Print, Radio, TV, Outdoor publicity and traditional media - music, drama, dance, puppetry, street play, fairs, festivals and their role in development
Cyber media and development
e-governance , digital democracy & e-chaupal
ICT & Development
Community-based water harvesting by Rajendra Singh in Rajasthan.
Role of NGOs in social development
Communication for rural development:
Strengthening of Panchayati Raj
Advancement in farming and alternative employment
Conservation of rural culture –tradition
Communication for urban development:
Communication for Tribal development
Wild life and forest conservation
Joint forest management
Forest based cottage industries
CONCEPT AND INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT
Development:Introduction Concept of Development
The purpose of development is to build an enabling environment so that people can joy a long, healthy and creative life. Development is an all embracing concept encompassing economic, social, cultural, educational and political aspects of the society. It is the sum of all-round, balanced and planned growth.
Development means a change, growth, progress and modernization. Development stands for all that is good, positive and favorable.
Often, this truth is lost in pursuit of economic growth and material well being. Development goal is reflected in every policy, declarations of the government as well as international community. Despite this, there is no clear image of the process of development. This has created confusion about the concept of development and its approaches as well as strategies.
A manual for news agency reporters brought out by the (IIMC) Indian Institute of Mass Communication defines it as:” The removal of poverty, the lessening of disparity between regions and classes, the building up of technological infrastructure, modernization of society through shedding feudalism, tribalism and superstitions, the gradual achievement of economic self reliance”.
It goes on to say further, Development is measured in time, improvement of the lives of the people and the strengthening of the families or the individual capacity to deal with the rest of the society and of the nations capacity to deal with the world. A cursory glance at this all encompassing definition reveals to us that the development is not just restricted to the mere upliftment of the economic status of a nation, but involves a whole gamut of issues pertinent to the well being of a group of individuals and society at large.
A country’s development rests on several factors. These include satisfaction of physical, material and spiritual wants of its people. UNESCO Prescribes certain access Prevalence of media in a country, if it has to come under developing or developed ones.
The term development has been interpreted in various ways by sociologists, economists, development planners etc. to some it means modernization, to others social change and to others it would enhance the quality of life or sustainable development. The word ‘development’ suggests some amount of improvement, self-reliance, upliftment and progress, and also self-awareness and independence to an extent.
Today development is one of the human rights and achieving development is no longer what the state may opt to “do”. It is now the primary responsibility of the government to create national and international conditions favorable to the realization of right to development. The deceleration on Right to Development is particularly significant for its importance to developing countries.
Dynamics of development—
Development is a continuous process. It is a movement from a state of dissatisfaction to a state of satisfaction. It is dynamic not static.
The process of development will remain dormant unless all sectors and levels of people of developing country are informed, motivated and influenced to use unfamiliar ideas, skills and instruments.
Development depends on making use of the vast potential that communication can provide today and tomorrow (capital-intensive, machine-intensive technology, top-down structure of authority).
Broadly issues are –economic, social, political, environmental…
Specific developmental issues form the basis for developmental goals.
Identification of issues/goals varies from society to society, individual to individual due to the perception of values, economic strength, cultural context, social structure.etc.
*Economic – (NI, employment, industrialization, standard of living, literacy, credit cards, industrial delicensing, Foreign Investment)
*Infrastructure – increase in (the transport, roads, power, banking & financial institutions, capital market, rural-urban linkages)
Dysfunctions of development--- (internal constraints which caused dysfunction)
Mutual distrust in interpersonal relations. ( in general , people were suspicious, evasive, and distrustful of others in the community and non-cooperative interpersonal relations with peers)
Perceived limited good ( people believed that all good things in life are available in limited quantities )
Family ( people were prepared to subordinate their personal goals to those of the family)
Lack of innovativeness ( people were reluctant to adopt modernizing innovations, had a negative attitude toward change, & their behavior was not fully oriented toward rational economic considerations)
Fatalism ( people believed that their well-being was controlled by supernatural fate)
Limited aspirations ( exhibited low aspirations for advancement)
Limited view of the world (they were not time conscious. They had no orientation to the world beyond their narrow group.)
Low empathy( exhibited inertness, could not imagine themselves in new situations or places, capacity of a person to put itself in another person shoes)
Dominant concepts of development ---
Economic growth through industrialization and urbanization.
Centralized economic planning.
Importance attached to diffusion of modernizing innovation.
Underdevelopment ( internal problems-biased social structure with traditional attitudes and behavior)
Communication is sharing of knowledge, information and experience. It makes them understand, persuade, convert or control one another. It is two way process.
Development communication--- Nora Quebral-defines Devcom as “an art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equality and larger fulfillment of the human potential”.
Only after communicating with the people at their level, we can understand their problems in the right perspective and assist development agencies in accelerating the pace of progress.
Thus, the terms development and communication are engaged in symbiotic relationship in the process balanced growth and progress.
Communication perspective on development-
Any act of communication on development aspects has to be purposive and pragmatic in a planned and systematic manner. That means has to be goal oriented. The process of development is linked with communication.
Communication support is essential to inspire the people to play a decisive role in transforming a traditional society into a progressive society. The success of development oriented programmes depends on a sound communication support.
Communication for development calls for the active participation of under-privileged in the mainstream of national life in general and in decision making process in particular.
Role of communication in development-
The role of communication or communication media is to create proper atmosphere / climate for social change by transforming the society.
It also seeks to maintain some of the old values and norms of the society. Communication Media can help in a big way to popularize the beneficial effects and the imperativeness of accepting various development programmes on a large scale, especially in the rural and backward areas.
Comm. operations, oriented to development, can mount social justice, economic equality and political participation which in turn help weaker sections to be prepared for overall development. Communication opens the door for development which raises people’s awareness and opportunities by providing relevant information. Comm. strives to make people play a participatory role in development projects.
Comm. scientist Everett M Rogers says “development is a widely participatory process of social change in a society intended to bring about both social and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom and other valued qualities) for the majority of the people through gaining greater control over their environment.”
The objective of comm. for development is to enable the weaker sections to take part actively in the development programmes so that they can be brought into mainstream of national life and have a say in decision making process.
Comm. contributes at two levels—general & specific.
Programmes like mass literacy and family planning fall under general level. In the context of specific development programmes, comm. act as—
“Development Support Communication (DSC)”
Important roles (DSC)--
Circulates knowledge that will inform people of significant events, opportunities, danger and changes in their community, the country and the world.
Provides a forum where issues affecting the national or community development may be geared.
Teaches those ideas, skills and attitudes that people need to achieve a better life.
Creates and maintain base of consensus that is needed for the stability of the state. Stability not mere in terms of political but social also.
Approaches to Devcom—
Daniel Learner- substituted the word development for modernization.
His concern was modernization of traditional society.
Reasons for backwardness---
*Psychological factors—one can stimulate productivity using the psychological technique of persuasion/motivation. This brings behavioral changes—changing the human attitude towards better motivation.
Empathizing—due to the lack of exposure to mass media, people in traditional society failed to imagine themselves in a better position than their counterparts.
Psychic mobility—imagines them in developed or developing situation. This is the beginning of motivation and changes which contributes to modernization and development.
Learner – established a correlation between economic productivity and media provision. The more media provision (quantitatively), the higher the economic productivity and vice-versa.
Urbanization------>Literacy------>More economic & Political participation
Mass media exposure
Everett M Rogers—his approach was similar to Learner. There was a correlation between quantity of mass media & development. The process of modernization starts with the diffusion of new ideas which happens only with mass media. Diffusion of can be done through interpersonal comm. & mass comm. he presented a two step flow comm. theory there are opinion leaders or change agent in the process of comm.
Wilbur Schramm—communication scholar, was assigned by UNESCO (1964), to view correlation between quantity of mass media and their contribution to modernization or development. Mass media were magic multipliers and developing countries should go for more extension of mass media. To achieve social change of great magnitude, people must be informed, persuaded and educated. Information must flow not only to them but also from them, so that their needs can be known, can have a participatory role.
Major problem in developing countries was not short of natural resources but underdevelopment of human resources. Thus, the mass media and education had the enormous task of building the human capital. This prepares individuals for change by ‘establishing a climate for modernization’.
The unilinear world view of development simply means underdevelopment preceding development. All developed countries are late comers to the process of development already taken place in the developed West. The Western developed countries followed some kinds of processes, and, they have achieved a kind of standard of living. The people of these countries enjoy certain consumer items, which are not easily available for the common men living in other parts of the world, at an affordable cost. Because of their tremendous influence on the world bodies and international scene, the Western countries have become models of development for the underdeveloped or developing countries. It suggests, therefore, that development is becoming mote like West or like the already developed countries. For becoming like the West, there are certain institutional or economic hurdles, whose removal will initiate the development process in the underdeveloped countries.
On the contrary, the “non-unilinear world-view of development” suggests that development is not becoming like the West. Under the changed historical conditions, it may not be possible for the less developed countries to become like the already developed countries. These less-developed countries shall have to find an alternative path of development,
Types of Unilinear Theories:
Theories falling under the unilinear world-view may be divided into two broad categories.
First, there are those theories, which consider development as harmonies and non-contentious processes. The development process benefits all rich as well as poor people, and rich as well as poor countries. There is more harmony between different groups of people and different countries.
The second category of theories considers development essentially as a conflicting process. These theories refer to the rich exploiting the poor as much as the rich countries exploiting the poor.
Theories under category which suggest development to be a harmonies process, lead to two paradigms: one which advocates state intervention or active role of the Government as an essential requirement for development. Most of the modern theories of development that have emerged during the post-war years come under this paradigm. This may be called as the ‘Mainstream Paradigm’.
‘Mainstream paradigm’ includes most of the familiar development theories like the “big-push” or “balanced growth” or “vicious circle”.
In spite of differences in the framework, point of emphasis etc., there are certain aspects, which are common in these theories. The most important resource for development is savings or accumulation of capital. Development is a process of transforming an economy.
Therefore, these theories describe the initial conditions or barriers responsible for the low savings, and suggest strategies to overcome those hurdles, which would put the underdeveloped countries on the path of development like the West. The persistence of the low savings is due to the vicious circle of poverty: low income, low savings, low investment, low productivity, and low income.
There is also the vicious circle on the demand side like the low inducement to invest because of the low level of productivity due to low level of investment.
In the process of mobilizing saving and channeling the same for development, the mainstream theories consider state intervention, either through the governmental planning or state programmes, as essential. Most of the newly independent countries have embarked upon the development strategies, which were inspired by the theories of the mainstream paradigm.
Counter –revolution Paradigm:
The other paradigm, which emphasizes non by the state or non-intervention by the state or non-involvement of the government, and advocates the efficiency of the market (the forces that determine demand. supply, and the cost, pricing, and production of goods. commodities and services) in promoting development, which favors “free market’’ for developments, is called as the “counter-revolutionary” paradigm.
In contrast, the Counter-revolution paradigm considers the state intervention as the cause of inefficiency and distortions in the resource use. According to paradigm, the state intervention through licensing and regulation leads to ‘directly unproductive profit seeking’, corruption, and red tape. Minimizing the state’s role, and allowing the market to play the role in allocation of resources, would improve efficiency, competitiveness and rapid growth. This paradigm has gained some popularity only in the 1980s, by which time there was widespread disenchantment with the interventionist policies. In recent years, this paradigm is at the basis of the package of liberalization that is recommended by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Non-Unilinear World-view of Development
Unilinear is moving from one step to another logically. Some paradigms are not unilinear. Their nature is not that systematic.
Types of non-unilinear theories
If we turn to the theories under the “non-unilinear world view”, here too we can subgroup theories into two paradigms one the populist paradigm and the other the Neo -Marxist paradigm. Thus, we can broadly classify two “World-views of development”, the unilinear and the non-unilinear, in six paradigms, viz., the mainstream paradigm, the counter revolution, the Structuralist, the Orthodox Marxist, all the four belonging to a Unilinear World View. The populist and Neo-Marxist are the two paradigms of “non-Unilinear world View”.
The theories under the ‘Populist” approach questions either the need or possibility of the less-developed countries developing on the lines of the already developed capitalist countries.
Gandhi thought that the Western type of development had nothing to commend to societies like India. His contention was that the Western industrialization had brought along with it immorality crime, and cultural degeneration. Development in a country like India should make the village as the centre, and provide employment and livelihood through a network of cottage and village industries. ‘Gram Swaraj’ or ‘village united development’ would not only ensure against the evils of industrialization and urbanization, but also absorb millions of people without uprooting them from their appropriate village industries.
The contribution of Schumacher is also inspired by the Gandhian thinking. It is well-known through his book, small is Beautiful. The two serve problems of the less developed countries, according to him, were mass unemployment and mass migration to the urban areas. In the less developed countries, there emerged what is known as “dual economics” of urban and rural areas, each within different patterns of living, widely separated from each other, living as two different worlds. That the rural masses would be absorbed by the Western type of industrialization is utterly unrealistic. What is needed is creation of appropriate technology that would promote employment opportunities through a network of small production units, a primary condition for such a development involves education, organization, and development.
The essence of the paradigm lies in the fact that at present, the less developed countries cannot develop like the West. It stresses the interconnectedness of development and underdevelopment, of traditional and modern and indeed many other social, political and economic factors. It seems many conflicts and clashes of interest in the development process occur, both between nations and between social classes within the underdeveloped countries. It emphasizes the historical factors, especially, the active process of how underdevelopment has come into being in the various Third World countries.
Underdevelopment of most of the world was a direct result of the monopoly capitalism, which had blocked the primary accumulation of capital in the underdeveloped regions, and destroyed their new industries. They lost their time-honored means of livelihood, their arts and crafts, yet there was no modern industry to provide new ones in their place.
“Under development is not just the lack of development. Before there was development, there was no underdevelopment. This relation between development and underdevelopment is not just a comparative one, in the sense that some places are more developed, and yet then underdevelopment”.
Ingredients (5M’s) of development & money generation
In the 50’s which was described as the development decade it was thought that if machines and knowledge of using those machines were made available along with the money to buy these machines, development would automatically follow.
Appraisal and reappraisal of development process led to the painful discovery that mere provision of machines, materials, methods and money is not sufficient to being about development: something more was needed.
Further scrutiny revealed that d development won’t take place unless people were mobilized through communication to accept development as a described goal and played a part in its realization.
The man under discussion is one who is illiterate, lives : in rural areas, physically weak and living in poor housing conditions. A part from the above- features, there is something special to human beings in each region and that is what must be understood. They are social, spiritual…
Man has to be understood in his social context
Man lives not only in the present but also in the past, through social institutions that have grown over a period. These institutions greatly influence his personality and are these institutions which determine by and large his behavior, psychology and thinking.
The social institutions may be family, government economy, education and religion etc..
If there is an institution in society that does not allow the fruits of labour to be enjoyed by those who are laboring, it may not be possible to persuade people to put in as much labour as you want them to.
Example: Slavery, Communism etc.
If there is a prevailing atmosphere in the community or society where in material prosperity is considered not worth aspiring for we might not get our developmental goals.
Example: Traditional Indian Society, Buddhism, Jainism
If manual work is rated low as against non-manual work it will be difficult to encourage people in favour of manual work against non- manual.
Example: half taught youth of developing countries are relevant to go for manual work. Even in the absence of work befitting for their skills.
It will be difficult to encourage economic activity if those working with hands are accorded the lowest position in the every region has to be understood against his social background.
Example: old Zamindars, Nawabs.
Man has to be understood in his Physical Environment
Man inherits something as part of his environment . Bigger the country, larger the area over which human beings are spread and the greater the variety. In the attitude. Distance promotes different attitude/behavior pattern because of the lack of physical means of communication.
Unless one understands the circumstances of man one cannot conceive of development.
Example: Bonda tribes of Chhattisgarh, M.P. stay naked. The tribes of Andaman & Nicobar have entirely different way of living than people of plains.
Man has to be understood in his Psychological make up
The average level aspirations among inhabitants is also governed by the institutions. One cannot aspire high if born in an environment where one’s fate is sealed. He has to rebel against it to raise his level of aspiration. The study of man or understanding of man in his environment is imperative if we have to understand the developmental process.
Example: children living in footpath of cities.
Man has to be understood in his social context in his physical environment and psychological makeup unless one takes a comprehensive view, communication for development is likely to misfire.
The primary purpose of money is needed to buy services and goods and services available either by producing or through exchange. Development activities need money. The million dollar question is where to bring this money from ? One of the solutions can be proposed is by savings.
But in the developing countries, the money supply is tight and limited in circulation. Riddled with the various circle of poverty, the saving possibility is very limited. Hence, money has to be generated.
Machines, Materials & Methods
As you know, development essentially centers on the use of machine & technology for faster multiplication of service & goods.
Machines constitute the core of development. These have to be used in the production of goods to meet the primary needs of man – food, clothing, housing etc.
But the situation in developing countries is that machines do not exist.
So, one has to buy them from outside. One can’t go on buying as much as one ways. A country has to search for material of which machine are made.
If you have material, you should know the methods to manufacture. As well as the method of using machines at home, we those find that materials machine and method constitute a circle. In most developing parts of the world material is by and large available.
MNC and Foreign aid
A corporation that has its facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country. Such companies have offices and/or factories in different countries and usually have a centralized head office where they co-ordinate global management.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational corporation (TNC), also called multinational enterprise (MNE), is a corporation or enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country.
There are a few other ways to counter the deficit problem:-
Loan:some of money lent for temporary use
Gift: something given or received as a present
Partnership: a relationship of partners one of the pair of companionship.
In matter of loan, the final choice is with the loan giver and not the loan seeker. Moreover loan/interest repayment is a problem (Govt. of India’s estimated interest payment for 2008-09 budget Rs. 190807 crore of GDP: Rs. 5303770 crore) and the biggest club on loan taking is the fear of losing sovereignty. The fear of being undying the pressure of the loan giver.
Gifts, however, cannot be unlimited, nor can they equal the total requirements gifts will be at the convenience of those who gives them and they are always limited.
The biggest risk in partnership is that the developing nations have no control on it. The control lies in the lands of those who offer partnership.
In the area of material, method and machine, there is a large element of helplessness on the part of the developing countries. Theses offer big challenges to the ability and foresight of political leadership.
Development needs unorthodox imagination dedicated, devoted leadership.
When oil explanation started in India in the fifties the country was faced with probable of shortage of oil-drilies. Drilling machines could be obtained from countries which had experience of oil exploration – America, Canada or Soviet Union. But getting drillers was a costly proposition.
The then minister in change, the Late Shri K.D. Malaviya, decided to produce them at home. He recruited a large no. of workers, regardless of their education and organized training program on the drilling site. He succeeded training a large army of drillers in no time.
Foreign capital may be defined as the transfer of resources including technical know-how from developed countries and multilateral Institutions to the underdeveloped countries.
Components of foreign capital--
Motives for Giving Aid
There are three motives for providing economic aid to the developing world.
Humanitarian motives. The plight of hundreds of millions of people living in abject poverty must strike the consciences of those whose lot is so much better. Humanitarianism demands at the fortunate minority should give some of their income to those who have so little.
Political motives. Political world have been economic aid in the hope that it will help to win the political allegiance of the recipients.
Economic motives. If the developing countries succeed in escaping from ‘the poverty trap’ and achieve faster rates of economic growth, they will be able to enter more fully into international trade and provide growing markets for the outputs of other countries.
Forms of Aid
The United Nations considers that economic aid consists of outright grants and long-term loans for non-military purposes. The chief aid-giving countries, however, take a much broader view and include private capital investment and export credits: In fact the term ‘aid’ is being increasingly replaced by the term ‘development assistance’. Economic aid may take several forms.
Gifts of Consumer Goods
This form of aid has consisted mainly of the free distribution of American stockpiles of foodstuffs (e.g. wheat). There are several problems associated with this type of aid. The type of food stockpiled in the West may not be suitable for people living in the East and the large-scale release of such commodities may upset world prices and affect the earnings of other producers. In the early 1970s a series of poor harvests and the rapid growth of world population led to a severe shortage of foodstuffs and this form of aid was seriously curtailed.
Loans may be arranged on commercial terms (i.e. at market rates of interest) or on concessionary terms (i.e. at interest rates well below market rates). Grants and loans may be allocated to a specific project, or ‘tied’ to exports from the donor country, or without any such conditions. Grants and concessionary loans tend to take the form of official assistance, that is, they are supplied on a government to government basis (bilaterally) or via multilateral organizations. The main multilateral agencies are the World Bank and its two affiliates, the International Development Association and the International Finance Corporation, the International Monetary Fund; the regional development banks related to areas such as Latin America, Asia and Africa; the United Nations.
MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS
Psychologist Abraham Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation"1 and his subsequent book, Motivation and Personality.2 This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.
As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority.
Five Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs
There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Physiological Needs These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.
Security Needs These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment.
Social Needs These include needs for belonging, love and affection. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or religious groups.
Esteem Needs After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment.
This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential.
The hierarchic theory is often represented as a pyramid, with the larger, lower levels representing the lower needs, and the upper point representing the need for self-actualization. Maslow believes that the only reason that people would not move well in direction of self-actualization is because of hindrances placed in their way by society. He states that education is one of these hindrances. He recommends ways education can switch from its usual person-stunting tactics to person-growing approaches. Maslow states that educators should respond to the potential an individual has for growing into a self-actualizing person of his/her own kind. Ten points that educators should address are listed:
We should teach people to be authentic, to be aware of their inner selves and to hear their inner-feeling voices.
We should teach people to transcend their cultural conditioning and become world citizens.
We should help people discover their vocation in life, their calling, fate or destiny. This is especially focused on finding the right career and the right mate.
We should teach people that life is precious, that there is joy to be experienced in life, and if people are open to seeing the good and joyous in all kinds of situations, it makes life worth living.
We must accept the person as he or she is and helps the person learn their inner nature. From real knowledge of aptitudes and limitations we can know what to build upon, what potentials are really there.
We must see that the person's basic needs are satisfied. This includes safety, belongingness, and esteem needs.
We should refreshen consciousness, teaching the person to appreciate beauty and the other good things in nature and in living.
We should teach people that controls are good, and complete abandon is bad. It takes control to improve the quality of life in all areas.
We should teach people to transcend the trifling problems and grapple with the serious problems in life. These include the problems of injustice, of pain, suffering, and death.
We must teach people to be good choosers. They must be given practice in making good choices.