1977 “Dietary Goals for theUnitedStates”(theMcGovern report) issued by the US Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs (US Senate Select Committee, 1977-: shifted focus from assuring dietary adequacy to avoiding excessive intake of food components linked to chronic disease.
1979 The American Society for Clinical Nutrition released a report focused on the relationship between dietary practices and health outcomes (ASCN, 1979) which subsequently led to “Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention” (DHEW/PHS, 1979)
1980 1st edition of Nutrition and Your Health:Dietary Guidelinesfor Americans: DGA (USDA/HHS, 1980).-Based on a document by US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now HHS) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) referred to as “seven principles for a healthful diet.” These principles were based on the most up-to-date information available at the time and were directed to healthy Americans agestwoand older.
1983 First federal DGA advisory committee (DGA-AC) constituted by DHHS/USDA
1985 2nd editionof DGA (USDA/HHS, 1985b)- This edition was nearly identical to the first, retaining the seven guidelines from the 1980 edition. Included some updates based on new evidence regarding diet and disease.
1989 2nd USDA/DHHS Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee established
1990 3rd edition of DGA released (USDA/HHS, 1990b). Based on new science and an enhanced appreciation of how best to convey public health messages, this edition was worded more positively and was oriented toward the total diet providing specific information regarding food selection. For the first time, numerical recommendations were made for intakes of dietary fat and saturated fat.
1990 “National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act” (Section 301 of Public Law 101-445, 7 U.S.C. 5341, Title III) directed USDA/HHS to jointly issue at least every 5 years a report entitled Dietary Guidelines for Americans (US Congress, 1990). This legislation also required review by USDA/HHS of all Federal publications containing dietary advice for the general public.
1995 4th editionof DGA (HHS/USDA, 1995b)- Built on the precepts laid out in earlier editions, new information included the Food Guide Pyramid, Nutrition Facts Label, boxes highlighting good food sources of key nutrients, and a chart illustrating three weight ranges in relation to height.
2000 5th editionof DGA (USDA/HHS, 2000b)- expanded the previous seven statements to 10—created by breaking out physical activity from the weight guideline, splitting the grains and fruits/vegetables recommendations for greater emphasis, and adding a new guideline on safe
2003 “Systematic approach” was applied to the DGA review of the scientific literature included a “scoping” exercise by the DGA-AC to identify questions that could be systematically reviewed (approximately 40 specific research questions identified). Additional resources used included: Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), various reports from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and World Health Organization (WHO) , food intake pattern modeling analyses performed by USDA, DGA-AC analyses of various national data sets and advice from invited experts.
2004 DGA-AC submitted a 364-page report to HHS and USDA containing justification for 34 of the original 40 questions (HHS/USDA, 2004).
2005 6th editionof DGA released (HHS/USDA, 2005a): 80-page policy document intended primarily for use by policy makers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators; included nine major messages that resulted in 41 Key Recommendations, of which 23 were for the general public and 18 for special population groups; highlighted the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan as eating patterns that exemplify the DGA. A companion, 10-page brochure called Finding Your Way to a HealthierYou (HHS/USDA, 2005b) was released concurrently with the DGA to provide advice to consumers about food choices that promote health and decrease the risk of chronic disease. Shortly thereafter, USDA released the MyPyramid Food Guidance System, an update of the Food Guide Pyramid, which included more detailed advice for consumers to follow the DGA.
2009 Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) established to conduct new systematic reviews of approximately 130 of the 180 scientific questions posed by the DGA-AC. Additional sources of input included previously conducted authoritative reviews, (e.g., the 2005 DGAC Report and IOM Reports) food pattern modeling using USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System and the review of various data analyses. An elaborate public comments database was also developed to encourage public participation and supported a collection of more than 800 public comments related to the DGAC process.
2010 7th edition of DGA jointly released.
Supplemental Table 2 Working Group (WG) members, Federal Steering committee members (FSC), Workshop Planning Committee(WPC) members
Susan Baker (Chair)
University of Buffalo
Baylor College of Medicine, United States Department of Agriculture