Earliest oklahomans



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Copyright © 2007 by Oklahoma History Press


TOM< SEARCH FOR YELLOW HIGHLIGHTS REGARDING TRAIL OF TEARS.

Chapter 1

EARLIEST OKLAHOMANS
Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________

Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.1 Integrate visual information to identify and describe the significant physical and human features including major trails, railway lines, waterways, cities, ecological regions, natural resources, highways, and landforms.

1.2 Summarize the accomplishments of prehistoric cultures including the Spiro Mound Builders.

ASSIGNMENTS:

Read Earliest Oklahomans, Chapter 1, pages 8-16.

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 16.

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:

Vocabulary

Identifying time of events

Fill in statements related to early people

Compare and contrast lifestyles of early people

Map possible migration routes from Beringia

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: Oklahoma’s Climate and Geography, pages 38-44. Complete the worksheets.

I. Discussion Questions: See Teacher’s Edition of textbook for answers.
The following questions may be used for classroom oral discussion, independent practice, or essay tests. Each question should be discussed fully, orally or in writing.


  1. Explain the most commonly accepted theory of Indian origin in North America.




  1. How did living conditions differ between eastern and western tribes during the early prehistoric era?




  1. How did Thor Heyerdahl prove the possibility of Egyptian origin of American Indians?




  1. Describe the oldest archeological find in the area that would become the state of Oklahoma.




  1. Discuss the advanced state of civilization reached by the Spiro people as evidenced by artifacts found in the Spiro Mound.

6. What modern technology tells us the age of artifacts?


7. What is the American Vegetable Triad? Outside of Oklahoma, where is it found?
8. Why are the Triad foods so crucial?
9. Anthropologists see physical and cultural similarities between early Native Americans and

other native peoples around the world. Give examples from the text.


10. Why was salt important in so many cultures and for such a long time? How have civilizations

used it, besides for flavor?

.II. Activities:


  1. Time Line of Oklahoma - Students develop a time line that includes the earliest evidence of the presence of humans in Oklahoma. Use historical evidence from archeology digs to support recordings on the time line.

Continue the time line through the entire course. Students may make notes, drawings, and even collect clippings for more recent events. (If you post the time line in the classroom, remove or cover it for tests.)



  1. Plan three dinner menus consisting of wild game which might have been available to Spiro people composed of the American Vegetable Triad prepared only in ways which can be achieved on open fires or in clay ovens.




  1. Crossword Puzzle - Early Oklahoma This is printed on next page.




  1. Field Trip—Visit the Spiro Mounds on a field trip if you are located close enough to the site. Information available at: http://www.spiro.lib.ok.us/mounds.htm



III. Internet Research:
http://www.ou.edu/cas/archsur/counties/leflore.htm
http://www.mississippian-artifacts.com/html/smain.html
http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallery-pages/spirocraigmoundpage1.htm
http://www.exploresouthernhistory.com/MSOwl1.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiro_Mounds

IV. Suggested Reading:
Menzies Gavin, 1421: The Year China Discovered America. (New York: William Morrow, 2003)
Helen Roney Sattler. The Earliest Americans (New York: Clarion Books, 1993)
Phil Wilkinson. Early Humans (New York. Alfred A. Knopf, 1989)
Thor Heyerdahl, Early Man and the Ocean: A Search for the Beginnings of Navigation and Seaborn Civilizations (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1979.
Ron Carter, Early Civilizations (Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett, 1979)

CROSSWORD PUZZLE, CHAPTER 1

Using the key below the crossword puzzle, fill in the squares with the appropriate letters to

complete the puzzle.



Early Oklahoma
ACROSS:
1. A mound found in eastern Oklahoma that contained artworks and artifacts
4. A stick-like spear-thrower
5. Hunters who are believed to have lived in the Oklahoma area 12,000 years ago

DOWN:
1. The oldest archeological find in Oklahoma known as the Domebo mammoth kill


2. A time when huge glaciers covered much of the Northern Hemisphere (2 words)
3. The second known inhabitants of the area believed to have lived in the area 10,000 years ago

Student Activity Book Chapter 1   EARLIEST OKLAHOMANS
I. VOCABULARY. Give a short definition for each of the following words, according to how the word is used in Chapter 1.

1. papyrus ___________________________ 5. obsidian___________________________

2. migration _________________________ 6. atlatl___________________________

3. phenomenon ______________________ 7. velocity___________________________

4. archeologist_________________________ 8. artifact___________________________
II. MATCHING. Match the correct date to the event.
A. 1930s B. 1970 C. 8000 B.C. D. 1300 E. 1961 F.1540

_____ 1. Folsom man lived in Western Oklahoma.

_____ 2. Spiro mound culture existed in Eastern Oklahoma.
_____ 3. Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Africa to North America in a papyrus boat.
_____ 4. Sculpted pieces were found in Mexico and identified as Roman on this date.
_____ 5. Spiro Mounds unearthed.
_____ 6. Recorded history began in Oklahoma­
III. COMPLETION. Fill in each blank with a word that best completes each statement.
1. Indian legends about Indian origins were stories about ____________________________.
2. The land bridge thought to exist between Siberia and Alaska was called _________________________.
3. Scholars of Indian history have divided Indians into classifications according to differences in

_____________________, ____________________, and ______________________.


4. The land area now called Oklahoma measures some _________________________ square miles.
5. The land area is divided geographically by the ____________________________.

6. The three main crops planted by Indians were, _________________, ___________________, and

_____________________ and were called the ____________________________.

7. The most important item for trade was _________________________.

8. The only records of the early dwellers are the ______________________________ and

_________________________________ uncovered in archeological digs.

IV. On the following chart, compare the lifestyles of the Folsom people, the Clovis people, and the

Spiro people according to the column headings.


FOLSOM CLOVIS SPIRO
Housing
Food
Communities
Commerce
Social Programs
V. Fill in each blank with the word that would complete the sentence correctly.

1. A Norwegian explorer named ____________________sailed from Africa to

North America in a papyrus boat.

2. He may have proved that ancient people could have come to North America from _________________.
3. Life was much more difficult for people who lived in the ______________half of the state.
4. A purple stone traded by ancient merchants in eastern Oklahoma was the __________________.
5. Most scientists believe that the first Indians came during the _________________________age.
6. The ____________________________economic system was advanced for the time.
7. People who lived in Oklahoma 12,000 years ago were the ________________________people.
8. An early archeological discovery in Oklahoma is the _________________mammoth kill site.
9. Along with the mammoth, a small horse, the ground sloth, and the large bison, an ancient animal

once used for food here but no longer found to roam in Oklahoma, is the ____camel_________.

10. Items used by ancient societies which tell archeologists about these people are called _________.

11. People who lived in Oklahoma 10,000 years ago were the _______________________people.


12. Evidence of an advanced ancient tribe was found at _____________________Mound.
13. The mass of forest and thickets dividing the state was the ___________________________.
14. _________________________was the most valuable trade item in ancient Oklahoma.

VI. On the following map identify the major geographic areas and the possible migration routes from Beringia.




Chapter 2

THE FIRST WHITE VISITORS

Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________

Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.1 Integrate visual information to identify and describe the significant physical and human features including major trails, railway lines, waterways, cities, ecological regions, natural resources, highways, and landforms.

1.3 Compare and contrast the goals and significance of early Spanish, French, and American expeditions including the impact of disease, interactions with Native Americans, and the arrival of the horse and new technologies.

1.4 Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans

regarding land ownership and trading practices.
ASSIGNMENTS:

Read First White Visitors, Chapter 2, pages 18-25

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 25.

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:

Vocabulary

Identifying explorers

Identifying dates related to historical events

Fill in statements

Problem solving and reasoning related to Coronado and his exploration

Map routes of European explorers

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: Indigenous Tribes, pages 44-51. Complete the worksheets.

I. Discussion Questions: See Teacher’s Edition of textbook for answers.

The following questions may be used for classroom discussion, reading checks, independent ­practice, or essay tests. Each question should be discussed fully whether in oral presentation or in writing.


  1. Explain the purpose of the Coronado expedition and describe the results of the expedition.




  1. What advantages did the Conquistadors have over the Indians and how did they use their ­advantage?




  1. How did European and American Indian cultures learn from one another?




  1. What are two theories of Scandinavian expeditions into the area that is now eastern Oklahoma?




  1. How did the attitude of the Conquistadors, toward themselves and toward strangers, affect the outcome of the Spanish expedition?




  1. Briefly describe Padilla’s expedition.




  1. How did the things left behind by the Spanish affect the lifestyles of the Indians?




  1. How did the French hope to succeed in their explorations and trade?




  1. How did the Spanish and French explorers differ in their purposes and actions as explorers?




  1. How did the explorers and the Indians make cultural contributions to one another’s lifestyles?


  1. Activities:



  1. Coronado’s Map Activity This is printed on next page.

  2. Time Line-Add to the following to the time line.

Francisco Vasquez Coronado, 1540 (visited Oklahoma)

Vikings, 1012, (visited Oklahoma)

Hernando De Soto (visited eastern Oklahoma in 1541)




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