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The Gracious Manifesto of the Imperial Majesty

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The Gracious Manifesto of the Imperial Majesty

given in St. Petersburg, on the 3/15th of February 1899.



Copy.

We NICHOLAS The Second, by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, Tsar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland etc. etc. etc. make it known to all our loyal subjects:/…/

But apart from the local legislative needs in Finland deriving from the characteristic social structure of the land, the administration of the Empire brings forth also other legislative questions concerning Finland, which because of their close association to the general interests of the Empire, cannot be exclusively treated by the institutions of the Grand Duchy. On the manner in which questions of this kind are to be decided, the existing legislation contains no definitive provisions, and this absence has resulted in significant inconveniences./…/

While We preserve in force and effect the present provisions concerning the enactment of such local decrees which extend exclusively to the needs of Finland, We have deemed it necessary to reserve for Our discretion the exact definition of subjects for the general legislation of the Empire.

The signature below has been written by The Imperial Majesty with His Own Supreme Hand:


"NICHOLAS."



Doc. B

PRO FINLANDIA 1899




Doc. C

EETU ISTO, The assault



Doc. D

The assassination of Bobrikov

Doc. E

”Bloody Sunday”, 22.1.1905

Doc. F

An extraordinary session of the Diet was called on 20 December to implement the parliamentary reform. Other tasks included the Act on the right of Parliament to monitor the legality of official acts committed by the members of the government, the Act on the Freedom of Speech, Assembly and Association, and the Freedom of the Press Act.


A committee headed by Professor Robert Hermanson was commissioned to draft the new Parliament Act. The committee convened for the first time in December

1905

Frans Seyn (1862 – 1918)

Questions related to the documents;


  1. a. Explain the constitutional change which took place with this manifesto ( document A )(3)

b. Explain the impact of document A in Finland (2)


  1. What was ‘Pro Finlandia’ (document B) (2)




  1. Analyse the political message of document C (3)




  1. Examine document E and explain in which ways this event in Russia affected Finland (3)




  1. Document F is a part of a text about a very significant event in Finnish history. Which event and in what way could one claim it is historical? (3)

  2. Name two different ways in which Finnish popular reaction can be examined in documents C. and D.? (2)



  1. Using both your own knowledge and material contained in these documents examine the political development in Finland 15.2.1899 - 1906. (7)



Paper 2



Essayquestions;

Answer 2 questions (15 marks/question) of the following;


8) Modern History Sourcebook:
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 1939




Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

The Government of the German Reich and The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics desirous of strengthening the cause of peace between Germany and the U.S.S.R., and proceeding from the fundamental provisions of the Neutrality Agreement concluded in April, 1926 between Germany and the U.S.S.R., have reached the following Agreement:



Article I. Both High Contracting Parties obligate themselves to desist from any act of violence, any aggressive action, and any attack on each other, either individually or jointly with other Powers.

Article II. Should one of the High Contracting Parties become the object of belligerent action by a third Power, the other High Contracting Party shall in no manner lend its support to this third Power./…/

[The section below was not published at the time the above was announced.]



Secret Additional Protocol.

Article I. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement in the areas belonging to the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), the northern boundary of Lithuania shall represent the boundary of the spheres of influence of Germany and U.S.S.R. In this connection the interest of Lithuania in the Vilna area is recognized by each party.

Article II. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement of the areas belonging to the Polish state, the spheres of influence of Germany and the U.S.S.R. shall be bounded approximately by the line of the rivers Narev, Vistula and San.

The question of whether the interests of both parties make desirable the maintenance of an independent Polish States and how such a state should be bounded can only be definitely determined in the course of further political developments.

In any event both Governments will resolve this question by means of a friendly agreement.


Article III. With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinteredness in these areas.

Article IV. This protocol shall be treated by both parties as strictly secret.

Moscow, August 23, 1939.

For the Government of the German Reich v. Ribbentrop

Plenipotentiary of the Government of the U.S.S.R. V. Molotov


Discuss the impact of the document above on the relations between Finland and the Soviet Union 23.8.1939 – 13.3.1940

9)Finland was declared an independent republic the 6.12.1917. A republican constitution was accepted by the parliament a second time on 21.6.1919. Examine why the parliament of Finland had to approve a republican constitution twice.

10) There is a statue of Alexander II on the senate square in Helsinki with the year 1863 engraved. Why is this? To what extent and with which reservations could one claim that the 1860’s were an important phase in Finnish history?

11)‘The effects of civil war may include the healing of rifts in society and the promotion of national unity.’ To what extent is this claim borne out or refuted by the Finnish civil war?

12) Compare and contrast the foreign policy crises Finland had with Sweden and with Russia in 1920.

13) M.J.13630/15 A.I. Confidential.

1



Battalion commander

Major Maximilian
Bayer (1872-1917) in 1916

. An immobilized formation will be raised in Lockstedt Camp, which will be known as "The Lockstedt Training Corps". It will consist of several companies, which will be gradually brought up to the strength of a battalion of D. II. 3 type, with a machine-gun company and a pioneer company.

2. Enrolment in this company is open to foreigners who enlist voluntarily. Foreigners accepted for service in it will not acquire German nationality. The army administration will undertake no liability to endorse applications for naturalization. The army administration will also undertake no responsibility for the financial support of any such foreigners disabled by wounds received on active service with the German Army. Furthermore, the relatives of such persons will have no claim on the German Government for compensation in the event of the death or total disability of the persons concerned. This must be confirmed in writing by every individual serving in this formation.

Foreigners must be warned before enlistment that it will be their duty to support the German Reich to the best of their ability, to serve wherever they

may be sent, to obey all orders given them by their superiors and to obey the German civil and military laws and whatever regulations may have been issued for the duration of the war./…/

6. The Lockstedt Camp unit formed by the order of February 23rd, 1915, is merged into the new formation.

7. The commanding officer will make monthly reports to the 9th Army Corps and the War Office on the strength of the formation, the progress of its training and any other matters which may arise. The first report is due on October 1st.

8. The existence of this formation is to be kept as secret as possible. The contents of this document will therefore be imparted only to those authorities immediately concerned with the work of the formation and only in an epitomized form. No mention of the formation must appear in the Press.


Signed: Wild von Hohenborn.*)
The document above has a significance in the history of Finland. Examine why and how.

GOOD LUCK!!!!!!!

Espoo, 12.02.2007



HISTORYTEST

Essayquestions;

Answer 2 questions (20 marks/question) of the following;

1)In 1809 Finland became an autonomeous grandduchy after hundreds of years as a Swedish province. This was made official in Porvoo when the Russian Czar and Finnish Grandduke Alexander I announced the ‘Act of assurance’:



WE, ALEXANDER THE FIRST,


by the Grace of God

Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

etc. etc.

Grand Duke of Finland

etc. etc.

do make known: That, Providence having placed Us in possession of the Grand Duchy of Finland, We have desired hereby to confirm and ratify the Religion and the Fundamental Laws of the Land as well as the privileges and rights which each class in the said Grand Duchy in particular, and all the inhabitants in general, be their position high or low, have hitherto enjoyed according to the Constitution. We promise to maintain all these benefits and laws firm and unshakeable in their full force.

In confirmation whereof WE have signed this Act of Assurance with OUR own hand. Given in Borgå (Porvoo) on the 15/27th* of March 1809.

The original is signed under the Supreme Own Hand.


ALEXANDER.

Explain why Finland became a Grandduchy and why the ’country’ received extraordinary rights in the Russian Empire. What were these rights?

2) In February 1899 following manifesto was made public:




The Gracious Manifesto of the Imperial Majesty


given in St. Petersburg, on the 3/15th of February 1899.

Copy.


We NICHOLAS The Second, by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, Tsar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland etc. etc. etc. make it known to all our loyal subjects: The Grand Duchy of Finland which since the beginning of the present century has formed an integral part of the Russian Empire, enjoys, with the generous consent of the ever-lamented Emperor Alexander the Blessed and His Lofty Successors, particular institutions adapted to the local circumstances of the land, for her internal administration and legislation.

But apart from the local legislative needs in Finland deriving from the characteristic social structure of the land, the administration of the Empire brings forth also other legislative questions concerning Finland, which because of their close association to the general interests of the Empire, cannot be exclusively treated by the institutions of the Grand Duchy. On the manner in which questions of this kind are to be decided, the existing legislation contains no definitive provisions, and this absence has resulted in significant inconveniences.

To remove these obstacles We have seen it, in constant consideration for the welfare of all Our loyal subjects without any bias, advantageous for the completion of existing decrees and to be complied with by the appropriate institutions of the Empire and of the Grand Duchy, to lay down a firm and unshaken procedure to be followed in preparation and enacting of generally applicable laws within the Empire.

While We preserve in force and effect the present provisions concerning the enactment of such local decrees which extend exclusively to the needs of Finland, We have deemed it necessary to reserve for Our discretion the exact definition of subjects for the general legislation of the Empire.

In order to accomplish this We have under Our Own Supreme Hand sanctioned the hereby proclaimed Fundamental Rules to be complied with regarding formulation, examination and promulgation of laws, which are passed for the Empire, the Grand Duchy of Finland therein included.

Like Our Ancestors bearing the Imperial Crown We see this closest union with the Empire as a guarantee for Finland's prosperity. Sheltered by the Russian supremacy and strong through her protection, Finland in the course of nearly a whole century has advanced uncessingly in the path of peaceful development, and it has been a great pleasure to Us to find, from the loyalty allegiances lately received from the Estates, that there lives in the hearts of the Finnish people the consciousness of devotion to Us and to Russia.

We are confident that the cooperation between the institutions of the Empire and the Grand Duchy of Finland, based on the firm rules of law in the legislative matters concerning their mutual interests, will serve to the better security of the real advantage and benefit of the Russian Empire.

Given in St. Petersburg on the 3rd day of April in the year eighteen hundred ninety nine from the birth of Christ and in the fifth year of Our reign.

The signature below has been written by The Imperial Majesty with His Own Supreme Hand:

"NICHOLAS."



As a response to this the Finnish artist Eetu Isto painted his most famous painting, ’The Attack’ (see below)





A) Explain the impact of the February Manifesto on the Finnish society.

B) Examine the symbolic protests in the painting and discuss the validity of these threats.

3) There is a statue of Alexander II on the Senate Square in Helsinki with the year 1863 engraved. Why is this? Examine the ‘hidden’ messages in this statue.




4) ‘The Industrial Revolution started quite late in Finland but resulted in a total transformation of the society.’

Discuss the statement and examine the causes of the industrial changes in Finland.

5) The Civil War in Finland has many names depending on from which political view you look on the event. Discuss the different terms and examine their validity.

6) Compare the first Russification period with the second period of Russification in Finland.

7) Define:

a. The Aland Controversy

b. The Tartu Peace Treaty 1920

c. The Jaegermovement

d. The Octoberrevolution 1917

e. The Kerenskij Government

f. The General Governor of Finland


8) The year 1917 in the history of Finland

9) Finland was declared an independent republic the 6.12.1917. A republican constitution was accepted by the parliament a second time on 21.6.1919. Examine why the parliament of Finland had to approve a republican constitution twice.


GOOD LUCK!!!!!!!!

5) M.J.13630/15 A.I. Confidential.

1




Battalion commander
Major Maximilian
Bayer (1872-1917) in 1916

. An immobilized formation will be raised in Lockstedt Camp, which will be known as "The Lockstedt Training Corps". It will consist of several companies, which will be gradually brought up to the strength of a battalion of D. II. 3 type, with a machine-gun company and a pioneer company.

2. Enrolment in this company is open to foreigners who enlist voluntarily. Foreigners accepted for service in it will not acquire German nationality. The army administration will undertake no liability to endorse applications for naturalization. The army administration will also undertake no responsibility for the financial support of any such foreigners disabled by wounds received on active service with the German Army. Furthermore, the relatives of such persons will have no claim on the German Government for compensation in the event of the death or total disability of the persons concerned. This must be confirmed in writing by every individual serving in this formation.

Foreigners must be warned before enlistment that it will be their duty to support the German Reich to the best of their ability, to serve wherever they may be sent, to obey all orders given them by their superiors and to obey the German civil and military laws and whatever regulations may have been issued for the duration of the war./…/

6. The Lockstedt Camp unit formed by the order of February 23rd, 1915, is merged into the new formation.

7. The commanding officer will make monthly reports to the 9th Army Corps and the War Office on the strength of the formation, the progress of its training and any other matters which may arise. The first report is due on October 1st.

8. The existence of this formation is to be kept as secret as possible. The contents of this document will therefore be imparted only to those authorities immediately concerned with the work of the formation and only in an epitomized form. No mention of the formation must appear in the Press.



Signed: Wild von Hohenborn.*)
The document above has a significance in the history of Finland. Examine why and how.

GOOD LUCK!!!!!!!







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