District disaster management


Fig no 13: .111 UBDC (1) at Tarawala Pul



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Fig no 13: .111 UBDC (1) at Tarawala Pul

these water bodies carry fresh water mainly to be used for irrigation purposes, but the portion of these flowing from city area till downstream faces severe impacts from solid waste and other domestic refuse disposal, causing deterioration in water characteristics. On the basis of visual observation and certain physical parameters, it has been observed that the water characteristics may be in the tolerant limit of the class A to B of surface water. Similar phenomena have also been observed in all surface water sources. Apart from fresh water sources, there are four drains namely, Patti Drain, Tungdhab Drain Hudiara Drain and Kohali Drain and two nallahs (Kasur Nallah and Ganda Nallah) passing through Amritsar. All these drains are storm water drains but at

present are used for discharging untreated domestic and industrial effluents.


Among these, three drains namely Hudiara Drain, Tungdhab Drain and Ganda Nallah, carry maximum quantity of dumped untreated sewage, industrial effluents and solid waste generated from the city, thereby leading to contamination of underground water. The level of pollution in these drains is extremely high.




3.6.2.3 Ganda Nallah

Within Amritsar, Ganda Nallah, originating from

N
Fig no.14 Untreated industrial effluents of Shankar Textile Mill drained out into Nallah

orth Eastern part and flows in two directions, one towards North West covering villages of Nag Khurd, Nag (New Abadi), Bal Kalan, Pandori Waraich, Naushehra, Nangli, Gumtala, Kherabad, Kala Ghanupur, Wadala Bhitewadh, etc. The other flows towards the South of the city from North East. Both of these ultimately drain out in the Hudiara Drain flowing from the north to west of the Amritsar district.


3.6.2.4 Existing Status

G


Fig no.15 Untreated industrial effluents of Khanna Paper Mill drain out into Ganda Nallah
andha Nallah at present not only carries untreated industrial and domestic effluents, but also dense weeds, shrubs, dumped industrial ash/soils, polythene bags, plastics, other domestic refuse, hazardous waste, biomedical waste, heavy silts, mud, cow dung, etc. The numbers of residential colonies developed along the nallah face the problem of foul smell and have developed mosquito zones upto 1000 meters from it. Apart from these, there are number of industrial units such as Khanna Paper Mill,

Shankar Textile Mill, Kwality Pharmaceutical Pvt.

Ltd, etc., which are existing along the Gandha Nallah and discharging their untreated industrial effluents into the nallah.

Due to discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents, the pollutants have leached to the ground water table and have deteriorated the quality of ground water in the villages situated along the nallah. The colour of water found is deep yellow, odour is strong and suspended particles can be visualized by naked eyes, rendering it unfit for potable use.

O
Fig no.16 Groundwater Sample having objectionable colour, odour taste & suspended solids

n the primary survey, the residents of the colonies or villages situated along the nallah have claimed to be suffering from various diseases such as gastroenteritis, jaundice,

diarrohea/ dysentery due to

consumption of contaminated water and malaria due to breeding of mosquitoes around the Gandha Nallah.

3.6.2.5 Tungdhab Drain

The Tungdhab Drain flowing in the northern side of Amritsar city along the Northern Byepass is another important drain originating from north east of the city and finally merging into Hudiara Drain flowing in the west of Amritsar. Along its course, it covers many areas/village abadis such as Pandori, Verka, Othian, Khan Kot, Kot Mit Singh, Sultanwind etc.



3.6.2.6 Existing Status

Tungdhab Drain is also carrying untreated industrial and sewage effluents and other waste materials, dense weeds, shrubs, silts & mud and is extremely polluted. The flow of drain is moderately high in its downstream side and along its course, spread strong odour and nuisance towards concerned residential areas.

A high power pumping station have been installed near Verka Chowk to drain out the untreated industrial and sewage effluents from upstream side of drain to the adjoining nallah (drain) in the downstream side. This pumping station is a collection point of untreated industrial and sewage effluents of the entire industrial area (Focal Point) and after their collection into the sump simultaneously pump out into adjoining drain, which finally joins to Ganda Nallah towards downstream side. The physio-chemical characteristics of the effluents pumped out into the drain are objectionable in various aspects such as colour, odour, suspended solids, D.O., B.O.D., C.O.D. and microbial contamination. As per visual observations, colour of the water is brick red having strong odour with high turbidity level which is objectionable as per prescribed standards by CPCB.


Fig no.17 Untreated industrial effluents pumped out near Verka Chowk create unbearable odour



3.6.2.7 Hudiara Drain

The Hudiara Drain entering into the Amritsar from North Eastern side crosses a number of villages along its course in i.e. Nangal Pannuwan, Sohian Kalan, Birbalpura, Loharka Kalan, Miran Kot Kalan, Sehchandar, Rudala, Kotla Dal Singh, Dhaul Khurd, Kaler, Khiala Khurd, Khiala Kalan, Boparai Khurd, Kaulowal, Nurpur, Chhiddan, Lohorimal, Gharinda, Achint Kot, Hoshiar Nagar, Mahawa, etc. It leaves the Amritsar from the south western side and enters into Tarn Taran district.





Fig no.18 Villagers using untreated effluents of the drain for irrigating fields

3.6.2.8 Existing Status

The Hudiara Drain, which at once was fresh water drain used for irrigation purpose, is now carrying disposed untreated industrial and sewage effluents of the Amritsar. At many places, the water from the drain is used for irrigating the fields, which is harmful for consumption.



3.6.2.9 Kasur Nallah and Patti Drain

Kasur Nallah and Patti Drain are the other two drains flowing through the Amritsar. Both these drains enter Amritsar from North East direction and leaves region from south side to enter into the Tarn Taran district.

B
Fig no.20 Kasur Nallah flowing near village Manawala shows excessive eutrophication

oth the drains carry untreated sewage and domestic effluents and refuses containing solid waste, mud, silts and other waste materials from the number of villages from which it passes before it enters Tarn Taran district in the south.



Fig no.19 Upstream of Patti Drain near Malhian village (Jandiala) showing excessive algae growth

The nallah also carries storm water during rainy season and also becomes

eutrophic containing higher concentration of nutrients like NPK. High level of eutrophication of nallah/drain favours the excessive breeding of mosquitoes, which causes malaria and other water borne diseases.




3.6.3 Ground Water Pollution

T
Fig no. 21 Gandha Nallah carrying untreated sewage, MSW, biomedical waste, etc.


he ground water pollution in Amritsar is the result of seepage of polluted water from the drains (Tungdhab, Hudiara and Ganda Nallah), release of industrial effluents andheavy metals, leaching of gricultural chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers to groundwater aquifers.

Accordingly, the ground water characteristics within the city are also not good. Ground water in most of the industrial estates and in few residential areas has become unfit for drinking. In comparison to deep water aquifer, shallow water is seriously affected. The city accordingly faces a severe water pollution problem. In the process, majority of the residents of Amritsar city, especially along the Nallah and drains and that of other adjoining villages are forced to consume contaminated vegetables and drink unsafe water, thus exposing themselves to the risk of water-borne diseases. Major issues emerging from the ground water pollution have been listed below:

i) Excessive pumping has lead to contamination of ground water. Persons residing in Abadies in close proximity to Ganda Nallah, Tungdhab and Hudiara Drains and other adjoining villages have been found to be exposed to water borne diseases due to polluted ground water.

ii) Considerable level of ground water pollution has been found to exist up to a depth of 100 ft. along the 1000 meters belt on either side of Ganda Nallah, Tungdhab and Hudiara Drains. The physico-chemical characteristic of water has been found to be unsuitable for supporting aquatic life.


  1. Hand pumps and shallow tube wells drawing water from first aquifers are found susceptible to ground water pollution in areas close to industrial units and Ganda Nallah, Tungdhab and Hudiara Drains.

iv) Pollution of the soil & ground water has also been caused by the dumping of the industrial wastes (effluents and solid waste) into the open ground leading to stagnation and the generation of the leachate.

v) The use of polluted ground water for agricultural purposes has also led to the degradation of the soil and presence of heavy metals into soil and vegetable crops grown in the area.

The study of ground water characteristics in the city has been done by Regional Office (R. O.), PPCB Amritsar on 31.5.2005 at five different sampling stations in the city i.e., H. P. (handpump) outside Dhabha of Sh. Ramesh Chand, Fatehgarh Churian Road, H. P. near Scooter Stand of Sh. Darbar Sahib, H. P. near Sangam Dhabha, Ajnala Road, H. P. near Sg. Babu Ram Tea Stall opposite B. chemical and H. P. near Sacred Heart Day Boarding School.

The physico-chemical characteristics of ground water of all five different sampling stations within the city areas were under permissible limit prescribed by IS 10500, 1991 (clause 3.1) except total hardness of water of H. P. near Sacred Heart School, where it is of the order of 640 mg/l and exceeds the standard of below 600 mg/l prescribed by IS 10500, 1991 (clause 3.1). The colour of water at H. P. outside Dhabha of Sh. Ramesh Chand and H.P. near Sg. Babu Ram Tea Stall is light yellow, which should be clear. The details are summarized in the table no.37.


Table 32: Ground Water Quality at Five Sampling Stations of Amritsar city

S. No.


Parameter

Sampling Station

H.P.* outside Dhabha of Sh. Ramesh Chand, Fatehgarh Churian Road

H.P. near Scoter Stand of Sh. Darbar Sahib

H.P. near Sangam Dhabha Ajnala road, Amritsar

H.P. Sg. Babu Ram Tea Stall opposite B. Chemical

H.P. near Sacred Heart Day Boarding School

1

PH

7.2

7.4

7.3

7.2

7.1

2

Colour

Light Yellow

Clear

Clear

Light Yellow

Clear

3

Cond (mho/cm

200

840

714

740

130 0

4

TSS mg/

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND


5

Cl mg/l

70

60

62

70

40

6

SO4 mg/l

30

24

26

29

32

7

TDS mg/l

846

533

536

658

820

8

F mg/l

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.4

0.2

9

T.Hardmg/l

530

440

420

510

640

10

Ca mg/l


160

160

136

156

200

11

Mg mg/l

31

10

19

29

96

12

Zn mg/l

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

13

Ni mg/l

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

14

T. Alk mg/l

170

160

130

140

160

15

Na mg/l

48

40

20

28

52

16

K mg/l


12

10

9

10

14

17

Fe mg/l

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

18

COD mg/l

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

19

BOD mg/l

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

20

T.Coli MPN//100

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

21

F.Coli MPN//100

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Source: R.O., PPCB, Amritsar

*Handpump


3.6.4 Rain Water Harvesting

Ground water is the major source of water supply in the Amritsar region apart from the few surface water sources. Increased dependency on the ground water due to rapid urbanization, for industrial needs and agricultural practices has rendered its exploitation as inevitable in Amritsar. Accordingly, there is urgent need for conserving and recharging the ground water table by using techniques such as Rain water Harvesting. At present, the use of this technology is not popular among the residents due to lack of awareness. On discussion with officials of the authority such as Improvement Trust, it has been quoted that rain water harvesting has been implemented only in few government buildings and still not made mandatory as part of Building Bye Laws and Development Control Regulations. This is necessary for effective implementation of the technique that can help in longer run in recharging the ground water. Proper guidance and financial assistance may be provided to the citizens in this regard.


3.6.5 Noise Pollution

I
Fig no.22 High Traffic Volume and glaring horns by auto rickshaws cause Noise Pollution


ncreasing urbanization, overcrowding, industrialization and higher traffic volumes have resulted in increased noise levels in Amritsar city leading to noise pollution. Construction work also plays an important role in causing noise pollution. The noise has already reached a level, high enough to cause annoyance capable of creating temporary to permanent hearing

impairment, particularly to those

people who remain exposed to such noise level for longer duration of day. The street venders and shopkeepers doing business along both sides of road have been found to be most vulnerable to this hazard.

Ambient Noise level in Various Zones (2006)

The study of ambient noise levels in industrial and commercial zones of Amritsar city have been done by Punjab Pollution Control Board, Amritsar during the year 2006. The findings of the study states that the noise levels in all the zones, residential, commercial and industrial, were greater than the standards prescribed by the CPCB, New Delhi. The details of analyzed noise level data are summarized in table no.38.


Table 33: Noise Level (dB) Monitoring during the year 2006 in Amritsar

Recording Zone

Day

Night


Standard

Recorded

Standard

Recorded

Residential

55

71

45

65

Commercial

65

85

55

72

Industrial

75

88

70

75

Source: Pollution Control Board, Amritsar 2006
Further, it has been observed that the city lacks in computerized noise monitoring stations. These stations are necessary to assess realistically the problem of noise pollution in different areas of the city at different times of the day and can plan for appropriate intervention to overcome the problem.

Table 34: Details of animals slaughtered in the Amritsar District, 2008


Slaughter Houses in Amritsar District (2008)




No. of Recognized Slaughter Houses (2007)

Animals Slaughtered


Sheep, Goats

Pigs

Total

Punjab

87

3,37,922

26,023

3,63,945

Amritsar District

3

78,444

91

78,535

Amritsar M.C

1

75,878

0

75,878

M.C as % of District

3.3

96.72

-

96.62

Source: Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2008

At present, there is only one slaughterhouse operational in the city located at Gumanpura. The existing slaughterhouse is observed to be using old equipment and outdated technology. As many activities causing environmental pollution are carried out in the slaughterhouse, they need to be equipped with latest equipments and modern technology so that meat supplied to the city is healthier and is as per the requirement “Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Rules 2001”. As Amritsar district is observed to rank 1st in number of animals slaughtered, therefore it requires establishment of institutions such as Carcass Utilization Centre and Leather Research Institute to utilize the left over from the animal bodies for various other uses. Further, seeing the high number of animals slaughtered in the city, an incineration plant is also required for disposal of carcass of animals and birds due to infectious diseases like rabies and flu as per “Animal Birth Control Rules-2000”.


3.7 HOUSING PATTERN

Housing Scenario

Existing Housing Stock

Looking at the growth of the occupied residential houses in the Amritsar city, it has been observed that the number of occupied houses have grown by 13.74% in the decade from 1981-1991 with highest growth observed in the decade from 1991-2001 which is of the order of 92.53%. The high growth rate of residential houses can be attributed to the rural migration to the city of Amritsar for better educational and other facilities and better quality of life, being the metropolitan city and district headquarters.


Pattern Of Housing

Further to this, housing pattern in Amritsar city has been studied in terms of density pattern, plotted or flatted development and pattern of use of existing housing stock. The pattern of housing within the different parts of the city has been studied based on the visual survey of the city.


Looking at the pattern of housing, it has been analyzed that most of the housing whether under various schemes or through private developers is in the form of plotted development. Flatted development that exists in the city is majorly govt. housing for its employees such as housing board colony, railway colony, custom colony etc. A portion of the flatted housing in the city is created by the way of development schemes prepared by Amritsar Improvement Trust, which includes flatted development in Ranjit Avenue Block B, development scheme of 340 acres and Mall Mandi Scheme. Further, Amritsar Improvement Trust is considering two more proposals for flatted development in the city. One is the extension of the existing Guru Teg Bahadur Nagar, where an additional area of 5.50 acres is to be added under flatted development while the other is covering an area of 11.25 acres at Bhai Gurdass Ji Nagar.

Table 35: Pattern of Use of Census Houses Category wise in Municipal Corporation, Amritsar (2001)


S. No.

Category

No. of houses

% age of total houses

1.

Residential

159395

67.19

2.

Residential cum other use

10348

4.36

3.

Shop cum office

37477

15.79

4.

School/College

718

0.30

5.

Hotel/Lodge/Guest House

289

0.12

6.

Hospital/Dispensary

585

0.24

7.


Factory/Workshop/Work shed

5528

2.33

8.

Place of Worship

944

0.39

9.

Other Non Residential uses

5998

2.57

10.

Vacant houses

15929

6.71




Total census houses

237211

100

Source: Census of India, 2001

HOUSING CONDITION

As per census 2001, 86.5% of the total households live in permanent and 11.3% in semi permanent structures. Total 2.14% live in temporary structures out of which only 0.35% are non-serviceable structures.


Table 36: Distribution of Residential Houses by their Type of Structure in Municipal Corporation, Amritsar: 2001

Type of

Structure


Permanent


Semi-permanent


Temporary

Unclassifiable

Total

Serviceable

Non-

Serviceable

No. Of houses

146805

19180

3642

3035

607

45

%age of total

86.5

11.3

2.14

1.79

0.35

0.06

Source: Census of India, 2001

After the visual observation of Housing

condition in the city, it has been observed the housing existing in the walled city area of Amritsar is in dilapidated or poor condition characterized by old age buildings with an average building height of G+3, 100% ground coverage with no setbacks and narrow access roads with poor mass space relationship. These areas have high intensity of development. In case of urban settlements within Amritsar, Rayya has maximum good condition housing stock where in all the components i.e. roof, floor and walls are made up of pucca material which is followed by Jandiala, Majitha and Rajasansi.



Fig No.23 Poor Housing Condition, Poor Mass Space Relationship, Mesh of Wire and High Intensity of development in walled city Amritsar

O


Fig no.24: View of planned housing area on Maqbool Road, Green Avenue and Ranjit Avenue
n the contrary, the area outside the walled city and within the northern bye-pass is characterized as medium density built up area with medium to good

housing condition. The houses have 60 % -80 % ground coverage depending on the plot size with mainly front and side setbacks and an average building height is G+1. The Peri-urban area that is area outside the northern bye pass is characterized with low-density development where in new approved housing colonies are coming. Therefore, the increasing concentration of planned housing efforts in the north of the city has been observed which has further aggravated the difference in quality of life between the north of the city south half of the city.



Fig no.25: View of new upcoming residential projects along Bye- Pass



    1. Urban Poor And Slums

Urban poverty has emerged as one of the major challenges faced by policy planners and urban planners in promoting the rational development of urban areas. Poverty refers to not only deprivation of vital goods but also includes services determining the quality of life. In fact, poverty amid plenty is the world’s greatest challenge.



      1. Demographic Profile

During the last 2 decades, number of slum dwellers in Amritsar has increased from 32,632 (1981) to 3, 04,824 (2001) recording more than nine fold increase in slum population. In 2001, 30% of the city population lives under slums i.e. every fifth household is slum. This indicates fast deteriorating quality of life and acute shortage of housing and basic infrastructure in most of the residential area of the city in Amritsar.
Table 37: Distribution of Slum Population to Amritsar M.C. Population

Year

City population

Slum population

% to City Population

1981

589299

32632

5.53

1991


708835

123000

17.35

2001

1016079

304824

30.00

Source: CDP Amritsar and Census of India 2001
Other than this the demographic characteristics of slum in Amritsar is shown in table below. Table indicates that the schedule caste population is placed at 35.54% indicating that every third residence of the slum belongs to the category of schedule caste. Number of workers living in slums constitute one fifth of the total work force of the city. Number of agricultural labourers has been found to be quite high i.e. 38.5%. Average household size in slum areas has been found to be 5.47 whereas in case of Amritsar metropolis, the size is 5.45.
Table 38: Slum Population Characteristics

Sr.No.

Item

Urban

Slum

%age to total population

1

Total households

185268

41961





2

Total Population (including institutional and houseless population)

1016079


304824

30.00

3

Population in the age group 0-6

121369

31581

26.02

4

Schedule caste population

198595

70610

35.54

5

Schedule tribes population

-

-

-

6

Literates

693139

141771

20.45

7

Total workers

322214


72777

22.58

8

Main workers

301827

67220

22.27




Cultivators

2900

796

27.44




Agricultural Labourers

5897

2271

38.51




Household industry workers

12260

2613

21.31




Other workers

280770

61540

21.91

9

Marginal workers

20387


5557

27.25




Cultivators

283

20

07.06




Agricultural Labourers

1466

525

35.81




Household Industry workers

1992

594

29.81




Other workers

16646

4418

26.54

10

Non workers

678322

156826

23.11

Source: Census of India-2001

3.8.2 SLUM LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION

At present, 64 slums exist in the city that has been notified by the Municipal Corporation, Amritsar under the Punjab Slum Areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act, 1961 covering a total area of 5.8 sq.kms constituting 4.26% of the area of the city (as per the national urban information scheme for indicators produced by Municipal Corporation, Amritsar). Largest number of slums was notified in 1986/87 i.e 32 (24 to 54) localities were declared as slums.

Looking at the spatial distribution of slums, majority of slums are located in the southern part of city in close vicinity of walled city, Amritsar. Concentration of slums on the southern part was largely on account of haphazard and unplanned development in the area besides absence of any major development scheme taken up by the Improvement Trust and Municipal Corporation. On the other hand Northern side of city is better placed due to lesser number of slums. This is due to the fact that majority of development schemes and better quality of development has taken place in this areas. Accordingly, it is appropriate to rationalize the development of the Southern part of the city outside walled area and particularly along the Tarn Taran railway line in order to minimize the growth of slums.

Housing in Slums

Based on the visual survey of slums in Amritsar, it has been observed that housing condition in these areas is poor. They are characterized as one-room tenements housing 6-7 people on an average and are made up of semi permanent materials because of the cost factor as they do not have fixed income and mainly work on daily wages.






Fig no. 26: Housing condition in slum areas of Amritsar

Table 39: Ownership of Land under Slums in Amritsar

S. No.

Ownership of Slum Land

No. of Slums

%age

1

Public (MCA)

6

9.5

2

Private

56

89

3

Others

1

1.5


Total


63

100

Source: Municipal Corporation-Amritsar, 2009
As per the information from Municipal Corporation Amritsar, 89% of the slums in the city exist on the private land wherein some cases the land has been either encroached or has been purchased from land owner and the remaining 11% of the slums exists on the M.C.A land which are mainly located on the southern portion of the city.
3.8.3 Availability Of Urban Basic Services To Poor
Basic services and amenities available in the slums in Amritsar are given below. It has been found that 71.87% of the slum population has access to safe drinking water whereas 28.13% population is still depended upon make shift arrangement.

Table 40: Basic Services & Amenities Existing in Slums of Amritsar

Facilities

No. of Slums Having Access to Basic Facilities

Yes

%age

No

%age

Total

Water Supply

46

71.87

18

28.13

64

Sewerage


44

68.75

20

31.25

64

Electricity

15

24

49

76

64

Education

64

100

-

-

64

Pavement

54

84.38

10

15.62

64

Street Lights

53

82.81

11

17.19

64

Medical

62

97.00

2

3.00

64

Source: Municipal Corporation, Amritsar -Survey on Slums

Further, in terms of sewerage, 68.75% population has access to this facility whereas rests of the 31.25% are defecating in available open areas. In the absence of regular electric connections, majority of population tap the electricity illegally through kundi connections causing enormous loss to the state. Moreover, in many of the slums areas such as Bangla Basti, Indira Colony, the high tension lines and towers are existing in between the settlements having road underneath and houses by its side which is a threat to human habitation.






    1. Fig no.27: Infrastructure situation in slum areas of Amritsar


    2. Industrial Growth

A
Fig no.28 Industries at the Focal Point, Mehta Road
mritsar before partition was re-knowned in terms of industries
of woolen tweeds, suiting’s, blankets, shawls etc but got setback later. Amritsar district in overall had 26, 080 numbers of small-scale industrial units with 1, 15, 423 numbers of workers and 13 numbers of large/medium scale units with 5,910 number of workers in

2007. In existing status, it has been observed that 69% of the district’s small-scale industries are located within the Amritsar city employing approximately 71% of the workers engaged in SSI units. Nearly 61.5% of the medium and large- scale units are located within the city which includes Khanna Paper Mill on Fatehgarh Churian Road, Verka Milk Plant, Northern Railway Mechanical Workshop, O.C.M Mill on Attari Road, Gopi Fabrics Pvt.Ltd etc.


Table 41: Major Industrial Locations in Amritsar City

Sr.No.

Industrial locations

Sr.No.


Industrial locations

1

Focal Point, along Vallah Road – Mixed (Engineering, Textile, etc.)

6

Putlighar, Islamabad – Textile

2

Focal Point Extension, along Vallah Road – Mixed (Engineering, Textile, etc.)

7

Chheharta Industrial Area, G.T. Road, towards Attari – Textile

3

New Focal Point along Mehta Road

8

Verka Industrial Area, along Batala Road – Textile

4

Industries in East Mohan Nagar

9

Majitha Road – Textile

5

Along G.T Road towards Amritsar Engineering College

10

Batala Road – Textile

Source: District Industrial centre, Amritsar
The spatial analysis highlights that except industrial focal points which are considered as planned schemes, industries are scattered all along the major corridors of development. Industries scattered all over in Amritsar city, which creates problem of non-compatibility as well as pollution. There is an urgent need to develop industries in a comprehensive manner, they should have specific zone with all state of art infrastructure needs to be identified.

Industrial Employment And Production

Industrial employment from small scale/ medium/ large-scale industries in the Amritsar city has been analysed from 2003 to 2007 in comparison to the Amritsar District, which is shown in the table below:


Table 42: Comparison of Industrial Data at City and District Level, 2007

Area

Small Scale Industries

Medium/Large Scale Industries

No. of Units

No. of Employees

Fixed Capital (Crores Rs.)

Production (Crores Rs.)

No. of medium/ large Units

No. of Employees

Fixed Capital (Crores Rs.)

Production

(Crores Rs.)

Amritsar District

26,080

1,15,423

695.32

3,836.61

13

5,910

921.33

826.51

Amritsar City

17,985

81,772

-

-


8

4,091

-

-

% share of City to District

68.96%

70.84%

-

-

61.5%

69.2%

-

-

Source: District Industries Centre, Amritsar

The above table shows that the Amritsar city has the highest no. of small scale units (17,985 units) as compared to medium and large scale units which are only 8 in no. and also provides highest employment (81,772), the share of employment in city comes to 70.84% of the district.


Keeping in view the positive contribution made by small-scale industrial units in the employment generation, the similar contribution has been done in their investment as well as production in the district. Looking at the fixed capital investment in the year 2007, the total investment in case of small-scale industries was of the order of Rs 695.32 crores while in case of large and medium scale industries, it was of the order of Rs 921.33 crores. Similarly, small-scale industries also stand highest in case of production, in the year 2007, the production from small scale units stands at Rs 3,836.61 crores as against the large / medium scale units Rs 826.51 crores.



Fig no.29 Poor road infrastructure, water logging and open dumping of industrial waste in Focal Point, Amritsar

Within Municipal Corporation, Amritsar, the three Focal Points cover a total area of 359.52 acres with a total of 877 industrial sheds/ plots. A rural industrial estate also exists at Kathu Nangal with an area of 3.30 acres. The existing focal points although have provision of water supply, sewerage and storm water drainage but they lack maintenance. The internal roads in the old focal point are not well maintained. Open disposal of hazardous waste and other industrial waste has been observed which needs to be regulated.
A Sector specific Special Economic Zone (SEZ) dedicated to Textiles is coming up in Amritsar at Khasa village on GT Road towards Attari. The Punjab-based Ishan Developers and Infrastructure Limited, is developing The Integrated Textile Park on 100 hectares at village Khasa in Amritsar with the investment of Rs 1,861 crores. The project is expected to provide employment to 15,000 people.
3.10 Infrastructure And Service Delivery
The sustainability and quality of life in urban centers is closely linked to the quality and efficiency of physical as well as social infrastructure. Accordingly, providing better physical and social infrastructure assumes critical importance.
3.10.1 Physical Infrastrucutre
Water Supply

Sources of Water Supply

All the urban and rural settlements falling in the Amritsar are dependent on the ground water as the source for meeting their daily needs of water supply. The system of water supply in Amritsar and settlements is entirely based on ground water, which is extracted through tube wells and supplied to the residents through a system of OHRs. Initially, water supply in the walled city was based on a network of 40 khuhs (wells) located outside the city through which water was extracted and supplied through a well designed and properly laid down network. Over a period of time, numbers of tube wells have been installed to extract ground water and meet the increased needs of its residents. This has resulted to rapidly falling water table in the range of 180 to 460 feet. With the fast depletion of ground water, shallow tube wells used for water extraction have to be abandoned.

In addition to piped water supply, the hand pumps, stand posts and wells are also used for extracting the ground water essentially in the slum areas and the areas not covered by the water supply network.
Table 43: Total Number of Tube wells in Amritsar

Amritsar

Jandiala

Majitha

Rayya

Rajasansi

Villages

300

4

3

3

3

196

Source: Punjab Water Supply and Sewerage Circle, Amritsar, 2008

In order to improve the status of ground water, it is important to consider other options of water supply, including canal water and rejuvenation of 40 wells area that was earlier used for city’s supply. In addition, the option of rainwater harvesting, recycling of the waste water, minimizing the wastage in the water supply system and creating awareness among community for water conservation needs to be explored to minimize the pressure on ground water and recharge the ground water. At present, rainwater harvesting is practiced neither at city level nor at individual house level as there are no guidelines for making this as mandatory provision. So a minimum size of plot should be fixed for water harvesting and it should be included in the building byelaws too.

Area and Population Coverage
Municipal Corporation Area

Looking at the existing status of water supply within the corporation area, it has been observed that out of the 142.37 sq. kms, which falls under the jurisdiction of local body, only 80% of the area is presently covered by water supply (Refer map 10). In terms of population coverage, the network is serving 80% of total city population.



The population served by piped water supply includes service through the house connections, stand posts and independent institutional set ups. Despite the fact, the water extracted is higher (240 MLD) than the actual consumption (137.6 MLD), but the water available to the residents is of much lower order due to high wastage (about 43%) of the water supply. Major reason for wastage of water is leakage in the network, which is more than 50 years old, poor maintenance and lack of awareness on the part of the community.
Table 44: Water Supply information in Amritsar (MC)

Items

Percentage/No.

Remarks

Area Covered (MCA)

80%




Population served (MCA)

80%




Total No. of Wards Fully Covered

51

Total number of wards taken are 60

Total No. of Wards Partially Covered


9

Total amount of ground water extracted

240 MLD




Total Average Daily Water Consumption

137.6 MLD




Water Supplied per capita per day (By M. C.)

135 LPCD




%age of water unaccounted

43




Total No. of Tube Wells

300

Depth varying between 180-460 feet

No. of O.H.S.R.

29

Capacity:23.15 MLD

Average running hours of water supply

12




Population served by House Connection

856512




Population served by Stand Post

31622



Population served by Independent Institutional Set up

36750





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