    • To relate various relations using equations


    Course Contents:

    Introduction to medical physics, Physical measurement and calibration, The SI units, The gas laws, Laminar flow, Turbulent flow , Bernoulli, Venturi and Coanda, Heat and temperature, Latent heat, Isotherms, Solubility and diffusion, Osmosis and colligative properties, The valves and their types with their principle, Resistors and resistance, Defibrillators, Resonance and damping, Pulse oximetry, Capnography, Absorption of carbon dioxide, Cardiac output measurement, The echo principle, The Doppler effect, Neuromuscular blockade monitoring, Lung volumes, Spirometry, Flow–volume loops, The alveolar gas equation, The shunt equation, Pulmonary vascular resistance, Ventilation/perfusion mismatch, Dead space, Fowler’s method, The Bohr equation, Oxygen delivery and transport, The oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve, Carriage of carbon dioxide, Cardiac action potentials, The cardiac cycle, Pressure and flow calculations, Central venous pressure, Pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, The Frank–Starling relationship, Venous return and capillary dynamics, Ventricular pressure–volume relationship, Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, The Valsalva manoeuvre.

    Practical:


    • Measurements of length and volume

    • Measurement of temperature using various thermometer

    • Calculations to find out various parameters like cardiac out put, dead space, Pulmonary artery wedge pressure,

    • Principle of Sphygmomanometer and measurement of blood pressure

    • Identification of spirometer, its various parts and analysis of lung function test

    • Analyzing the resistance of body using Psulli,s equation

    • To find the gradient across the valves using various equations


    Recommended books:


    • Physics, Pharmacology and Physiology for Anaesthetists by Matthew E. Cross . Cambridge latest edition

    • Medical Physics

    • Physics and body by John R 2nd edition


    6TH SEMESTER



    1. Critical Care

    2. Pharmacology related to Perfusion

    3. Cardiac surgery

    4. Diagnostic Equipments in Cardiology

    5. ECMO

    6. Pulmonary Disease

    PMS-328 CRITICAL CARE Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:


    • To outline critical cardiovascular situations

    • To recognize critical cardiovascular care in various situations

    • To categorize the patient situation

    • To plan the right procedure in cardiovascular critical situations

    • To access the critically ill patients

    • To select various pharmacological and mechanical procedures



    Course Contents:

    An introduction to critical care, Shock, Resuscitation in intensive care, Cardiovascular monitoring in critical care, Cardiovascular investigation of the critically Ill, Hematological Aspects of cardiovascular critical care, Cardiovascular support: Pharmacological , Arrhythmias , Mechanical heart failure therapy, Care of the high risk patient undergoing surgery , Common complications of cardiovascular critical illness , Acute coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction , Cardiogenic shock , Aortic dissection , Emergency management of cardiac trauma , Hypertensive crises , Endocrine problems and cardiovascular critical care.

    Practical:


    • Assessment of shock and its types

    • Assessment of arrhythmias

    • Management of shock

    • Management of arrhythmias

    • Management of Cardiac arrest

    • Management of acute Myocardial infarction

    • Management of Hypertensive crisis

    • Analysis of arterial blood gases

    • Management of Cardiac trauma and aortic dissection


    Recommended Books:


    • Cardiovascular Critical Care by Mark J.D. Griffiths, Jeremy J. Cordingley and Susanna. 010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    • Critical care by Andrea G 4th edition

    • Critical care Current diagnosis and treatment by Frederic S 3rd edition



    PMS-354 Pharmacology related to perfusion Credit Hours: 3(2+1)

    Course objectives:

    • To list the drugs used in perfusion

    • To explain the pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of drugs

    • To tell the dosage of various drugs

    • To plan the usage of drugs in various procedures

    • To handle the complications using drugs during cardiac procedures

    Course Contents:

    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetics, Indications, side effects and dosage of:

    Cholinergic agonists and antagonists, Anesthetics, Blood acting drugs, immunosuppressant, Sympathomimetic agonist and antagonists, Analgesics, Blood substitutes, Cryoprecipitate, Antihypertensive, IV Solutions, Antiarrhythmic.

    Practicals:

    1. Planning specific drugs related to procedure
    2. Drug dosage

    3. Specific effects related to drugs
    4. Management of various conditions using drugs
    Recommended books:


    • Lippincott Pharmacology 6th edition

    • Catzung Pharmacology 10th edition


    PMS-376 CARDIAC SURGERY Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:


    • To describe various cardiac surgical procedures

    • To identify the pathologies

    • To prepare the required investigation for a specific surgery

    • To prepare the patient for surgery

    • To evaluate the condition of the patient

    • To predict an appropriate procedure in case of an emergency


    Course Contents:
    Surgical approaches to the heart and great vessels (An introduction), Preparation for cardiopulmonary bypass, Surgery of various heart valves; valve repair and replacement, Surgery for coronary disease, Surgery of cardiac tumors, Coarctation of the aorta, Atrial septal defect, Patent ductus arteriosus, Transposition of the great vessels, Coronary artery anomalies surgery.
    Practicals:


    • Clinical examination

    • History taking

    • Pre-Op requirements of a particular procedure

    • Patient assessment

    • Investigation required and their interpretation with their importance

    • Post-Op care of the patients



    Recommended Books:
    • Cardiac Surgery by Siavosh Khonsari . Lippincott 4th edition


    • Cardiac Surgery by Kerklin 4th edition

    • Cardiac Surgery by C Narian 2nd edition

    • Cardiothoracic Surgery by Micheal S 2nd edition



    PMS-377 DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENTS IN CARDIOLOGY Credit hours: 3(2+1)
    Course objectives:

    • To name the various equipments used in cardiology

    • To describe the indications of the tests

    • To prepare the patient for a specific test

    • To explain the test procedure and protocol

    • To design an appropriate test relating a disease

    • To predict the possible complications

    • To interpret the results of a test


    Course Contents:

    Introduction, Principle, Indications, Contraindications, Complications and uses of diagnostic equipments in cardiology. Following devices will be included: ECG machine, ETT machine, Pulse oximetry, Cardiac monitors, Defibrillator, Echocardiography machine, Ultrasound machine, Cardiac CT, Cardiac MRI, Cardiac X-Ray, Angiography machine, Holter monitors, Equipments used in Electrophysiology Laboratory, Swan Gans cathter, Temporary pacemaker.



    Practical:

    • To identify the shown equipments

    • To label the parts of given equipment

    • Basic knowledge of operation of an equipment

    • To eradicate the basic technical fault in the equipment

    • To interpret the report of the equipments

    • To calibrate the equipments


    Recommended Books:

    PMS-358 ECMO Credit Hours: 3(2+1)


    Course objectives:
    • To recognize the basic concept and principal of ECMO

    • To Manage ECMO machine

    • To identify various parts of ECMO

    • To Plan ECMO for various conditions

    • To explain the use of ECMO

    • To interpret various ABG’s values during ECMO





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