DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.
FAI' Booty obtained from infidels. According to Muhammad ibn Tahir, fai' is booty taken from a country which submits to Islam without resistence, as distinguished from ghanimah, or plunder. The Khalifah 'Umar said it was the special privilege of the Prophet to take booty as well as plunder, a privilege not permitted to any other prophet.
'Ani ibn Malik says the Prophet used to divide the booty on the same day he took it, and would give two shares to a man with a wife, and only one share to a man without one. (Mishkat, book xvii c xii.)
FAIZ-I-AQDAS (, Persian) Communications of divine grace made to angels and prophets and other superior intelligences.
AL-FAJR "The Daybreak." The title of the lxxxixth Surah of the Qur'an, in the first verse of which the word occurs.
FA'L . A good omen, as distinguished from tiyarah, "a bad omen".
Muhammad is related to have said, "Do not put faith in a bad omen, but rather take a good one." The people asked, "What is a good omen?" And he replied, "Any good word which any of you may hear."
Ibn Abbas says, "The Prophet used to take good omens by men's names, but he would not take bad omens."
Qat'an ibn Qabisah says, "The Prophet forbade taking omens from the running of animals, the flight of birds, and from throwing pebbles, which were done by the idolators of Arabia." (Mishkat, book xxi c ii)
It is, however, very commonly practised
amongst the Muhammadans of India. For example, if a person start out on an important journey and he meet a woman first, he will take it as a bad omen, and it he meet a man he will regard it as a good one.
AL-FALAQ "The Daybreak." The title of the cxiiithe Surah of the Qur'an. The word signifies cleaving, and denotes the breaking forth of the light from the darkness.
FALL The (of Adam). Is known amongst Muslim writers as zallatu Adam, or the fall or slip of Adam. The term zallah, or "a slip" or "error", being applied to prophets, but not zamb, " a sin", which they say prophets do not commit.
The following is the account of Adam's "slip", as given in the Qur'an, Surah ii, 33:-
"And we said, 'O Adam! Dwell thee and they wife in the Garden, and eat ye plentifully therefrom wherever ye list; but to this tree come not nigh, lest ye become of the transgressors.'
"But Satan made them slip (azallahuma) from it, and caused their banishment from the place in which they were. And we said, 'Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the others and there shall be for you in the earth a dwelling-place, and a provision for a time.'"
Surah vii 18-24:-
"'And, O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise, and eat ye whence ye will, but to this tree approach not, lest ye become of the unjust doers."
"Then Satan whispered them to show them their nakedness, which had been hidden from them both. And he said, 'This tree hath your Lord forbidden you, only lest ye should become angels, or lest ye should become immortals."
"And be aware to them both. 'Verily I am unto you one who counselleth aright.'
"So he beguiled them by deceits and when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew together upon themselves the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them 'Did I not forbid you this tree, and did I not say to you, "Verily, Satan is your declared enemy?"
"They said, 'O our Lord! With ourselves have we dealt unjustly; if tho forgive us not and have pity on us, we shall surely be of those who perish."
"He said, 'Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the other; and on earth shall be your swelling, and your provision for a season."
"He said, 'On it shall ye live, and on it shall ye die, and from it shall ye be taken forth.'"
Surah xx 114-120:-
"And of old We made a covenant with Adam; but he forgot it; and we found no firmness of purpose in him.
"And when We said to the angels, 'Fall down and worship Adam,' they worshiped all save Iblis, who refused; and We said, 'O Adam! This truly is a for to thee and to thy wife. Let him not therefore drive you out of the garden, and ye become wretched."
"For to thee is it granted that thou shalt not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be naked."
"And the thou shalt not thirst therein, neither shalt thou parch with heat."
"But Satan whispered him: said he, 'O Adam! Shall I show thee the tree of Eternity, and the Kingdom that faileth not?"
"And they both ate thereof, and their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew of the leaves of the Garden to cover them, and Adam disobeyed his Lord and went astray."
"Afterwards his Lord chose him for himself, and was turned towards him, and guided him."
The Muslim Commentators are much perplexed as to the scene of the fall of Adam. From the text of the Qur'an it would appear that the Paradise spoken of was in heaven and not on earth, and the tradition, that when Adam was cast forth he fell on the island of Ceylon, would support this view. But al-Baizawi says some say the Garden of Eden was situated either in the country of the Philistines or in Faris, and that Adam was cast out of it and sent in the direction of Hindustan. But this view he rejects, and maintains that the Garden of Eden was in the heavens, and that the fall occurred before Adam and Eve inhabited this earth of ours. [EDEN.]
The Muhammadan commentators are silent as to the effects of Adam's fall upon the human race.
FALSE WITNESS. The Imam Abu Hanifah is of opinion that a false witness must be publicly stigmatized, but not chastised with blows; bu the Imams ash Shafi'i, Yusuf, and Muhammad are of opinion that he should be scourged and imprisoned.
In the Law of Moses, a false witness was punished with the punishment of the offence it sought to establish. Deut xx 19, "Thou shalt do unto him as he had thought to do unto his brother." [EVIDENCE.]
FANA' Extinction. The last stage in the Sufiistic journey. [SUFIISM.]
FAQIH . A Muhammadan lawyer or theologian. The term is still retained in Spanish as alfaqui. [FIQH.]
FAQIR . Persian darwesh. The Arabic word faqir signifies "poor"; but it is used in the sense of being in need of mercy, and poor in the sight of God, rather than in need of worldly assistance. Darwesh is a Persian word, derived from dar, "a door", ie those who beg from door to door. The terms are generally used for those who lead a religious life. Religious faqirs are divided into two great classes, the ba shar' (with the law), or those who govern their conduct according to the principles of Islam;
and the be shar' (without the law, or those who do not rule their lives according to the principles of any religious creed, although they call themselves Musulmans. The former are called salik, or travelers on the pathway (toriqah) to heaven, and the latter are with azad (free), or majzub (abstracted). The salik embrace the various religious orders who perform the zikrs, described in the article ZIKR.
The Majzub faqirs are totally absorbed in religious reverie. The Azad shave their beards, whiskers, moustachios, eye-brows, and eye-lashes, and lead lives of celibacy.
The Azad and Majzub faqirs can scarcely be said to be Muhammadans, as they do not say the regular prayers or observe the ordinances of Islam, so that a description of their various sects does not fall withing the limits of this work. The Salik faqirs are divided into very numerous orders; but their chief difference consists in their sifsilah, or chain of succession, from their great teachers, the Khalifahs Abu Bakr and 'Ali who are said to have been the founders of the religious order of faqirs.
It is impossible to become acquainted with all the rules and ceremonies of the numerous orders of faqirs; for, like those of the Freemasons and other secret societies, they are not divulged to the uninitiated.
The doctrines of the darwesh orders are those of the Sufi mystics, and their religious ceremonies consist of exercise called zikrs, or "recitals." [ZIKR, SUFIISM.]
M. D'Ohsson, in his celebrated work on the Ottoman Empire, traces the origin of the order of faqirs to the time of Muhammad himself:-
"In the first year of the Hijrah, forty-five citizens of Makkah joined themselves to as many others of al-Madinah. They took an oath of fidelity to the doctrines of their Prophet, and formed a sect or fraternity, the object of which was to establish among themselves a community of property, and to perform every day certain religious practices in a spirit of penitence and mortification. To distinguish themselves from other Muhammadans, they took the name of Sufis [SUFIISM.] This name, which later was attributed to the most zealous partizans of Islam, is the same still in use to indicate any Musulman who retires from the world to study, to lead a life of pious contemplation, and to follow the most painful exercises of an exaggerated devotion. To the name of Sufi they added also that of faqir, because their maxim was to renounce the foods of the earth, and to live in an entire abnegation of all worldly enjoyments, following thereby the words of the Prophet, al-faqru fakhri, or 'Poverty is my pride.' Following their example, Abu Bakr and 'Ali established, even during the life-time of the Prophet and under his own eyes, religious orders, over which each presided, with Zikrs or peculiar religious exercises, established by them separately, and a vow taken by each of the voluntary disciples forming them. On his decease, Abu Bakr made over his office of president to one Almanu 'l-Farisi and 'Ali to al-Hasanu 'l-Basri, and each of these charges were consecrated under the title Khalifah, or successor. The two first successors followed the example of the Khalifahs of Islam, and transmitted it to their successors, and these in turn to others the most aged and venerable of their fraternity. Some among them, led by the delirium of the imagination wandered away from the primitive rules of their society, and converted, from time to time, these fraternities into a multitude of religious orders.
"They were doubtlessly emboldened in this enterprise by the of a recluse who, in the thrity-seventh year of the Hijrah (A.D. 657) formed the first order of anchorets of the great of the greatest austerity, named Uwais al-Karani, a native of Karu, In Yamen, who one day announced that the archangel Gabriel had appeared to him in a dream, and in the name of the Eternal God, Commanded him to withdraw from the world, and to give himself up to a life of contemplation and penitence. This visionary pretended also to have received from the heavenly visitor the plan of his future conduct, and the rules of his institution. These consisted in a continual abstinence, in retirement from society, in an abandenment of the pleasures of innocent nature, and in the recital of an infinity of prayers day and night (Zikrs). Uwals even added to these practices. He went so fat as to draw out his teeth, in honor, it is said, of the Prophet, who had lost two of his own in the celebrated battle of Uhud. He required his disciples to make the same sacrifice. He pretended that all those who would be especially favored by heaven and really called to the exercises of his Order, should lose their teeth in a supernatural manner; that an angel should draw out their teeth whilst in the midst of a deep sleep; and that on a awakening they should find them by their bedside. The experiences of such a vocation were doubtless too severe to attract many proselytes to the order; it only enjoyed a certain degree of attraction for fanatics and credulously ignorant people during the first days of Islam. Since then it has remained in Yaman, where it originated, and where its partisans were always but few in number.
It was about A.H. 49 (A.D. 766), that the Shaik Alwan, a mystic renowned for his religious fervor, founded the first regular order of faqirs, now known as the Alwaniyah, with its special rules and religious exercises, although similar associations of men without strict rules had existed from the days of Abu Bakr, the first Khalifah. And although there is the formal declaration of Muhammad, "Let there be no monasticism in Islam," still the inclinations of Eastern races to a solitary and contemplative life, carried it even against the positive opposition of orthodox Islam, and now there is scarcely a maulawi or learned man of reputation in Islam who is not a member of some religious order.
Each century gave birth to new orders, named after their respective founders, but in the present day there is no means of ascertaining the actual number of these associations of mystic Muslims. M D'Ohsonn, in the work already quoted, gives a list of thirty-two orders, but it is by no means comprehensive.
Three of these orders, the Bastamiyah, the Naqshbandiyah, and the Bakhtashiyah, descend from
the order established by the first Khalifah, Abu Bakr. The forth Khalifah, 'Ali gave birth to all the others. Each order has its silsilah, or chain of succession, from one of these two great founders.
The Naqshbandiyah, who are the followers of Khwajab Pir Muhammad Naqshband, are a very numerous order. Thye usually perform the Zikr-I-Khafi, or silent devotions, described in the account of ZIKR:
The first duty of the members of this Order is to recite, daily, particular prayers, called the khatim Khawjagan; once, at least, the Istighfar (Prayer for Forgiveness); seven times the salamat; seven times the Fatihah (first chapter of the Qur'an); nine times the chapter of the Qur'an called Inshirah (Chapter xciv); lastly, the Ikhlas (Chapter cxii). To these are added the ceremonies called Zikr. [ZIKR.]
For these recitals they meet together once a week. Ordinarily, this is on Thursday, and after the fifth prayer of the day, so that it occurs after night-fall. In each city, suburb, or quarter, the members of this association, divided into different bodies, assemble at the house of their respective pir or sheikh, where, seated, they perform their
pious exercises with the most perfect gravity. The sheikh, or any other brother in his stead, chants the prayers which constitute the association and the assembly respond in chorus, "Hu (He), " or "Allah!" In some cities, the Naqshbandiyah have especial halls, consecrated wholly to this purpose, and then the sheikh only is distinguished from the other brethren by a special turban.
The Bakhtashiyah was founded by a native of Bukhara, and is celebrated as being the order which eventually gave birth to the fanatical order of Janissaries. The symbol of their order is the mystic firdle, which they put off and on seven times saying:-
1. "I tie up greediness, and unbind generosity."
2. "I tie up anger, and unbind meekness."
3. "I tie up avarice, and unbind piety."
4. "I tie up ignorance, and unbind the feet of God."
5. "I tie up passion, and unbind the love of God."
6. "I tie up hunger, and unbind (spiritual) contentment."
7. "I tie up Satanism and unbind Divineness."
The Maulawiyah are the most popular religious order of faqirs in the Turkish empire.
THE MAULAWI OR DANCING DARWASH
They are called by Europeans, who witness their zikrs and various religious performances at Constantinople and Cairo, the "dancing", or "whirling" darwashes. They were founded by Maulawi Jalalu 'd-din ar-Rumi, the renowned author of the Masnawi, a book much read in Persia, and, indeed, in all parts of Islam.
They have service at their takyah, or "convent", every Wednesday and Sunday at two o'clock. There are about twenty performers with high round felt caps and brown mantles. At a given signal they all fall flat on their faces, and rise and walk slowly round and round with their arms folded, bowing and turning slowly several times. They then chel
THE MAULAWI OR DANCING DARWASH
off their mantles and appear in long bell-shaped petticoats and jackets, and then begin to spin, revolving, dancing and turning with extraordinary velocity. [ZIRK.]
THE MAULAWI OR DANCING DARWASH
The Qadiriyah sprang from the celebrated Saidi 'Abdu 'l-Qadir, surnamed Pir-i-Dasis gir, whose shrine is at Bagdad. They practice both the Zikr-i-Jali and the Zikr-i-Khafi. Most of the Sunni Maulawis on the north-west frontier of India are members of this order. In Egypt it is most popular among fishermen.
The Chishtiyah are followers of Mu'inu 'd din Banda Nawaz, surnamed the Gisu daraf, or the "long-ringleted." His shrine is at Calburgah.
The Shi'ahs generally become faqirs of this order. They are partial to vocal music, for the founder of the order remarked that
singing was the food and support of the soul. They perform the Zikr-i-Jali, desribed in the articles on ZIKR.
The Jalaiyah were founded by Saiyid Jalalu 'd-din of Bukhara. They are met with in Central Asia. Religious mendicants are often of this order.
The Suhrwardiyah are a popular order in Afghanistan, and comprise a number of learned men. They are the followers of Shihabu 'd-din of Suhrward of al-'Iraq. These are the most noted orders of ba shar' faqirs.
The ba shar' faqirs are very numerous.
The most popular order in India is that of the Murdariyah, founded by Zinda Shah Murdar, of Syria, whose shrine is at Makanpur, in Oudh. From these have sprung the Malang faqirs, who crowd the bazaars of India. They wear their hair matted and tied in a know. The Rufa'iyah order is also a numerous on in some parts of India. They practice the most severe discipline, and mortify themselves by beating their bodies. They are known in Turkey and Egypt as the "Howling Darwashes."
Another well-known order of darwashes is the Qalandariyah, or "Wandering Darwashes", founded by Qalandar Yusuf al-Andalusi, a
A QALANDAR. (Brown)
native of Spain. He was for a time a member of the Bakhtashis; but having been dismissed from the order, he established one of his own, with the obligation of a perpetual traveling. The Qalandar faqir is a prominent character in Eastern romance.
Each order is established on different principles, and has its rules and statutes and peculiar devotions. These characteristics extend even to the garments worn by their followers. Each order has, in fact, a particular dress, and amongst the greater part of them this is chosen so as to mark a difference in that of the sheikh from that of the ordinary members. It is perceived principally in the turbans, the shape of the coat, the color, and the nature of the stuff of which the dresses are made. The sheikhs wear robes of green or white cloth; and for any of those who in winter line them with fur, use that kind called petit gris and zibaline martin. Few darwashes use
A RUFA'I IN ECSTATICS. (Brown)
cloth for their dress. Black or white felt dresses called 'aba', such as are made in some of the cities of Anatolia, are the most usual. Those
THE SHAIKH OF THE DANCING DARWASHES AT CAIRO. (From a Photograph)
who wear black felt are the Jalwattis and the Qadiris. The latter have adopted it for their boots, and muslin for their turbans
Some, such as the Maulawis and the Bakris, wear tall caps called kulahs, made also of felt, and others, such as the Rufaus, use short caps called Taqiyah, to which is added a coarse cloth. The hand dress of almost all the darwashes, is called taj, which signifies a "crown". These turbans are of different forms, either from the manner in which the muslin is folded, or by the cut of the cloth which covers the top of the head. The cloth
AN EGYPTIAN FAQIR. (From a Photograph)
is in several gores. Some have four, as the Adbamis; some six, as the Qadiris and the Sa'dis; the Gulshanis have eight; the Bakhtashis twelve; and the Jalatis eighteen.
AN EGYPTIAN FAQIR. (From a Photograph)
The darwashes carry about with them one another of the following articles; a small crooked stick of iron, which the devotee places under his arm-pit or forehead, to lean upon when he meditates or an iron or brass bar on which there is a little artificial hand wherewith to scratch his unwashed body, a bag made of lamb-skin, a kashkul or beggar's wallet.
Generally, all the darwashes allow their beards and moustaches to grow. Some of the orders - the Qadiris, Rufa'is, Khalwalis, Gulshanis, Jalwatis, and the Nuru 'd-dinis - still wear long hair in memory of the usage of the Prophet and several of his disciples. Some allow their hair to fall over their shoulders; others tie it up and put it under their turban.
Whilst private Musulmans in the habit of holding rosaries of beads as a pastime, the darwashes do the smae, only in a spirit of religion and piety. These rosaries have thirty-three, sixty-six, or ninety-nine beads, which is the number of the attributes of the Divinity [GOD.]. Some have then always in their hands, others in their girdles; and all are required to recite several times during the day, the particular prayers of their order [TASBIH.]
The individual who desires to enter an order is received in an assembly of the fraternity, presided over by the sheikh, who touches his hand and breathes in his ear three times the word, "La ilama illa 'llah ("There is no god but God'), commanding him to repeat them 101, 151, or 301 times each day. This ceremony is called the Talqin. The recipient, faithful to the orders of his chief, obligates himself to spend his time in perfect retirement, and to report to the sheikh the visions or dreams which he may have during the course of his novitiate. These dreams, besides characterizing the sanctity of his vocation, and his spiritual advancement in the order, serve likewise as so many supernatural means to direct the sheikh regarding the periods when he may again breath in the ear of the neophyte the second words of the initiation, "Ya Allah! ("O God!"), and successively all the others to the last, "Ya Qahhar!" ("O avengefull God!". The full complement of this exercise is called Chilleh, or "forty days", a period sometimes even longer, according to the dispositions more or less favorable, of the candidate. Arrived at the last grade of his novitiate, he is then supposed to have fully ended hi career, called Takmilu 's Suluk, and acquired the degree of perfection for his solemn admission into the corps to which he has devoted himself. During all his novitiate, the recipient bears the name of Murid, or "Disciple," and the sheikh who directs him in this pretended celestial career takes the title of Murshid, or "Spiritual Guide."
The founder of the Alwanis laid out the first rules of this novitiate; they were subsequently perfected by the institution of the Qadiris, and more so by the Khalwatis. The darwashes of these two last societies are distinguished in some countries by the decoration of their turban, on the top of which
are embroidered the words, "La ilaha illa 'llah" (There is no god but God).
The test of the novice among the Maulawis seem to be still more severe, and the reception of these dervishes is attended with ceremonies peculiar to their order. The aspirant is required to labor in the convent of takyah 1,001 successive days in the lowest grade on which account he is called the karra kalak (jackal). If he fails in this service only one day, or is absent one night, he is obliged to recommence his novitiate. The chief of the kitchen, or ashjibashi, one of the most notable of the darwashes, presents him to the sheikh who, seated in an angle of the sofa, receives him amid a general assembly of all the darwashes of the convent. The candidate kisses the hand of the sheikh and takes a seat before him on a mat, which covers the floor of the hall. The chief of the kitchen places his right hand on the neck, and his left hand on the forehead of the novice, whilst the sheikh takes off his cap and holds it over his head, reciting the following Persian distich, the composition of the founder of the order: -
"It is true greatness and felicity to close the heart to all human passions; the abandonment of the vanities if this world is the happy effect of the victorious strength given by the grace of our Holy Prophet."