Curriculum for b. Sc (hons) cardiac perfusion technology



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Course Contents:

The History and Development of Extracorporeal Support, Physiology of Extracorporeal Life Support

Cardiac Failure: Principles and Physiology, Acute Hypoxic Respiratory Failure in Children, Blood Biomaterial Surface Interaction During ECLS, The Registry of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, The Circuit, Vascular Access for Extracorporeal Support, Management of Blood Flow and Gas Exchange during ECLS, Anticoagulation and Bleeding During ECLS, Anticoagulation and Bleeding During ECLS, Renal Function and Renal Supportive Therapy during ECMO

Infections and ECMO, Infections and ECMO, Neonatal Respiratory ECLS, Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and ECMO, ECMO for Pediatric Respiratory Failure, Pediatric Cardiac Extracorporeal Life Support, ECMO in Patients With Functionally Univentricular Circulation

Adult Respiratory ECMO, Adult Cardiac Support, Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: ECPR, Other Uses for ECLS, Ventricular Assist Devices in Children, Extracorporeal Support Assisted Organ Donation, Sepsis and ECMO, Extracorporeal Life Support Pre and Post Lung Transplantation

Cardiac Catheterization Procedures for ECMO Patients, The Future of Extracorporeal Life Support , Regionalization and Triage, Which centers should provide ECMO?, The benefits of regionalization

Volume-outcome benefits, Regionalized systems of care, Triage of patients for ECMO, ECMO Administrative and Training Issues, and Sustaining Quality, Economics of ECLS, Regulatory and Legal Aspects of ECLS, ECMO Ethics in the Twenty-first Century



Practicals:

  • Basic demonstration of ECMO

  • Identification of various parts of machine and their functions

  • Normal parameters interpretation

  • Basic technique to perform the ECMO
  • Demonstration of different ECMO procedures


  • Interpretation of ECMO performance


Recommended Books:

  • ECMO Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in Critical Care 4th edition By: Gail M. Annich, MD

  • Manual of Perfusion 1st edition

  • Cardiovascular perfusion by Cambridge 4th edition

PMS-379 PULMONARY DISEASES Credit Hours: 3(2+1)

Course objectives:

  • To write the investigations used in respiratory medicine

  • To describe various diseases of respiratory tract

  • To diagnose various respiratory tract diseases

  • To plan treatment for various respiratory diseases

Course Contents:

Examination of the respiratory system, Investigation used to investigate respiratory diseases, Diseases of the upper respiratory tract, Diseases of the lower respiratory tract, Asthma, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Diseases of the Respiratory system, Congenital anomalies, Carcinoma, Infections, Adult respiratory distress syndrome, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Pulmonary hypertension, Lung Transplantation, Lung reduction surgery



Practicals:

  • History taking in pulmonary diseases

  • Clinical Examination in pulmonary diseases

  • Interpretation of investigations

  • Diagnose of various respiratory diseases

  • Management plan for various respiratory diseases

Recommended Books:


  • Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine (Kumar, Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine), 8th edition

  • Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, 21st edition


7th Semester


  1. Perfusion technology-II

  2. Heart Disease

  3. Research methodology

  4. Bioinformatics

  5. Biostatistics

  6. Epidemiology


PMS-466 PERFUSION TECHNOLOGY-II Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course objectives:

  • To name the components of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit

  • To describe various protocols for cardiac procedures

  • To demonstrate the conduct of bypass

  • To operate CPB machine and Intra-aortic balloon pump

  • To assess the complications during CPB

  • To analyze the injuries caused by CPB


Course Contents:
Review of Perfusion Technology-I. Limbs perfusion, Liver transplant perfusion, Perfusion in special cases like perfusion in pregnant women, sickle cell disease, in tumors, blood diseases, perfusion in severe respiratory problems, perfusion in patients allergic to drugs, perfusion during CNS procedures, Perfusion during heart transplant, Hypothermic procedures, Ventricular assistant devices and perfusion, Cardioplagia composition and delivery techniques, effect of various drugs on myocardium during cardiac surgery, effect of various ions on the myocardium present in cardioplegia, advances in perfusion, various circuit designs, ACT and its control, Priming, conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass, Ethics in perfusion
Practicals:

  • Identification of various parts of Oxygenator

  • Identification of various arterial and venous cannula
  • Setup of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit


  • Setup of intra-aortic balloon pump

  • calculation for Body surface area, prime volume and blood volume

  • Monitoring various parameters during cardiopulmonary bypass


Recommended Books:


  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass by Sunit Ghosh, Florian Falter and David J. Cook . 1st edition University Press, Cambridge 2009

  • Manual of cardiac perfusion 1st edition

  • Cardiovascular perfusion by Cambridge 4th edition


PMS-443 HEART DISEASES Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course objectives:

  • To describe various risk factors in CVD

  • To recognize various cardiovascular risk factors

  • To estimate the progression of the disease

  • To modify life style in the prevention of the disease progression

  • To select an appropriate intervention to minimize risk factors

  • To design a set of care


Course Contents:

Atrial septal defects, Ventricular septal defects, Persistent atrioventricular canal defects d. Patent ductus arteriosus, Coarctation of the aorta, Aortic stenosis, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Right ventricular outflow obstructions, Tetralogy of Fallot, Tricuspid atresia, Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve, Transposition of the great arteries, Total and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, Univentricular heart, Malposition of the heart, Anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery, Cardiac Transplantation

Atherosclerosis, Ischemic heart disease, Valvular heart disease, Cardiac hypertrophy , Hypertensive heart disease, Cor pulmonale and pulmonary hypertension, Myocarditis, Cardiomyopathies, Pericardial disease, Endocrines and the heart, Heart Tumors, Arrhythmias and conduction disorders, Diseases of the aorta: aneurysms and dissections, Cardiac Transplantation, Diseases of the Respiratory system

Congenital anomalies, Carcinoma, Infections, Adult respiratory distress syndrome, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Pulmonary hypertension, Lung Transplantation, Lung reduction surgery

Practical:


  • Assessment of the patient's risk factors

  • Physical Examination

  • Heart sounds and their interpretation

  • Analysis of investigations used

  • Interventions to reduce CVD

  • Management of the patient's at risk

  • Exercise treadmill stress testing


Recommended Books:

  • Preventive Cardiology: Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease by Roger Blumenthal and JoAnne Foody


  • Braunwalds Heart Disease, 9th Edition

  • Harrisons Cardiovascular Medicine 2nd Edition_2


PMS-447 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Credit hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objectives:

To introduce the significance of research methodology foundation, concept of measurement, design clinical research and health system research to the students.


Course Contents:

Introduction to research (in simple term and a scientific term), concept of research, why do need research, advantage of research, identification of research need and its qualities, component of research, ethical and legal aspect of research and objective of research (definition, purpose, structure) Relevance, Avoidance of duplication, Plausibility, Political acceptability, Applicability, Cost efficiencies, work plan, budget required for research work, literature searching, statistical help, material, type of manuscript, printing of manuscript for submission and postage, Principles and reliability of measurement, errors and sources of measurement, types of measurement, measure of disease frequency and screening (introduction, validity and screening test) Studies design (introduction, selection of design), research questionnaire, validity and reliability of research finding, confounding factors, strategies to deal with threats to validity, hypothesis testing, sampling, collect data, data collection procedure, step and data collection survey questionnaire, starting questionnaire


Recommended Books:


  • Foundation of Clinical Research by Portney LG Walkais MP in 1993, Publisher by Appleton and lauge USA

  • A guide to Research Methodology, Biostatistics and Medical writing by college of physicians and surgeons Pakistan by WHO collaboration center

  • Health system research project by Corlien M Varkerisser, Indra Pathmanathan, Ann Brownlee in 1993 by International Development Research Center in New Dehli, Singapore.


PMS-448 BIOINFORMATICS Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Course Objective:

To train students to analyze genetics data for research



Course Contents:

Introduction to information technology and Bioinformatics Basic concepts, genome database and human genome project, Biological databases, protein identification, Data retrieval and analysis using computer programs NCBI, GenBank, Swiss prot, Expassy Finding Genes in DNA, complimentary sequence generation, Structure of proteins, codon redundancy, Concept of coding sequence, non- coding sequences, Codons, Start codon, stop codon, Application of Bioinformatics: DNA microarrays, Deducing protein primary sequence from DNA or RNA sequences.



Practical:

  1. Use of Bioinformatics software for data analysis

Recommended Books:

  • Introduction to Bioinformatics By Arthur M. Lesk, 3rd edition 2002.

  • Bioinformatics: Sequence and genime analysis By David W. Mount, 2nd Edition 2004.



PMS-449 BIOSTATISTICS Credit Hours: 2(2+0)

Course objectives:

To introduce the student with the significance of bio-statistics, statistics means basic concept, describing and exploring data, normal distribution, sapling distribution and hypothesis testing, basic concept of probability and application of statistics and social research.

Course Contents:
Statistical data, condensation of Data, Presentation of Data by Graphs, Health Related Data, Presentation of quantitative data, The concept of sampling, types and methods of sample, sample distribution, error of sampling, standard error, Chi square, T-Test, Z-Test, Sample and population, Basic considerations in sampling, random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling, determination of sample size, elimination of sampling bias, Concept, Mean, Median, Mode and their value in health, Percentiles, measure of dispersion, Coefficient of variation and skewness, normal distribution, range, standard deviation and relative deviation, Concepts of hypothesis testing, null and alternative hypothesis, two types of errors, acceptance and rejection Regions, Tow sided and one sided tests, general steps in hypothesis testing, test about means, confidence interval for mean, Types of tests and scales, validity and reliability of an instrument scales, assessment, development of tests/scales, Preparing data analysis, types of measurement scales, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, using computer for data analysis, Quantitative vs. qualitative research, application of scientific method, positivistic vs. naturalistic paradigm, Basic vs. applied research, evaluation research, research & development (R&D), action research, Steps/sequence, methods involved while preparing a research report

Recommended Books:


  • A quide to research methodology, biostatistics and medical writing by college of physicians and surgeons Pakistan by WHO collaboration center

  • Reading understanding multivanant statistics giimm LG Yard AD PR, publisher American Psychological association
  • Ilyas Ansari’s community medicine (Text Book) by Ilyas and Ansari 2003 published by Medical division Urdu Bazzar Karachi


PMS-404 EPIDEMIOLOGY Credit Hours: 2(2+0)
Course objectives:

To introduce basic concept of Epidemiology

To introduce basic definitions used in Epidemiology

To introduce various study designs


Course Contents:
Introduction to Epidemiology, Measures of Disease Occurrence; Incidence and Prevalence, Incidence, Rates and Dynamic Populations, Calculating Observation Time, Prevalence, Incidence, Duration, Mortality and Life Expectancy, Life Expectancy, Estimates of Associations, Age Standardization, Causes of Diseases, Study Design Options, Common Designs Used to Estimate Associations, Case–Control Study, Cohort Study, Experimental Study, The Cross-Sectional Study, Case-Reports, Sources of Error; Confounding and Biases
Recommended Books:

1.An_Introduction_to_Epidemiology_for_Health_Professionals




8th Semester


Research Project

Seminar

Subject of own interest

  • ECMO

  • Perfusion Technology

  • Extra Cardiac perfusion

  • Cardiac Assist devices

  • Medical Physics

PMS-406 RESEARCH PROJECT Credit Hours: 6
Course Objectives:


  • Students will learn some basic research methodology and gain knowledge about research.

  • It will hopefully result in some of presentation or publication for the students and will provide a research oriented environment

Course Contents:

During last year each student should select a topic of research report with consultation of his/her supervisor and shall prepare and submit research report to Khyber Medical University by the end of last year.


Practicals:

Students will prepare a comprehensive report on their selected research topic and will submit hard copy to following:



  • One Copy to Examination Department

  • One Copy to the Library KMU

  • One Copy to the Supervisor


PMS-408 SEMINAR Credit Hours: 1
Objective of the seminar:

During last year each student should select a topic of research work with consultation of his/her supervisor and shall present his/her research work through a seminar.



PMS-450 SUBJECT OF OWN INTEREST Credit Hours: 4(2+2)
Student will have to select one optional subject from the following subjects.

  • ECMO

  • Perfusion Technology

  • Extra Cardiac perfusion

  • Cardiac Assist devices

  • Medical Physics

  • Pediatric Perfusion




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