“Dietary Goals for the United States” (the McGovern report)



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Supplemental Table 1 History of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

1977 Dietary Goals for the United States” (the McGovern report) issued by the US Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs (US Senate Select Committee, 1977-: shifted focus from assuring dietary adequacy to avoiding excessive intake of food components linked to chronic disease.
1979 The American Society for Clinical Nutrition released a report focused on the relationship between dietary practices and health outcomes (ASCN, 1979) which subsequently led to “Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention” (DHEW/PHS, 1979)
1980 1st edition of Nutrition and Your Health:
Dietary Guidelines for Americans: DGA (USDA/HHS, 1980).-Based on a document by US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now HHS) and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) referred to as “seven principles for a healthful diet.” These principles were based on the most up-to-date information available at the time and were directed to healthy Americans ages two and older.
1983 First federal DGA advisory committee (DGA-AC) constituted by DHHS/USDA
1985 2nd edition of DGA (USDA/HHS, 1985b)- This edition was nearly identical to the first, retaining the seven guidelines from the 1980 edition. Included some updates based on new evidence regarding diet and disease.
1989 2nd USDA/DHHS Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee established

1990 3rd edition of DGA released (USDA/HHS, 1990b). Based on new science and an enhanced appreciation of how best to convey public health messages, this edition was worded more positively and was oriented toward the total diet providing specific information regarding food selection. For the first time, numerical recommendations were made for intakes of dietary fat and saturated fat.

1990 “National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act” (Section 301 of Public Law 101-445, 7 U.S.C. 5341, Title III) directed USDA/HHS to jointly issue at least every 5 years a report entitled Dietary Guidelines for Americans (US Congress, 1990). This legislation also required review by USDA/HHS of all Federal publications containing dietary advice for the general public.
1995 4th edition of DGA (HHS/USDA, 1995b)- Built on the precepts laid out in earlier editions, new information included the Food Guide Pyramid, Nutrition Facts Label, boxes highlighting good food sources of key nutrients, and a chart illustrating three weight ranges in relation to height.
2000 5th edition of DGA (USDA/HHS, 2000b)- expanded the previous seven statements to 10—created by breaking out physical activity from the weight guideline, splitting the grains and fruits/vegetables recommendations for greater emphasis, and adding a new guideline on safe

food handling.


2003 “Systematic approach” was applied to the DGA review of the scientific literature included a “scoping” exercise by the DGA-AC to identify questions that could be systematically reviewed (approximately 40 specific research questions identified). Additional resources used included: Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), various reports from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and World Health Organization (WHO) , food intake pattern modeling analyses performed by USDA, DGA-AC analyses of various national data sets and advice from invited experts.

2004 DGA-AC submitted a 364-page report to HHS and USDA containing justification for 34 of the original 40 questions (HHS/USDA, 2004).

2005 6th edition of DGA released (HHS/USDA, 2005a): 80-page policy document intended primarily for use by policy makers, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and nutrition educators; included nine major messages that resulted in 41 Key Recommendations, of which 23 were for the general public and 18 for special population groups; highlighted the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan as eating patterns that exemplify the DGA. A companion, 10-page brochure called Finding Your Way to a Healthier You (HHS/USDA, 2005b) was released concurrently with the DGA to provide advice to consumers about food choices that promote health and decrease the risk of chronic disease. Shortly thereafter, USDA released the MyPyramid Food Guidance System, an update of the Food Guide Pyramid, which included more detailed advice for consumers to follow the DGA.
2009 Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) established to conduct new systematic reviews of approximately 130 of the 180 scientific questions posed by the DGA-AC. Additional sources of input included previously conducted authoritative reviews, (e.g., the 2005 DGAC Report and IOM Reports) food pattern modeling using USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System and the review of various data analyses. An elaborate public comments database was also developed to encourage public participation and supported a collection of more than 800 public comments related to the DGAC process.
2010 7th edition of DGA jointly released.

Supplemental Table 2 Working Group (WG) members, Federal Steering committee members (FSC), Workshop Planning Committee(WPC) members














WG MEMBER

AFFILIATION

WG 1

Susan Baker (Chair)

University of Buffalo

Teresa Davis 

Baylor College of Medicine, United States Department of Agriculture

Kirsi Jarvinen Seppo 

Albany Medical Center 

Shannon Kelleher 

Pennsylvania State University 

Rafael Perez-Escamilla 

Yale University 

WG 2

Frank Greer (Chair)

University of Wisconsin

Ronette Briefel

Mathematica Policy Research

Jatinder Bhatia

Georgia Health Sciences University

Kay Dewey

University of California, Davis


Nancy Krebs

University of Colorado

Julie Mennella

Monell Center

Kelley Scanlon

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

WG 3

Stephanie Atkinson (Co-chair)

McMaster University

Leann Birch (Co-chair)

Pennsylvania State University

Maureen Black

University of Maryland

Kristen Copeland

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Center

William Dietz

 

David Fleischer

National Jewish Health 

Mary Kay Fox

Mathematica Policy Research

Madeleine Sigman-Grant

University of Nevada Reno

WG 4

Kathleen Rasmussen (Co-chair)

Cornell University 

Emily Oken (Co-chair)

Harvard Medical School 


Sara Benjamin-Neelon

Duke Global Health Institute 

Sharon Donovan

University of Illinois

Laura Hubbs-Tait

Oklahoma State University

Cheryl Lovelady

University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Shelley McGuire

Washington State University






FSC MEMBER

AFFILIATION

USDHHS1

Katherine Beckmann

Administration for Children and Families

Carolyn Chung

FDA

Chris DeGraw

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

Van Hubbard

Division of Nutrition Research Coordination (DNRC), National Institute of Health (NIH)

Kathryn McMurry

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH

Holly McPeak

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP)

Richard Olson

ODPHP


Kelley Scanlon

CDC

Benson Silverman

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Denise Sofka

HRSA

Pamela Starke-Reed

DNRC, NIH

Capt. Judith Thierry

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, HRSA

USDA2

Anne Bartholomew

Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)

Donna Blum-Kemelor

Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP)

Trish Britten

CNPP

Eve Essery

CNPP

John Finley

Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

Jay Hirschman

FNS

David Klurfeld

ARS

Julie Obaggy

CNPP

Robert Post

CNPP

Colette Rihane

CNPP

Joanne Spahn

CNPP

Debbie Whitford


FNS

1United States Department of Health and Human Services

2United States Department of Agriculture






WPC MEMBER

AFFILIATION

Ronald Kleinman (Chair)

Massachusetts General Hospital

Naman Ahluwalia

National Center for Health Statistics, CDC

Thomas Badger

ARS, USDA

Anne Bartholomew

FNS, USDA

Leila Beker

CFSAN, FDA, USDA

Jatinder Bhatia

Georgia Health Sciences University

Dennis Bier

Baylor College of Medicine, USDA

Leann L. Birch

Pennsylvania State University

Francesco Branca

World Health Organization

Ronette Briefel

Mathematica Policy Research


Sharon Donovan

University of Illinois

Frank Greer

University of Wisconsin

Kirsi Jarvinen-Seppo

Albany Medical Center

Janet King

Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute

Nancy Krebs

University of Colorado School of Medicine

Ardythe L. Morrow

University of Cincinnati

Alanna Moshfegh

ARS, USDA

Emily Oken

Harvard Medical School

Kelley Scanlon

CDC

Madeleine Sigman-Grant

University of Nevada Reno

Alison Steiber

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine




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