AMRITSAR OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY COMMISSIONER (AMRITSAR)
I take this opportunity to thank Mrs. Bhawna Garg, IAS, Special Secretary Revenue, The Disaster Management Department, Govt. of Punjab, for giving me the responsibility to write the State Disaster Management Plan-2010-11. Throughout the process her guidance, cooperation and suggestions helped me. I also extend my thanks to Mr. K.S. Pannu, Deputy Commissioner, Amritsar.
Preparing the draft Amritsar State Disaster Management Plan requires tremendous effort, time and dedication. Material, Data and literatures are rare and time is very limited. Still, the work has to be carried out from whatever material and time available.
Mistakes, errors, omissions, unnecessary repetitions etc., are bound to happen. Any suggestions for addition and cancellation, criticisms, corrections and advices are welcome.
Government of Punjab
Although common man is not so familiar with the term disaster management; they are much aware of certain phenomenon like Earthquake, Landslide, and Cyclone and now even Tsunami. Since time immemorial India is highly prone to natural calamities. Today, from Kanyakumari to Himalayas, India doesn’t have any region exempted from one or another kind of disaster.
According to recent study, 65 per cent of Indian landmass is highly prone to earthquakes; whereas, 12 per cent is submerged under water annually (Ministry of Home Affairs. The unanswered question, today, is how to tackle such disasters.
Amritsar the most populous district in the state, is one of the border districts, which share Common boundaries with Pakistan .It is situated in the northwestern part of the state in the Bari Doab, a territory situated between Beas and Ravi rivers. According to 2001 Census total population of District Amritsar is 2152182. Rural population is 1050102 out of which schedule caste population is 358580 .Urban population is 1102080 out of which 229418 is schedule caste population.
The district Amritsar fall in Zone IV on the seismic scale corresponding the MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensit) VIII making it prone to earthquake and it may lead to, major, damage in the district. The possible percentage of buildings likely to be damaged is 25-40 percent depending upon the number of stories. The deaths are likely to occur can be in the range of 2000-5000 and number of casualties can be 25000, even when estimated conservatively. As district Amritsar falls within the seismic Zone IV, therefore earthquake disaster of high intensity, may occurred in this district and the possibility of such disaster is rather remote in future. But at the same time, large scale erosion by the rivers resulting into floods and collapsing of dilapidated building especially during the rainy season cannot be ruled out.
Rapidly increasing urbanization and industrialization of Amritsar has not only adversely impacted the quality of ambient air in the city but also has affected the city’s water resources. The ground water pollution in Amritsar is the result of seepage of polluted water from the drains (Tungdhab, Hudiara and Ganda Nallah), release of industrial effluents and heavy metals, leaching of agricultural chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers to groundwater aquifers.
At present, 64 slums exist in the city that has been notified by the Municipal Corporation. Largest number of slums was notified in 1986/87 i.e. 32 (24 to 54) localities were declared as slums.
The efforts to prepare a document like this -The District Disaster Management Plan for Amritsar- received inspiration from such a scenario. The objective of this document is to introduce the unique and tested method of disaster management in district Amritsar. Replacing the well-known traditional methods of disaster management, one has Amritsar. Replacing the well-known traditional methods of disaster management, one has to embrace decentralized efforts and people’s participation.
In the new set up of disaster management in district north east, the traditional relief and rehabilitation department has been replaced with an exhaustive institutional mechanism, in which District Disaster Management Committee is the high-powered committee in district level for planning, implementing and monitoring disaster management activities in normal time. This is a multi disciplinary committee with more than 30 members.
The Incident Command System of Amritsar District is the higher authority during a disaster. The Incident command system is a pre-designed system, which is activated only in time of disaster and its roles, get over as soon as the rehabilitation is completed. There are Crisis Management Groups and three Working Groups under the Incident Commander cum Deputy Commissioner North East with key players to look after day-to-day disaster management activities during an emergency. Also there are 11 Emergency Support Functions with one nodal agency and a couple of supporting agencies to look after disaster management, in the new set up.
The District Disaster Management Plan for Amritsar is a combination of modern participatory approach. This document has been designed in two volumes in which the first volume contains Nine Chapters where as the second volume is dedicated for annexure and additional information.
Certain most important concepts and approaches like significance of a District Disaster Management Plan for Amritsar as well as detailed profile of the district are coming in the first two chapters. The vulnerability and hazard situation and capacity available to face a disaster are elaborately described in the third chapter. Some other important discussions in the first volume are the present institutional mechanism of disaster management; Mitigation plan, standard operation procedures and action plan for the Emergency Support Functions. A plan document shall specify the sustainability of the proposed programme. First Volume of this document concludes with chapters on financial and budgetary provisions, linking with developmental plan and certain sample guidelines for conduction mock exercises.
The second volume of The District Disaster Management Plan for Amritsar is dedicated for supplying additional information required for better disaster management. Mostly, it contains the resource inventory of the district, emergency contact number, Performa for data collection, check list and many more. Besides, this volume provided an exclusive list of schools in the district, various associations in the district and much other information required in a disaster situation.
Fig.No.39 Industries at the Focal Point, Mehta Road
Fig.No.40 Poor road infrastructure, water logging and open dumping of industrial waste
LIST OF MAPS
DISTRICT LOCATION MAP
TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION MAP
LOCATION OF FIRE STATION
Disasters like flood whether natural or man-induced are creating a great loss to all sorts of life- human beings, animals, plants and resources- buildings, and infrastructure and above all cause psychological problems. Floods are increasing with the move to material civilization, urbanization and industrialization. With this new cult, even natural disasters are occurring because of the disturbances in natural equilibrium caused by the greed and lust of human beings to exploit natural resources to get rich quickly. World Bank in India (January 2007) in its Article, “Two years after the tsunami, South Asia Prepares against Future Disasters”, observes that across the world, natural disasters are growing in number and destructiveness, and their human toll is escalating. In the past 20 years alone, more than 4 billion people have been affected by natural catastrophes from floods, cyclones, and tsunami, earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions.
Response to Disaster, in the absence of a well-defined plan, would be arbitrary, leading to overemphasis of actions of some actions and absence of other critical actions. A formal plan for managing Disaster is, therefore, necessary. This Disaster management plan has a strong preventive focus which aims at reducing the frequency of occurrence of such Disaster while at the same time; it includes a plan of action for earthquakes, floods, cyclones, epidemics, industrial and chemical accidents, road accidents and fires. At the same time disaster management plan has a strong mitigation aspect as well, which will reduces the frequency of occurrence of such disasters.
1.1 DISASTER MANAGEMENT BASIC CONCEPTS HAZARD: A potentially damaging physical event, natural phenomenon or human activity that may adversely affect human life, property or social and economic disruption or environmental damage.
VULNERABILITY: The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors which increase the damageability or proneness of an individual or community/society to impact of hazards.
RISK: Expected or anticipated losses from impact of a hazard at a given element over a specific period of time.
CAPACITY: The ability of stakeholders to cope with/resist/respond to the effects of a hazard or a catastrophic event.
Disaster Risk = H + V – C
Human vulnerability to disasters in inversely related to human capacity to withstand the effects of disasters.
DISASTER:Disaster Management Act, 2005 defines Disaster as: “Disaster means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT:Disaster Management Act, 2005 defines Disaster Management as: “Disaster Management means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary for prevention of danger or threat of any disaster; mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences; capacity building; preparedness to deal with any disaster; prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster; assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster; evacuation, rescue and relief; and rehabilitation and reconstruction.
1.2 DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Mitigation (Risk Assessment/Prevention)
/Risk and Vulnerability Assessment/Structural and Non Structural Measures
Contingency Planning/ Warning and Evacuation/ Consolidated Preparation for next Disaster
Full resumption of services plus all preventive measures
Fig. No.1 Disaster Management Cycle
1.3 NEED FOR PLANNING Disasters are events that come unannounced and the main duty of district administration then becomes the proper management of resources, be it material, physical or manpower. As per the Government directions, in the state, every district must have a District Disaster Management Plan. Accordingly, a detailed District Disaster Management Plan has been prepared for the District Amritsar. While preparing this document, an effort has been made to:-
Identify probable Disaster situations in this district and nodal officers for each such situation have been deputed. The duties of all the members of District Disaster Management Committee have been clearly defined.
Evolve a Standard Operative Procedure of a general nature keeping in view the common requirements of various Disaster situations with special emphasis on control room operation and seeking help from outside the district.
Touch upon in detail the inventory of resources at the disposal of the Administration and the knowledge of experts for handling the situation.
Project a detailed individual Disaster management plan for handling important Disaster/Disaster situations.
Our main aim is to reduce vulnerability and also to minimize the destruction caused by all of these types of Disaster, be it natural or manmade. This is not an easy task and in order to achieve this target and also keeping in view the population and the of multiplicity of the hazards and Disaster, which can occur, we are of firm opinion that the government cannot resolve this issue and the people are not prepared to pay the price in terms of massive casualties and economic losses, the task, though difficult but is achievable
OBJECTIVES OF PLANNING
Every planning has its own aims and objectives. The planning of any activity in the district shall be specific and down to earth. For a better development and sustainability of growth a better planning is required.
The basic objective of the District Disaster Management Plan of Amritsar is to protect all its residents and every kinds of wealth from all sorts of untoward incident through the following sectoral objectives:-
Institutionalization of disaster management in district administration.
Encouraging a culture of disaster preparedness in the district.
Vulnerability reduction and disaster mitigation through better planning process.
Creation of the best Government mechanism to handle any unprecendent events.
Instant response and effective decision making in disaster.
Better coordination of relief and rehabilitation aftermath of a disaster.
Better coordination of all line departments in disaster management.
Encouraging and empowering the local community to own disaster management.
Regular update of resources available in and around the district.
Mock drill to check the viability and feasibility of implementation methodology.
Fig. No. 2 Methodology of Plan Development
Figure on next page shows the Digital Elevation Model of Punjab and the elevation of Amritsar district also:
1.5 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDS The High Power Committee of Governmnet of India has classified the hazards as follows:-
Fig. No. 3 Classification of Hazards
The various prevention and mitigation measures outlined below are aimed at building up capabilities as also how to deal with Disaster. The objective of a Disaster management plan is to localize a Disaster and contain its effect to the greatest extent so as to minimize its impact on life, environment and property. Response to Disaster, in the absence of a well-defined plan, would be arbitrary, leading to overemphasis of actions of some actions and absence of other critical actions. A formal plan for managing Disaster is, therefore, necessary. This Disaster management plan has a strong preventive focus which aims at reducing the frequency of occurrence of such Disaster while at the same time; it includes a plan of action for earthquakes, floods, cyclones, epidemics, industrial and chemical accidents, road accidents and fires.
Keeping in view, all the possible aspects of the aforesaid problem in mind and to keep the Administration prepared in all possible ways to respond properly to various Disaster situations within shortest possible time, possible Disaster situations/Disaster have been identified and the component plans have also been identified & mentioned in detail in this document.
The mode, degree and extent of response to fight out any Disaster depend upon the nature, degree and extent of Disaster, but some of the points are almost common to all kinds of situations. For example, it is to be ensured in all types of Disaster that first of all appropriate prevention steps are to be taken. Secondly, preparedness is required to contain the damages and casualties resulting from the Disaster. Thirdly, steps for reclamation and restoration of community life within a reasonable time will have to be taken care of.
Similarly, it is common to all situations that: - 1. Central Control Rooms are to be established.
2. District Disaster Management Committee is to come into action.
3. A general line of action and some special duties to various officers and departments will have to be assigned.
4. Voluntary Organizations may have to be involved and their role will have to be clearly specified and coordinated.
5. Media may have to be briefed to suppress all kinds of rumors.
6. Information regarding resource inventory of Health Services, Transport Services, Evacuation & Rehabilitation Centers, and Food etc. may be needed.
Broad guidelines have been given in the following pages and "Standard
Procedure" has been formulated which is to be adhered to by all concerned. Once the
Disaster takes place and the authorities are informed of the same, they will take the necessary action with the help of the individual Disaster management plans prepared for the respective Disaster/situations.
The main objectives of various preparedness measures are: -
i) Minimizing the loss of human lives.
ii) Minimizing the loss of livestock.
iii) Minimizing the loss to property and infrastructure.
iv) Minimizing ill effects on the health of affected population.
v) Bringing the human activities in the locality to normal condition soon after.
To achieve the above objectives different tasks have to be performed by different Government Departments and other agencies before, during and after the Disaster. Each
Department's role and responsibilities have to be clearly identified and action plan needs to be drawn up by each department. For close cooperation between the various Department / Agencies, close coordination is required at the District. Headquarter as well as at the Tehsil Headquarter. Deputy Commissioner Amritsar will coordinate the work at the District. Headquarter. SDM’s are to co-ordinate all activities at the Sub
The responsibility to manage all sorts of Disaster in the district rests with the
"District Disaster Management Committee" headed by the Deputy Commissioner-cum-
District Magistrate Amritsar, who may, depend upon the gravity of the situation, seeks the help of "State Disaster Management Committee" and the "National Disaster Management Committee".
For operational expediency, the concerned Sub Divisional Magistrate, Deputy
Superintendent of Police (DSP), Station House Officer and Tehsildar with their subordinate staff will swing into action immediately after receipt of information regarding any Disaster. The SDO/SDM will immediately take over as in charge of the site.
They will try their best to contain the situation with the available local resources.However, if they find that the situation is beyond their control and the district level resource mobilization is required, they will seek the help of their superiors or call the meeting of Disaster Management Committee.
DISTRICT PROFILE OF AMRITSAR
2.1 Brief History Of The District
Amritsar the most populous district in the state, is one of the border districts, which share Common boundaries with Pakistan .It is situated in the northwestern part of the state in the Bari Doab, a territory situated between Beas and Ravi rivers. The district is the heart throb of Majha tract, now forming the district of Amritsar and Gurdaspur, ruled by Manjh Rajputs.
The district takes its name from the city of the same name which is the seat of district headquarters and best known as the home of Golden Temple, also called “Hari Mandir” or “Darbar Sahib”. The city, however, derives its name from the tank surrounding the Golden Temple. Literally speaking, Amritsar means “The tank of nectar or the tank of immortality”. The shrine is considered sacred and a bath (Ashnan) therein is considered as purifier. The shrine and the tank were built by Guru Ram Das the fourth Sikh Guru, who is the founder of Amritsar city. The fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev completed the project and built a temple known as Hari Mandir, the foundation stone of which was laid by saint Mian Mir a sufi saint who had good relation with Guru Arjun Dev.
The legend goes that after Sagar Manthan (Churmi of Sea), the pot containing amrit ask (nectar), hidden here was forgotten. It so happened that a lady who was married to a leper came hear along with her husband .She left her husband near the place where present Sarovar is located, which was then only a small pool. The leper saw a crow turned white after a deep in a pool, so he jumped in the pool and was cured of the disease. Thereafter the miraculous powers of the pool were recognised and a temple was built in the centre of the pool by Guru Arjun Dev. The Sikhs were called upon to pay homage at the temple after a bath in the Sarovar. Later Akal Takat was constructed near the temple complex where Sikhs used to assemble twice a year on Basakhi and Diwali festivals to discuss their common problems for unanimous and common actions.
The city became an important religious centre for the Sikhs. The Gurus invited traders and others to settle at the place which became an important centre for trade and commerce also. However the city owes much to Maharaja Ranjeet Singh, who for the protection of the residents built a 14 feet high boundary wall, with 12 gates. He also laid out a beautiful garden called Ram Bagh.
Location Amritsar district, part of Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain with conspicuously flat terrain is located in the north-western part of the Punjab. It lies between latitude of 31’ 28’ 49” & 32’ 03’ 26” N and longitude of 74’29’ 06” E & 75’ 24’ 24” E. The district covering an area of 267700 hectares is bounded on north and west by Pakistan, on the north-east by Gurdaspur district, on the south-east by district Kapurthals and on the south by district Tarn Taran. There are nine towns namely, Amritsar, Amritsar Cantt, Jandiala, Ajnala, Majitha, Rayya, Rajasansi, Budha Theh and Ramdas and 766 inhabitated villages in the district (Table 9). Amritsar district comprises of 4 tehsils namely Ajnala, Amritsar I, Amritsar II and Baba Bakala. There are 8 blocks in the district. Block wise area and distribution of villages and towns is given in Table 1.
Table: 1 Block wise area, villages and towns in Amritsar district
Name of the Block
No. of Towns
Name of Towns
No. of villages
Amritsar, Amritsar Cantt
Rayya, Budha Theh
* Block area is as per block boundaries demarcated from 1:1 lac scale tehsil maps with village boundaries prepared by Director Land Records, Jalandhar. As the village boundaries are generalized, there will be some variation in block area when compared to block area computed from reported village area as per revenue records.
2.2 District Organizational Structure Administrative set-up
The district has experienced jurisdictional changes after the 2005 census. Taran Taran tehsil becomes a district and it is exempted from the district Amritsar. In Amritsar district, with the addition of one newly created tahsils is Amritsar II and the number of tahsils has gone four which is Amritsar I, Amritsar II, Baba Bakala and Ajnala. Likewise the number of towns in the district has increased from 10 to 13, except Budha Theh census town all of them have statutory status. The newly added three towns were; Ajnala, Raja Sansi, and Budha Theh.
District Amritsar is divided into Four Tehsils (Amritsar I, Amritsar II, Ajnala and Baba Bakala), Five Sub-Tehsils (Attari, Lopoke, Majitha, Ramdas and Tarsika), Eight Blocks (Ajnala, Chogawan, Harsha Chinna, Jandiala, Majitha, Rayya, Tarsika and Verka) and Eleven Assembly Constituencies which are as following: