SUBCOMMITTEE ON INFORMATION POLICY, CENSUS, AND NATIONAL ARCHIVES
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
JULY 22, 2010
Government 2.0: Federal Agency Use of Web 2.0 Technologies Good afternoon, Chairman Clay, Ranking Member McHenry, and members of the Subcommittee. Thank you for providing me with the opportunity to testify about how federal agencies are implementing the Administration's Open Government agenda, and how the General Services Administration is working with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and Administration officials to enable this transformation.
Figure 1: Screenshot of Whitehouse.gov Open Government Initiative
The leadership of this Administration has been a catalyst for the rapid adoption of "web 2.0" tools by federal agencies—and, more broadly, of a renewed focus on making government more transparent, participatory, and collaborative. On his first full day in office, the President fully committed to these principles by issuing his Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government. In this Memorandum, he called on agencies to:
"harness new technologies to put information about their operations and decisions online and readily available to the public [and]… solicit public feedback to identify information of greatest use to the public."1 In December 2009, the OMB further strengthened this commitment by issuing the Open Government Directive. This directive provided specific guidance and concrete timelines for agencies. This directive outlined the steps agencies must take to increase citizen accessibility and transparency. Notably, the directive mandated that each agency develop and publish an Open Government Plan to "describe how it will improve transparency and integrate public participation and collaboration into its activities."2 These actions, immensely important in their own right, have been truly transformational because they come at a time of convergence with other key trends:
Important Changes in Technology—In the past decade, vast increases in the availability of storage space, bandwidth, and computing power have enabled a new class of Internet-based applications—broadly called "web 2.0"—that focus less on one-way delivery of information and more on enabling large, diverse communities to come together, share their wisdom, and take action.
Shifting Consumer Expectations—In turn, the ubiquity of "web 2.0" tools has radically shifted the expectations of citizens. A few statistics paint the broad picture of how rapidly these tools have transformed how we produce and consume information:
YouTube, a popular video sharing site, is now the second largest search engine in the world.3
More than 25 billion pieces of content (web links, news stories, blog posts, notes, photo albums, etc.) are shared each month on Facebook.4
On-line newspaper readership is up 16 percent.5 In the past year, among the 25 largest circulation newspapers, 10 had declines in weekday circulation of more than 10 percent.6
It took 38 years for radio to attract 50 million listeners, and 13 years for television to attract 50 million viewers.7 MySpace, YouTube, and Facebook host 250 million visitors each month, and none of these websites existed 6 years ago.
By 2020, mobile devices will be world’s primary tool for connecting to the Internet.8
Increasingly, many citizens—government's customers—are coming to expect to find the information they want and need through the use of the social networks and platforms they use every day.
Examples of Web 2.0 Use in Federal Agencies
Figure 2: The Library of Congress' Flickr Page
The convergence of these forces—Presidential leadership, social change, and grass-roots enthusiasm—has produced an explosion of innovation. Highlighted below are a few of the literally hundreds of examples of agencies using web 2.0 tools:
Library of Congress on Flickr—The Library of Congress is a repository of some of our nation's most cherished and important cultural artifacts. For years, however, citizens had to travel to Washington, D.C. to view these materials. In January 2008, that changed when the Library used the popular photo-sharing service Flickr (www.flickr.com) to put 3,000 public-domain, copyright-free photos online so that all citizens could share and explore them, regardless of geography. Moreover, the Library used Flickr's social tagging features to enable citizens to sort the photos by person, place, topic, and other key dimensions. The Library is using web 2.0 not only to deliver its content in ways that all citizens expect and appreciate, but to enlist citizens in the critical mission of examining and cataloguing that content for future generations.
NASA’s Use of Twitter as a Communications Platform—NASA was an early adopter of using Twitter as a communications platform with its @MarsPhoenix account, which was well known for its stream of regular first-person updates about life as a spacecraft on Mars. On June 19, 2009, NASA utilized Twitter to broadcast to the world that the Mars Phoenix spacecraft had discovered water on Mars, proclaiming: “Are you ready to celebrate? Well, get ready: We have ICE!!!!! Yes, ICE, *WATER ICE* on Mars! w00t!!! Best day ever!!” Announcing a discovery of this magnitude using new media platforms was an innovative departure from NASA’s traditional way of doing business and proved extremely effective in communicating its discovery quickly. NASA Astronauts also use Twitter to share their experiences in space. On May 12, 2009, Astronaut Mike Massimino made history by sending the first Tweet from space while onboard the space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-125 mission: “From orbit: Launch was awesome!! I am feeling great, working hard, & enjoying the magnificent views, the adventure of a lifetime has begun!” Today, NASA uses Twitter on a regular basis. It recently created the NASA Buzzroom (http://www.buzzroom.nasa.gov) to aggregate online conversations about NASA. In terms of sharing a message with an audience, or engaging them in conversation around a topic like space exploration, there may not be a more effective way than personally connecting with others through new media platforms.
Figure 3: USGS Plot of Earthquake Reports Collected Through Public Tweets
.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Monitoring Through Twitter—Created in 2006, Twitter (twitter.com) has become a major hub for sending messages and sharing content. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey recognized that many citizens were using Twitter to share information about earthquakes, and that "for felt earthquakes in populated regions, Twitter reports often precede[d] the USGS’s publically-released, scientifically-verified earthquake alerts."9Drawing on this, they created the Twitter Earthquake Detector, or TED, to draw on citizens' updates as an "early warning system" of seismic activity and, potentially, to enable a more rapid and well-equipped response to these events than was previously possible.
State Department Haiti Response—The State Department has demonstrated that social networks can not only help anticipate major natural disasters, but also help respond to them. In the hours immediately following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the State Department recognized the opportunity to enlist ordinary citizens in assisting the relief effort. Using SMS text messaging—a mobile technology available even to those without computers—they created a system that allowed mobile users to donate to a relief fund simply by texting a short code to a specified number. The campaign generated $1.7 million in its first 24 hours, and has now raised more than $40 million from about four million donors, making it the largest mobile donation campaign ever.
National Library of Medicine's Pillbox—Government's use of social media is valuable not only in a crisis, but also in providing citizens with the information they need every day. Pillbox is a web application created by the National Library of Medicine that enables rapid identification of unknown pills by allowing a visitor to describe its shape, color, and markings and searching against government data for a match. Useful for emergency physicians, first responders, health care providers, and concerned citizens, Pillbox is a great example of how the Internet can transform previously hard-to-access government data into vital information that is at citizens' fingertips. It also provides a powerful case for the efficiency potential of web 2.0: According to Pillbox project manager David Hale, poison control centers get 1.1 million calls a year to identify drugs in emergency situations, at a cost of about $50 per call. Automating this service on the Internet has dramatic potential to defray some of this cost.10
EPA Puget Sound Mashup—Widely regarded as one of government's first forays into "web 2.0", EPA's Puget Sound Mashup was born out of then-CIO Molly O'Neill's recognition that although the federal government had responsibility for this vital waterway, they could not fulfill this responsibility without drawing on the wisdom of the of state and local governments, NGOs, stakeholders, and citizens who are directly impacted by the Sound and its surrounding environment. Using a basic wiki—a tool that allows anyone to contribute or edit content on a single website in real time—EPA called on these groups to share their best information resources, tools, ideas, and contacts to protect the Puget Sound. In just 48 hours, they received over 175 contributions, and the site's pages were viewed over 18,000 times.
TSA "Evolution of Security" Blog—Blogging has represented a major shift in how we share and discuss information in real time. In January 2008, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) recognized the potential value of this shift by launching the Evolution of Security Blog to provide "a forum for a lively, open discussion of TSA issues."11 Since then, the blog has had thousands of posts and comments, and has become a model of how federal government can use blogs to engage authentically with citizens. Only a week after it started, the TSA blog received comments from air travelers about their officers requiring all electronics to be removed from carry-on luggage, contrary to official guidance. The comments were passed along to TSA leadership, who rectified the issue quickly and reported back about it on the blog. Since then, the blog has also been used to provide travel tips and clarify controversial incidents involving airport security, all the while building TSA's reputation for engaging in an honest and straightforward way with citizens.
Government Data Transformed into Apps—Recent examples underline the creativity and innovation that is unleashed when government data is made publicly available in open formats. In March 2010, USDA, in partnership with First Lady Michelle Obama’s "Let’s Move!" campaign to combat childhood obesity, launched the Apps for Healthy Kids contest. It challenged developers and designers to build Internet or mobile applications, based on USDA nutrition datasets, that could teach children and young adults about how diet and exercise can affect their lives. The challenge promises $60,000 in total prize money, and for that small investment, USDA has had over 90 eligible applications submitted, and attracted over 17,700 supporters. In that same model, Department of Health and Human Services Chief Technology Officer Todd Park recently led an effort known as the Community Health Data Initiative that seeks to "help Americans understand health and health care performance in their communities and to help spark and facilitate action to improve performance."12 "On March 11, the Institute of Medicine and HHS convened health care experts, technology developers, web 2.0 visionaries, and others to explore what could be done with HHS’s community health data. The group brainstormed an incredible set of ideas – and then, even more impressively, volunteered to pursue the development of many of them, roping in additional participants along the way. In the less than 90 days since that meeting, more than a dozen new or improved data applications using HHS’s community health data have been developed."13
Each of these examples demonstrates a different facet of the way that social media and citizen engagement tools are transforming government. They are revolutionizing how citizens receive and interact with government information, and in turn, enabling citizens to provide government with their own "high-value data," be it in the form of photo tags, earthquake tweets, blog comments, or killer apps.
However, this revolution has not been a one-way street. Just as web 2.0 has impacted the way government operates, the structure and complexities of government have impacted how these tools are adopted and used. Here are a few brief examples:
Can Government Employees Access Social Media Tools?—Because tools like Twitter and Facebook are so common in our personal lives, many managers in agencies question their appropriateness in a professional setting. They wonder whether an employee is truly using social media tools to execute their mission, or just passing time. Moreover, many CIOs are concerned about the demand that these tools take on Internet bandwidth and overall infrastructure, as well as their security implications. For these reasons, federal employees' access to popular social networking sites has been uneven; some block sites that others do not, and the rationale for these blockages is often inconsistent. In response, many agencies are creating detailed Social Media policies, indicating which tools are approved for on-the-job use, how they may be used, and associated security and privacy requirements. One of the most visible recent examples has been the Department of Defense issuing department-wide guidance authorizing the use of social media. The State Department has also recently released a social media policy, and the Environmental Protection Agency has released specific guidance for the use of Twitter, Facebook, widgets, discussion forums, blogging and other web 2.0 tools.
Figure 4: EPA Flowchart for Official Engagement In Social Media Channels
ow Should Government Employees Engage Online?—When, if at all, is it appropriate for a government employee to participate in a social network in their official capacity? The U.S. Air Force and Environmental Protection Agency have responded by developing a clear, concise framework for employees to use in making this judgment. The need for this kind of guidance highlights the new reality of social media: "communications" no longer comes only from the top of an organization; engagement with the public can happen at any level, in any venue, 24/7.
How Can Government Learn From These Experiences Together?—In response to these and other issues, the Federal Web Managers Council—established in 2004 to recommend guidelines for public websites—has established a Social Media Sub-Council to collect and disseminate best practices with respect to federal agency use of social media tools. The Sub-Council has compiled hundreds of sample social media policies from federal agencies as well as state, local, and international governments. This has become an invaluable resource and a strong indication of how federal agencies are adapting the use of social media tools to their own complex missions and policies.
The Role of GSA and the Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies A
Figure 5: Homepage of Social Media Sub-Council Wiki
gainst this background of progress and innovation, the General Services Administration plays a key role in expanding successful agency use of web 2.0 tools. For decades, GSA has been a leader in connecting citizens with government information, be it through traditional media such as publications and call centers, or more recently, websites such as USA.gov and gobiernoUSA.gov. As our Administrator, Martha Johnson, noted upon being sworn in in February 2010:
Hoarding and hiding information prevents citizens and civil servants from understanding and participating in the public process effectively…We at GSA can help change that. We can make the information more available, as a first step. And we can do much more. We can, and will, take advantage of emerging technologies for sorting, sharing, networking, collective intelligence, and using that information. Our goal is nothing short of a nation that relies not on select data and statistical boxing matches, but on accurate evidence that supports knowledge and wisdom.14 Under Administrator Johnson's leadership, the organization I lead is transforming itself. Now called the Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies (OCSIT), our goal is to work with OMB and other key actors to provide agencies with the tools and solutions they need to "keep their feet on the gas pedal," adopting web 2.0 tools quickly and using them successfully. To do this, we have created three new organizations within OCSIT:
The Center for New Media and Citizen Engagement focuses on providing agencies with easy access to new and existing web 2.0 tools and platforms; supporting the agile use of these tools; and building learning communities of practice around emerging products and services.
The Center for Customer Service Excellence focuses on building the capacity for agencies to deliver exceptional service via web, phone, e-mail and other channels; disseminating best practices and resource materials; and supporting a network of thousands of government web and new media professionals to share practices in new media and open government.
The Office of Innovative Technologies focuses on providing agencies with the technical infrastructure that they need in order to maximize the efficient use of computing resources; creating platforms that enhance internal collaboration; and supporting government-wide information architecture initiatives.
GSA is able to play on this key role in helping to facilitate agency use of new technologies because of our unique position. Because we serve other agencies, we are able to deliver significant efficiencies to them by working with other key actors to establish tools, policies, and communities that extend across government. Just as our Public Building Service and Federal Acquisition Service provide agencies with integrated solutions in the areas of public property and procurement, OCSIT is able to function as a centralized point of service for those across government looking to explore or accelerate their use of social media and citizen engagement technologies. We also refine and leverage this expertise at a number of inter-agency forums on collaboration, including the White House’s Ideation and Challenge Communities of Practice, as well as the Open Government Working Group, which brings together the officials at each agency designated as responsible for the agency’s Open Government activities. I am honored to serve in this position for GSA.
Products and Services Supported by OCSIT to Encourage Citizen Engagement Although the mission of OCSIT and its component organizations is very broad, we have created a number of concrete tools that agencies have already begun to use.
Apps.gov is an online storefront, managed by GSA. Apps.gov was launched in September 2009; its purpose is to encourage and enable the adoption of cloud computing solutions within the federal government. Apps.gov greatly expands the IT service catalogue available to agency CIOs. It offers a robust set of business, productivity and social media applications and cloud procurements by federal agencies. We have learned that Apps.gov supports research and analysis of existing cloud products and services, and provides a fast, easy way for federal agencies to buy the tools they need—either through the storefront or other GSA acquisition vehicles like Advantage or e-Buy. Agencies have also used Apps.gov to research free social media tools with federal-compatible terms of service negotiated by GSA. By negotiating these agreements and making them available to other agencies, GSA has cleared an important hurdle to adopting free, commercial tools like YouTube and Facebook. Using the resources on Apps.gov, agencies can match the tools they need to agency-specific services they offer to their stakeholders.
Figure 6: Tools Available Through the Apps.gov Storefront
Apps.gov now provides access to more than more than 3,000 apps. Within the social media category alone, as of March 2010 there have been 179 signed terms of service agreements, and 658 uses of the applications. As of today, there are 38 social media apps with negotiated terms of service agreements available for federal agencies.
A companion site, Info.Apps.gov, was also recently launched as a central forum for the dissemination of information relating to the Federal Cloud Computing Initiative. Relatedly, we recently released an RFQ for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to be offered under the Apps.gov umbrella. This procurement will lead to the award of multi-vendor blanket purchase agreement for IaaS web hosting, storage, and virtual machines. Bids were received on June 30, 2010. Award is expected in August. This will be a competitive marketplace to Federal agencies contemplating IaaS architectural decisions.
Figure 7: Types of Government-Citizen Interaction Enabled By Web 2.0 Tools
ommon Open Government Dialogue Platform is a project undertaken by GSA in response to the Open Government Directive's mandate that agencies "incorporate a mechanism for the public to…provide input on the agency’s Open Government Plan." Over the course of six weeks, GSA provided interested agencies with a no-cost, law- and policy-compliant, public-facing online engagement tool, as well as training and technical support to enable them to immediately begin collecting public and employee input on their forthcoming open government plans. Since then, GSA has worked to transfer ownership of the open government public engagement tool, powered by a platform called IdeaScale, to interested agencies in a manner that provided both full compliance and support for sustained engagement. GSA will continue to provide support for the moderator community and facilitate the inclusion of public ideas in agency open government plans. GSA will also configure this same platform for use in public challenges and contests.
The initial platform was launched in February 2010 across 22 federal agencies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Using the platform, agencies collectively gathered over 2,100 ideas, over 3,400 comments, and over 21,000 votes during a six-week "live" period. The capability has also been used for dialogue with the public a variety of other topics:
Department of Transportation has used it to gain public input on their FY10-15 Strategic Plan
USAID has used it to solicit questions for Administrator Rajiv Shah in advance of an employee town hall session
The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology has used it to run an online brainstorming session on improving the United States' industrial/manufacturing capabilities
Kids.gov has used it to collect ideas and suggestions in advance of a planned website redesign
GSA has used it to solicit ideas from employees and the public on becoming a more environmentally-friendly and sustainable workplace