The made degree and extent of Response to fight out any crisis depends upon the nature, degree and extent of disaster, but some of the points are almost common to all kinds of situations.
PROBABILITY PERIOD / SEASONALITY OF DISASTERS
Name of Disaster
For example it is to be ensured in all types of crisis that:-
Appropriate steps are to be taken.
Preparedness is required to contain the damages and casualties out of the crisis.
Steps for recovery reclamation and restoration of community life within the reasonable time will have to be taken care of.
3.2 EARTHQUAKE The district Amritsar falls in zone IV on the seismic scale corresponding to MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity).
The above map shows that Amritsar district comes under high damage risk zone.
Punjab lies in a geosynclines (down warp of the Himalayan foreland, of variable depth, converted into flat plains by long vigorous sedimentation)
This has shown considerable amounts of flexure and dislocation at the northern end and is bounded on the north by the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.
Much of Punjab lies in the Punjab Shelf, bounded on the east by the Delhi-Haridwar Ridge and on the south by the Delhi-Lahore Ridge.
Most earthquakes in this region are shallow though a few earthquake of intermediate depth have been recorded in Punjab.
Largest Instrumented Earthquake In Punjab
The largest earthquake to hit Punjab is earthquake which occurred at north of ferozpur (indo Pakistan border region) on 14th October 1970 it is of 5.2 mb having depth of 44 km.
Significant Earthquakes In Punjab
As far as earthquake history is concerned the last earthquake to hit Punjab was in 1905 kangra (Himachal Pradesh). Its magnitude is 7.8 and it caused damage in cities like Amritsar, Jalandhar, Tarantaran etc. Many famous buildings sufer damages because of this highly intense earthquake.Tall structures in amritsar such as minarets of the sheikh Din mosque, the Clock Tower were badly damaged.
The 1999 chamoli earthquake resulted in ane eath near Nakodar (SW of Jalandhar)A number of houses in nnorthern Punjab have collapsed. Two deaths were reported. One building collapses in Gurdaspur and six in amritsar. Fires were also reported from Amritsar.
April 1905- Kangra (Himachal Pradesh), Mw 7.8 IST/ 00:50 UTC, 3230 N 76.30 E. The feadliest earthquake to date in the Punjab Himalayas. Close to 30,000 were killed in the kangra Valley and the adjoining parts of northern Indian and Pakistan. Shocks from the temblor were experienced as far as Puri, on the Mahanadi Delta in Orissa. Damage from the quake extended into many parts of the Punjab.
14 October 1970- North of Ferozpur (Indo-Pakistan Border Region), 5.2 Mb (USCGS) 00:36:34.0 UTC, 31.26 N, 74.50 E, 44 kms depth.
21 October 1991- Near Pilang (Uttarkashi district), Mw 6.8 (NEIC) 21:23:14 UTC/ 02:53:14 IST, 30.78 N, 78.77 E. Between 750 to 2000 people killed in the Gharwal region. It was also felt very strongly in Uttar Pradesh, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana and Punjab. Some minor damages was reported in Chandigarh and New Delhi.
17 October 1997- North of Jalandhar, Gurdaspur district (Punjab), 5.1 Ms (EDIC) 17:36:31.0 UTC, 31.6167 N,, 75.7744 E, 38 kms depth
29 March 1999- Near Gopeahwar (Chamoli District) Mw 6.5 (HRV) 19:05:11 UTc, 30.492 N, 79.288 E. 115 people killed in the Gharwal region. The quke was felt very strongly in Uttar Pradesh, Chandigarh, Delhi and haryana. In Haryana, one person killed in the city of Ambala and 2 at Nakodar in the neighbouring state of Punjab. Minor damage to buildings in New Delhi, most significantly in Patparganj. Minor damage also reported from Chandigarh.
The district Amritsar fall in Zone IV on the seismic scale corresponding the MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensit) VIII making it prone to earthquake and it may lead to, major, damage in the district. The possible percentage of buildings likely to be damaged is 25-40 percent depending upon the number of stories. The deaths are likely to occur can be in the range of 2000-5000 and number of casualties can be 25000, even when estimated conservatively.
The earthquake may lead to:
change of river course resulting to flood
Fire followed by conflagration
Contamination of potable water.
Spread of epidemics.
3.3 FLOOD The past record shows that District Amritsar is prone to flood and other natural calamities. As district Amritsar falls within the seismic Zone IV, therefore earthquake disaster of high intensity, may occurred in this district and the possibility of such disaster is rather remote in future. But at the same time, large scale erosion by the rivers resulting into floods and collapsing of dilapidated building especially during the rainy season cannot be ruled out.
Similarly, there is no record of Biological, chemical and Nuclear disaster in the District. But the way the tension on the Indo-Pak Border is mounting up, possibility of such a disaster also cannot be ruled out.
Keeping in view, all possible aspects of the aforesaid problem in mind and to keep the Administration prepared in all possible ways to respond properly to various disaster situations within shortest possible time, possible crisis situations/ disasters have been identified and the component plans have also been identified & mentioned in detailed in the document for the time being.
Flood may occur after an earthquake. Police stations/ Police out posts located on or near the bank of river Brahmaputra may also keep in advance (before earthquake) a list of boats with boat-men paddles and oars etc. in their own stations for emergency use including flood rescue & relief operation.
3.3.1 RECORD TO PREVIOUS FLOODS In the district records, no major disaster has been mentioned for the last 25 years, except a war of 1971 with Pakistan and another flood occurred due to overflow of river Ravi in the 1988s leading to massive loss of property.
Table 29: Record to Previous Floods
Sub Division Wise and crops wise (in Lakh Hectares)
Value of Crops damaged (in Rupees)
Details of Houses, Property, Infrastructure damaged
Measure undertaken & assistance provided to the affected people
5256 Acre (Wheat)
Rs. 5,50,800/- (is going to delivered)
Rs. 2,36,50,974/- (has been given & Rs. 26,29,026/- has been returned)
14308 Acre (Rice)
Rs. 1,43,08,000 (is going to deliver shortly)
3.4 Hazard/ Vulnerability Analysis Punjab is basically an agriculture state with 83% of geographical area cultivated with an average cropping intensity of 176%. Although the Geographical area of Punjab is only about 1.5% of the total area of the country. Yet Punjab is the main contributor of food grain to central pool. The water for irrigation comes from River Ravi, Sutlej & Beas. Upper Bari Doab Canal system from River Ravi covers whole of the agriculture area in Distt. Gurdaspur & Distt Amritsar of Punjab and almost similar area is completely drained by various drainage system. Hence, it is most important to save the agriculture land, village abadies, cattle/live stocks and standing crops from the river Ravi current during flood season.
3.4.1 Problem The main problem is the deteriorated condition of advance bandh connecting various B.O.P’s of B.S.F, namely D.S.
3.4.2 AMRITSAR RIVERS
River Ravi starts from upper reaches of Chamba city in Himachal Pradesh and enters in Punjab from Shahpur Kandi town (Ranjit Sagar Dam Project) constructed on River Ravi. It runs in about 200 km. Length in zig-zag manner along the Indo Pak International Border both in Gurdaspur and Amritsar District of Punjab. About 208.32 km. Flood protection embankment constructed on left side and 42.95 km on right side of river ravi in both districts for protecting culturable land, public properties of the people from the furry of floods. The vital defence installation such as Border Operational Posts, Border fencing, flood lights etc. are also constructed on/near flood protection embankments (Dhussies) along the river. Due to constant wear and tear by weather effect and playing of vehicular traffic over it, the flood protection embankment grown weak. Most of the reach of flood protection embankments could not be got repaired during the past more than 30 years due to non availability of funds. So the flood protection embankments are required immediate strengthening. Also on left side of river Ravi D/s Madhopur and upstream village kathlore, new proposal to construction of Flood protection embankments in total length 25.00 km., to save village abadies from the furry of floods has been made in this project.
No. Of villages falling in Sub Division, Amritsar-I
No. Of villages falling in Sub Division, Amritsar-II
No. Of villages falling in Sub Division, Ajnala
No. Of villages falling in Sub Division, Baba Bakala
3.4.4 VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF RIVER RAVI
VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS OF RIVER RAVI
Although the Ranjit Sagar Dam has been completed in 2001 and chances of flash floods in River Ravi have been consequently reduced to some extent but the area downstream Madhopur Head Works, where River Ujh and tributaries Jallalia, Khooni Nallah, Shingarwan and Tarnah, joins River Ravi at confluence point near Makora Pattan, Bein River opposite Rosse complex Gurdaspur and Naumani Nallah opposite near Kamalpur Jattan and Basanter Nallah opposite Singhoke complex in Amritsar District will continue to cause flood damages as these rivulets are naturals, high velocity and flashy torrents.
Due to floods in river Ravi since last so many years, the left bank of the river has been heavily eroded away at many places which further endangers to the border fencing, flood lights, border observatory posts, culturable land and village abadies. It is of utmost importance to River Protection works at vulnerable sites so that the property and human lives besides water installations viz. Full flood lights, border fencing etc. would be protected from the furry of floods.
Sakki/Kiran Nallah is a natural uncanalized Nallah in District Gurdaspur and Amritsar and out-falls into river Ravi near village Lodhi Gujjar in District Amritsar. It caters for the drainage system of vast area between river Ravi on left side and Kasur Nallah in its right side. Total length of this nallah is required to be canalized.
Hudiara Nallah having length 39.94 km and falls into river Ravi after entering Pakistan boundary. Due to continuous flow of sewage water in drains by adjacent towns and cities the condition of Hudiara Nallah has been deteriorated and its rehabilitation/rejuvenation is necessary.
The flood protection embankments and shanks portion of spurs etc. constructed all along the river Ravi from Rd 0 to 100000. The flood embankment was constructed during the year 1958. Due to constant wear and tear by the vehicular traffic playing over it and weather effect all these year, the F.P.E. and shank portions of spurs have damaged/ weakened considerably and at certain places flood free board has reduced to 1 ft. From 4 ft. Thus there is every possibility of breaches taking places in case a heavy flood 1 experienced in river Ravi, thereby causing damage to lives and property of the people residing in village Jhonewal, Jattan, Pachhian, Machhiwala, Singoke, Nisoke, Malikpur, Roorewal, Kot Rajada, Chaharpur, Galib, Dabian etc. situated in District Amritsar all along the flood protection embankment.
It is of utmost importance to restore the embankment and shank portions etc of spurs immediately so as to avoid any mishaps over these and to protect the lives and property of the inhabitants of these villages from furry of floods.
Due to floods in river Ravi since last so many years the flood water level rises during the flood season every year & inundates the culturable land & abadies between left edge of river Ravi & main FPE near villages Dharamkot Pattan, Gurchak, Ghonewal, Machhiwal, Saharan etc and damages the standing crops and residences. The villagers of these villages requested to the Honourable Cm Punjab for the construction of a new F.P.E. between Dharamkot Pattan Kasowal Road to Saharan Bandh on left side of river Ravi so that their cultivated standing crops and residential abadies could be protected from the furry of floods. After the construction of this new advance bandh approximately 5000 acre culturable land will be saved. The land cost will be appreciated benefiting the farmers economically. Also, the forest growth of plantation over the bandh will increase the state revenue.
The river Ravi flows in a meandering pattern all along the Indo-Pak border in the jurisdiction of Amritsar Drainage Division, Amritsar in Tehsil Ajnala District Amritsar in a close vicinity of BOP Ranian, BOP Kakkar Manj, Sakki Chogawan link drain, BOP Tota and BOP Sherpur. The entire surface run-off from catchments of river Ravi and its tributaries i.e, Ujh, Jallalia, Basantar and flood water of Chanab through Moralla head flows down to the plains causing heavy damage to lives and property of the inhabitants of the area every year. There remain direct hit of fluctuating flood water on the flood protection works in Ranian, Kakkar Manj and Sherpur Complexes. This portion of river Ravi from Sherpur to Ranian Complex is utilized by Pakistan as carrier channel to regulate canal water released from Moralla Head in Pakistan which damages flood protection works in Indian Territory and erode the river edge. So it is quite necessary to provide river training works such spur, studs, reventment, X-studs and crate bar etc. wherever required in the vulnerable reaches so as to protect defence instalments such as bunkers, towers, Sakki Chogwan link defence drain, border fencing, flood lights etc.
The river Ravi flows in a meandering pattern all along the Indo-Pak border in the jurisdiction of Amritsar Drainage Division, Amritsar District and in a close vicinity of vill, chahar[ur, Balbay, Sahuwal, Khanwal, Sarangdev, Hashampur, Dugtoot etc.
This is an old earth work embankment was constructed in year 1974 under the state assistance. This bund acts as flood protection to the villages as well as operational purpose of B.S.F. Army and also the people of village situated around this bund moves their vehicles from one point to another through this bund.
Due to heavy rain and floods in river Ravi slopes and top width of this bund deteriorated very badly, it is necessary to bring this bund in to the original design section so as to make it effective for proper movement of vehicles of B.S.F. Army and inspection officers of the drainage department. As no repair/ restoring has been carried out since last more than 25 years.
B.O.P. of B.S.F. namely D.S. Pura, kalam Dogar, New Sundergarh, Bhainian, Majh Mian, Sherpur, Gulgarh, Burj, etc, are situated on this bund B.S.F. move their vehicle from one B.O.P. to another B.O.P. through this bund. No repair/maintenance has been carried out on this bund since so many years. Due to heavy rain and flood in river Ravi slopes and top width of this bund has been eroded/ deteriorated very badly. It is very necessary to bring this bund to its original design section so as to make it effective for flood protection and proper movement of cehicles of BSF, Army and inspecting officer of drainage department.
An advance bund was constructed from funds allocated from central assistance connecting BOP’s Kot raizada forward, BOP Wadhi Cheema and extended upto river edge on right side of river Ravi opposite BOP shahpur and on L/s from BOP Shahpur to BOP D.S. Pura along border fencing.
This slopes and top of this bund has been erroted and deteriorated by heavy rain and passes of vehicle of BSF/ Army since last so many years. It is quite necessary to restore these advance bund’s to its original design for proper movement of vehicle of BSF/Army and inspecting officers of Drainage Department as well as flood protection aspects.
The river ravi flows in a meandering pattern all along the Indo-Pak border in the jurisdiction of Amritsar Drainage Division, in District Amritsar and in close vicinity of main F.P.E. in Chaharpur complex. Although controlled by construction of Ranjit sagar Dam but D/S of RSd the entire flow of catchments water from tributaries from J & K/ Pakistan i.e. Ujh, Jallalia, Basantar etc. flows down to the plains through river Ravi flood season causing heavy damage to the life and property every year.
Due to heavy rain in the year of 2007 a huge quantity of water was accumulated in the low lying area of village Rurewal and village Darya Musa situated on left side of river Ravi which causes heavy damage to the crops as well as to the village abadies. District Administration of District Amritsar pump sets for many days to pump out this floodwater. So to protect C-Land as well as abadies of these villages. It is proposed to install the gate and gearing system at RD 62300 & 66900 of F.P.E. near village Rurewal & Darya Musa to immediate removal of rain water.
The flood protection embankment, advance bandh and earthen shank portions of armoured spurs were constructed by local earth which contains large contents of sand. When river Ravi flows with medium flood its water touches the embankment. The grushing flood water of river Ravi causes erosion to the embankment and shank portion which can leave to mishap when river Ravi is instate. It is utmost important to check the erosion action of river Ravi. So as to avoid the breaches over it. It is proposed to lay 1’0” thich boulder stone pitching over the toe wall of boulder stone filled in M.S. Annealed wire crates having 15cm* 15 cm mesh of 4’ * 4’ * 10’ size.
Hudiara Nallah starts taking shape from HMT drain near Amritsar-Ajnala road and outfalls into Pakistan near village Dauke in India. This Nallah is already canalized. The canalization was done in the year 1966. During Canalization bank was constructed on left side only as per army norms being followed in Border Area. In few reaches bank was constructed on both sides. The total length of the Nallah is 39.94 km and 20 No. Drains/ Link drains outfall into this Nallah. Due to continuous flow of sewage water in drains and nallah by the adjacent towns and cities, the condition of drains and nallah has been deteriorated. Most of the drains/nallah has been choked up with sliush, booti, jungle, jalla, nara etc. due to disposal of sewage water. In dry reaches of drains and nallahs heavy jungle has grown on side slopes/bed.
3.4.5 WORK NEEDED
Brief Description of work needed
Approximate Amount (Rs. In Lacs)
Flood protection works by providing reventment, studs and spurs on left side of River Ravi in Dharamkot, Saharan Bundh, Singoke and Chaharpur complex in district Amritsar.
Restoring and bringing to design section of flood protection embankment from RD 0 to 10000 Saharan bundh, Spill bundh, Link bundh and Earthen bundh on Left side of River Ravi in District Gurdaspur and Amritsar.
Construction of advance bundh from Dharamkot Kassowal Road to Saharan Bundh for the safety of Agriculture land, villages Abadies and defence installations etc. on left side of River Ravi in Amritsar district.
Flood protection works by providing reventments, studs, reclamation, spurs, crate bars and X-studs on left side and on right side of river ravi in Sherpur, kakkar Manj and Ranain Complexes for the protection of border fencing, flood lights, bunkers and culturable land.
Restoring main flood protection embankment from RD 100000 to RD 220000 on left side of River Ravi for the protection of village abadies and culturable land.
Advance and connecting B.O.Ps D.S Pura, Kalan Dogar, New Sundergarh, Bhaniyan, Majhi Mewan, Sherpur, Gulgarh and Burj etc.
Restoring damaged flood protection works in kakkar, Rania and Sherpur comlex on left side of river Ravi and bringing to design section of advance bundh connecting B.O.P. Shahpur to D.S. Pura and right Marginal Bund.
Construction of pantoon bridge over River Ravi at RD 87000 of flood protection embankment (Village kot Raizada) District Amritsar
Construction of pantoon bridge over River Ravi at RD 8400 of flood protection embankment (Village kamalpur) District Amritsar
Fixing and gearing at RD 623000 and 66900 of main F.P.E. on left side of river Ravi to save C-Land and village abadies.
Gates & Gearing System
Providing dry boulder pitching to flood protection embankment Advance bundh and Earthen Shank of Armoured Spurs.
Earth wprk/ Boulder Stone work
DRAINAGE CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, AMRITSAR
Canalization of Sakki/Kiran Nallah from RD 18000-510000 in district Gurdaspur and Amritsar.