Domestic affairs foreign policy richard nixon



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THE MODERN ERA PRESIDENTS


PRESIDENT

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS

FOREIGN POLICY

RICHARD NIXON

1969-1974

1. After the secret bombings of Laos and

Cambodia, Nixon searched for the leak

that fed the story to the newspaper. He

wiretapped the Watergate Hotel which

house the Democratic National Party

headquarters. What did this act lead to?

The hunt for the leak caused Nixon to

place wire taps in Watergate Scandal.

This later led to his impeachment and

resignation. Students protested the

expansion of war and some were killed

at Kent State Ohio and Jackson State, MS.

2. For 18 months a struggle for truth was

brewing in America. The US Senate

voted to impeach Nixon. What were the

charges?

Obstruction of justice

Nixon resigned before Senate ruled
3. Nixon was the only US President to

resign.

1. What was Nixon's plans for Vietnam? to

support South Vietnam a 2nd time if North

Vietnam failed to follow through on the peace

agreement
2. Nixon expanded the bombings into Laos and

Cambodia to destroy the Ho Chi Minh trail that the

North Vietnamese were using to infiltrate South


Vietnam. This was a secret plan and it was leaked

to the press. How did Nixon react? he started

investigating the leak and wiretapped the

democratic headquarters at Watergate hotel
3. Nixon and Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger,

encouraged peace talks with North and South

Vietnam. In 1973 both sides agreed to a ceasefire.

What did Nixon promise if the North Vietnamese

failed to follow the agreed peace plan?

to support South Vietnam a 2nd time if North

Vietnam failed to follow through on the peace

Agreement...Congress voted this down.
4. What was Triangular Diplomacy? contain communism in Vietnam and play USSR and China against each other. Nixon visits China.
5. Why did Nixon visit China in 1972? to befriend Chinese and support a working relationship between USA and China.
6. What was the Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement?

What nations were involved in this agreement? limit the arms race between USA/USSR


GERALD FORD

1974-1977

1. America mistrusted the government

after the Watergate Scandal. Ford was

the politician known as a "Consensus

Builder" and he fought to restore

American trust in the government.

Ford found that 1/2 of his time was still

addressing issues related to the

Watergate Scandal. In order to free his

time, Ford pardoned Nixon. What were


the issues that Ford needed to address?

Inflation and communism in the Soviet Union


1. North Vietnam violated the peace talks and invaded

Saigon (South Vietnam). Nixon and Henry Kissinger

had made promises to South Vietnam that if this

happened the USA would intervene again. Gerald

Ford tries to carry out this promise to support

Vietnam. How does the War Powers Act impact

the decision to support South Vietnam a second

time?

Congress has the power to declare war and they voted a 2nd entry into South Vietnam down. They denied Ford's attempt to follow through on Nixon's promise.
2. On April 19, 1975 South Vietnam fell and North

Vietnam took over. This was a tragic end to the

South Vietnam fight for freedom. What impact did

this have on the government in Vietnam?

Vietnam became a communist nation


JIMMY CARTER

1977-1981

1. Carter was an "unknown outsider" to

Washington DC. He brought back

confidence in the government after the

Watergate Scandal. Instead of riding in a

car on the inauguration ceremony, Carter

elected to walk the route to show

humility. How did his Christian beliefs

and "outsider label" impact his ability to

work with the power houses in Congress?

He did not know how to work with the political parties in Washington DC




1. What was Carter's new foreign policy?

Human Rights
2. Carter worked with Israel and Egypt to draft the

Camp David Accords. The leaders from Israel and

Egypt met with Carter in Maryland. After 13 days,

the Camp David Accords was signed. Why was this

significant? The USA acted as a mediator for Egypt and Israel. This was a step to solving the crisis in the Middle East.




2. Carter expanded the presidential

cabinet. What departments did he add?

Department of Education

Department of Energy
3. The US economy was stagnant during the

Carter years. What was the "lasting

image" of this economic crisis?

Spike in gas prices $4.00 a gallon and long gas lines



3. The biggest obstacle Carter faced was in 1979 when

Radical Islamic followers stormed the American

Embassy in Iran and took 52 Americans hostage.

Carter pledged to free the hostages and bring all 52

home. Carter decided not to attack/bomb Iran and

to use negotiation to try to free the hostages. The

American people viewed his as being "weak." The

hostage affair caused his approval rating to go

down and impacted his re-election attempt. Did

Carter free the hostages? When were the hostages


released? He negotiated the release but Iran help them until Ronald Reagan was being sworn into office.


RONALD REAGAN

1981-1989

1. What was the title given to Reagan?

The Great Communicator
2. Reagan soothed the American people

after the Challenger exploded on live TV.

Why was this mission unique? there was diversity on this mission, different races and different professions
3. Ronald Reagan started a new economic

policy called Reaganomics. He

implemented cutting taxes to promote

trickledown effect on consumers and

businesses? How would this help the

economy? Consumers would have more money to spend which would help businesses. Businesses would sale more and more money would be in the economy.


1. Reagan is marked with the Iran Contra Affair.

What was he accused of? How did he respond?

Selling arms to Iran in exchange for hostage release

He apologized if that was the perception but did not openly admit it
2. Reagan was firm on the fight to contain

communism. Reagan meets with the Soviet leader

(GORBACHEV) in 4 SUMMIT meetings. What was

the impact of these meetings? moves USSR toward a collapse.....collapsed in 1990 Berlin Wall 1989

RONALD REAGAN 1981-1989

3. What were the 3 areas of Reagan's focus

as president? defense spending/building up of the military, cutting taxes for the American people and downsizing the American government/anti big-govt
4. What were the 3 social issues that

consumed the Reagan years? AIDS, women's rights and homeless people
5. Reagan's STAR WARS plan and

REAGANOMICS created deficit spending.

There was a huge deficit in 1990's. What

is deficit spending? How does this also

connect with FDR? spending money

you do not have...going into debt
FDR New Deal programs caused the USA

to go into debt/Reagan's STAR WARS

causes debt

5. Reagan was shot during an assassination

attempt. This attempt led to the Brady

Bill. How did the Brady Bill promote

gun control? the customer has to complete an application, 3 day waiting period & background check


3. Reagan intimidated the USSR with the SDI

System or STAR WARS. Gorbachev knew that the

USSR could not keep up with the USA in a space

race. What did Reagan advocate that SDI/STAR

WARS do? What was its impact?

Shoot down Soviet missiles in space before they

reached the USA. USSR believed this was possible

and did not feel they could keep up with the USA

in a space race. This later is a cause of the fall of the

Soviet Union in 1990.


4. Reagan's famous quote was "Mr. Gorbachev, TEAR

DOWN that wall." In 1989, the BERLIN wall was torn

down. What significant happened in 1990?

The Soviet Union collapsed


GEORGE H. W. BUSH

1989-1993

1. During the election, what was Bush's

slogan/promise?

No new taxes "read my lips"
2. George H. W. Bush was criticized for

going back on his promise. How

did Reagan's domestic policy force

Bush to compromise? Bush needed tax

dollars to balance the budget due to

deficit spending
3. George H. W. Bush was forced to raise

taxes and this was 1 factor that cost him

the next election. What were 2 effects

that resulted from raising taxes? he tried to balance the federal budget due to deficit spending and there was a new political party in White House...shift from republicans to democrats



1. George H. W. Bush had 2 foreign policy aims:

A. end Cold War/Communism

B. Gulf War/Saddam Hussein
2. August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. Saddam Hussein

was the leader of Iraq and wanted Kuwait's oil

reserves. Iraq's aggression pulled the USA into the

Gulf War. Bush sent air strikes. 5 months after


air strikes started ground troops went into

Kuwait and liberated the country. Iraqi soldiers

surrendered to American forces. US forces did not

topple Iraqi leader (Saddam Hussein) from power.

What was the main reason for the Gulf War of 1990?

Saddam Hussein from Iraq invaded Kuwait (neighbor) to gain control of their oil...this would have created an oil monopoly and put the western world in jeopardy


3. George H. W. Bush was criticized for not taking

Saddam Hussein out of power. What was Bush's

war aim? To protect the energy resources (oil reserves) in Kuwait/Missile East in an effort to provide a "safe haven" for the western world


WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON

1998-2001

1. Bill Clinton was the first rock-n-roll

President. He played saxophone,

implemented MTV and courted the

press. The press ends up showcasing

3 Clinton scandals.

A. Paula Jones- accused Clinton of sexual harassment/had an affair with Clinton

B. Whitewater--real estate scandal

1. While the Lewinsky scandal was on TV a Middle

Eastern country developed a plot to attack the USA.

When did this plot unfold? What was the outcome?

PLOT----> to attack the USA

9/11 was planned and carried out in 2001

BILL CLINTON

1. Scandals:

C. Monica Lewinsky-had a fling with the president while in oval office. Clinton lied about affair and Congress started the impeachment proceedings
2. Clinton balanced the Congressional

budget. Why was this important?

Was 1st time since Andrew Jackson in early 1800s
3. Clinton was the first US president to

allow the first lady to highly impact

policy. What did Hillary Clinton push for

that Congress denied? universal healthcare for all American citizens


4. Clinton signed NAFTA. What was the

North American Free Trade Agreement?
North American Free Trade Agreement

The NAFTA is an abbreviation for a document known as the North American Free Trade Agreement. The NAFTA document ensures the eventual removal of taxes and import quotas on goods traded between the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico.


5. The democrats and republicans were in

a political war. They failed to agree and

There was a government shutdown.

Many White House staff members were

sent home. Monica Lewinsky and

Clinton had an affair during this time.

Lewinsky was subpoenaed as a witness

for Paula Jones case and the affair went

public. The House of Representatives

1. Middle Eastern Conflict

B. causalities--->3000+
C. Effects---> draws American into war against Taliban/Osama Bin Laden and Afghanistan

D. Patriot Act---> The act, as a response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, significantly reduced restrictions in law enforcement agencies' gathering of intelligence within the United States; expanded the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expanded the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Act’s expanded law enforcement powers can be applied.


BILL CLINTON

started the impeachment process.

Clinton was the 2nd US president to be

impeached. How did the Senate vote?

Not to impeach Clinton






GEORGE W. BUSH

2001-2009

(Son of George H. B. Bush)

1. During the election of 2000 AL Gore

(democrat) ran against George W. Bush

(republican). The USA did not know who

won the presidency until Jan. 2001.

Al Gore won the popular vote by a

narrow margin. The election came down

to the 25 electoral votes in Florida. How

was the winner determined?

Recounts were held in Florida and the Supreme Court analyzed the results. The Supreme Court announced George Bush defeated Al Gore.
2. During the election and early presidency,

George Bush opposed big/centralized

government. Bush became known as the

most "centralized government"

president. What caused this shift?

He created the department of Homeland Security after 9/11. All 50 states have a state branch of Homeland Security. Wayne County has Homeland Security representatives.
3. The Patriot Act was passed in response

to 911. What did it authorize?

The act, as a response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, significantly reduced restrictions in law enforcement agencies' gathering of intelligence within the United States; expanded the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expanded the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Act’s expanded law enforcement powers can be applied.


1. George Bush identified 3 countries as the "Axis

of Evil." Which nations was he describing and why

were they labeled evil?

North Korea/Iran/Iraq

Developing nuclear weapons


2. On September 11, 2001 terrorist planes flew

into the Twin Towers in New York City the

Pentagon in Washington DC and a plane in

Pennsylvania. What group was blamed?

Who was their leader? Taliban

Osama Bin Laden
3. After 911 Bush declares war on Taliban and

invades Afghanistan. Why did we move into that

area?

We believed that the Taliban network was working out of the area and we believed that they were developing nuclear weapons.
4. What was the outcome of the war? USA declares war






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