Earliest oklahomans

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DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. What was the Georgia Compact and what was its effect on Indian lands?

2. What did the Choctaws promise to do, in the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek?

3. What did the government promise to do, in the same treaty?

4. Why was the Treaty of Indian Springs declared not valid?

5. What effects did the election of Andrew Jackson have on removal?

6. How did the Indian Removal Act affect the Indians?

7. How did Jackson differ from Jefferson and Calhoun?

8. How did the Choctaws react to removal proposals?

9. What resolution did the Creek Council of 1811 pass?

10. What did Tecumseh propose to do?


II. ACTIVITIES


  1. Compare and Contrast-Pro-removal vs. Anti-Removal of the Choctaws




  1. Puzzle Letter Scramble




  1. Time Line-Add the following to the time line.

Treaty of Doak’s Stand

Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek

First and second removal of Choctaws

War of 1812 and the Red Sticks

Forced removal of the Creeks

Internet Research



http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/creekwar/creek.html
http://daphne.palomar.edu/llewis/AIS101/101Lectures/M5/Lec51.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Dancing_Rabbit_Creek
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opothleyahola
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v009/v009p439.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tecumseh
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Sticks

IV. Selected Reading:
Shirlee P Newman, The Creek (Indians of the Americas). (Newman. 1997)
Robbie Ethridge, Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, 1796-1816. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003)
H. B. Cushman and Angie Debo, History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez Indians (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999)

Peter C. Mancall, and James H. Merrell, American Encounters: Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1850. (United Kingdom: Routledge. 1999)



II. ACTIVITIES
1. Compare and Contrast-Pro-removal vs. Anti-Removal of the Choctaws
The student is to pretend that he/she is an Indian Commissioner dealing with the Choctaws in 1831. The tribe is divided and the student must make a report to Washington about it. The student will describe the contrasting views by using a chart similar to the one given below:
PRO-REMOVAL ANTI-REMOVAL

2. PUZZLE: LETTER-SCRAMBLE


In each puzzle below fit the letters in each column onto the lines directly above them. They may or may not go onto the lines in the same order in which they are listed. When the letters are written in the proper order, they will make a statement which can be verified in Chapter 6 in the textbook.




  1. Time Line - add information on the Choctaw and Creek Removal, treaties and other important events.

Student Activity Book Chapter 6   CHOCTAW AND CREEK REMOVALS
1. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word below.

1. abolish ______________________ 7. intrusion ___________________________


2. confiscate _____________________ 8. impractical _________________________
3. civilized ______________________ 9. annuity ____________________________
4. volunteer _____________________ 10. restrained __________________________
5. inevitable _____________________ 11. demand ___________________________
6. dissension ____________________ 12. concession _________________________

II. MATCHING. Match the date to the event. A date may be used more than once.

_____ 1. Indian removal was mentioned for the first time as a government obligation. A. 1831

_____ 2. A spring when 3,500 Creeks died from exposure and disease. B. 1837

_____ 3. War with Britain began and involved many Indian tribes. C. 1802

_____ 4. General Scott ended the Creek War and moved the Creeks west. D. 1836

______ 5. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. E. 1812

______ 6. Tecumseh, a Shawnee, asked for a tribal alliance with the Creeks. F. 1825


______ 7. Treaty of Doak’s Stand was signed. G. 1820

______ 8. Creek warriors surrounded the home of William McIntosh to carry H. 1811

out his death sentence.

I. 1829


_____ 9. Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was signed.

J. 1830


______10. Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims.

K. 1813


______11. Creeks ceded lands in the East for lands in the West in a new

agreement with the government. L. 1832


______12. The first party of Choctaws removed by the government left the East

for their new home in the West.


______13. William McIntosh and others signed the Treaty of Indian Springs.
______14. Mississippi passed laws revoking special privileges of Choctaws and restricting tribal functions.

______15. Creeks passed a resolution demanding the death sentence for anyone who signed away tribal lands.

III. MATCHING IDENTIFICATIONS. Match the name to the identification.


______1. the primary instigator of Indian removal A. Pushmataha
______2. government leader who decided to concentrate B. Tecumseh

on the Choctaws for the first removal

C. John C. Calhoun

______3. leader of the Upper Creeks

D. Andrew Jackson

______4. A Shawnee chief who visited the Creeks

E. McIntosh

______5. President who declared Treaty of Indian Springs invalid

F. Opothleyahola

______6. A Creek who was the victim of a death penalty clause

he had helped to pass G. John Adams
______7. Principal Chief of the Choctaws who believed

Andrew Jackson and persuaded others to believe Jackson


IV. You are a reporter following the removal of the Choctaws and Creeks. List the main causes of death among the Indians on the removal trips.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
V. On the map of the Southeastern United States below, using colored pencils and color coding, trace the removal routes of the Choctaws and Creeks.

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Chapter 7



TRAIL OF TEARS

Removals of Choctaws and Cherokees
Note: This edition has a chapter named Trail of Tears and a feature named The Trail of Tears.

Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________

Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.4 Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans regarding land ownership and trading practices.


Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.3 Integrate visual and textual evidence to explain the reasons for and trace the migrations of Native American peoples including the Five Tribes into present-day Oklahoma, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, and tribal resistance to the forced relocations.


Content Standard 4: The student will examine the transformation of Oklahoma during times of boom and bust of the 1920s through the 1940s.

4.1 Compare and contrast the successes and failures of the United States policy of assimilation of the Native Americans in Oklahoma including the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 and the effects of the Indian boarding schools (1880s-1940s) upon Native Americans’ identity, culture, traditions, and tribal government and sovereignty.



ASSIGNMENTS:
Read Trail of Tears, Chapter 7, page 78-89.
Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 89.

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:

Vocabulary

Complete factual statement worksheet

Matching dates and important events

Diary Writing

Map Study: Routes of the Chickasaw and Cherokee removal


Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.
Read Feature: Assign The Trail of Tears sections on Chickasaws (pp. 115-116) and Cherokees (pp. 120-123). Students write a paragraph for each, giving details of removal.

Alternate assignment: Read From the Cherokee Almanac pp. 100-102) and Sequoyah and Stand Watie (pp. 102-110). Complete the worksheets.
I. Discussion Questions:


  1. What actions did the Chickasaws take to avoid removal?




  1. What actions did the Cherokees take to avoid removal?




  1. Why did the Chickasaws cede their lands north of the Tennessee River?




  1. How did the early removal of the Chickasaws compare with the early removal of the Choctaws?




  1. Describe the most successful of the Chickasaw removals.




  1. What problems did the Chickasaws encounter in Indian Territory?




  1. Discuss the early, voluntary removal of the Western Cherokees.




  1. What laws passed by the state of Georgia were oppressive to the Cherokees?




  1. Who were the leaders of the Eastern Cherokees and how did the signing of the Treaty of New Echota affect the leadership?




  1. Discuss the removal of the Cherokees under the command of General Winfield Scott.



II. Activities

  1. Crossword Puzzle


  2. Time Line - Enter the removal dates for the Five Civilized Tribes. Enter the following treaties: Treaty of Pontotoc, treaty of Doaksville, and dates related to the Old Settlers.

  3. ESSAY

Assign an essay to be written outside of class on the subject: discuss the political, economic, and social reasons for the removals of the Chickasaw and Cherokee tribes to Indian Territory. Encourage the students to use the library resources or any other primary source in the writing of the essay

III. Internet Resources:
http://www.chickasaw.net/heritage/250_1021.htm
http://www.tolatsga.org/chick.html
http://www.historicaldocuments.com/IndianRemovalAct.htm
http://www.arkansaspreservation.org/preservation-services/trail-of-tears/removal-routes.asp
http://www.rosecity.net/tears/trail/tearsnht.html
http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2722
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Removal



  1. Suggested Reading:

Michael Burgan, The Trail of Tears (Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books, 2001)

Robert J. Conley, The Peace Chief: a Novel of the Real People. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998)

Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, The Cherokees. (New York: Holiday, 1996)

Jeremiah Evarts, Cherokee Removal: the “William Penn” Essays and Other Writings (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1981)

James Mooney, Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees (Fairview, NC: Bright Mountain Books, 1992)

Cherokee Culture 1500-1820 (videorecording), (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Chief Production. 1996)
Cherokee: Indians of North America (videorecording). (Wynnewood, PA: Schlessinger Video Production, 1993)


CHAPTER 7 CROSSWORD PUZZLE


ACROSS

1. Whites wanted Indians to move west of the __________ River.

6. In the west Chickasaws submitted to __________ government.

8. Chickasaws and Cherokees both ­succeeded in ________ .

9. Federal __________ aided in taking Indian lands for whites.

10. The __________ family helped move their neighbors to the west.

12. The Cherokee alphabet was called a _______ .

13. This children’s disease killed many ________ .

14. __________ developed the Cherokee method of writing.

15. In the Treaty of ________ , Choctaws agreed to sell part of western land to Chickasaws.

16. Like whites, many Indians purchased ________ to do their labor.
DOWN

1. Chickasaws were very successful in the __________ business.

2. Chickasaws were paid in __________ .

3. Whites thought Indians were _________ .

4. Chickasaws ceded their lands in the Treaty of __________ in 1832.

5. __________ was a missionary arrested for refusing to take a loyalty oath.

7. Federal factories were _________ posts.

9. The __________ turned to old customs for comfort and to the mixed bloods for leadership.

11. Another missionary arrested for not taking an oath.
Student Activity Book Chapter 7

TRAIL OF TEARS Name______________________________________

I. VOCABULARY. Write a brief definition of each word listed below.

1. tactic___________________________ 7. menial ______________________________
2. subsequent ______________________ 8. inevitability __________________________
3. unscrupulous______________________ 9. rations ______________________________
4. commerce ________________________ 10. indomitable _________________________
5. specie __________________________ 11. enforcement _________________________
6. expertise ________________________ 12. emigrate ____________________________

II. COMPLETION. Fill in the blank with the word or words that would best complete each statement.


  1. Before removal, the most prosperous of the five tribes was the _______________________.

  2. The tribe that gave the name “Trail of Tears” to the removals was the___________________.

  3. The tribe that first adapted to the ways of white men was the____________________________.

  4. The treaty containing provisions for Chickasaw removal was the Treaty of____________________.

  5. Ttreaty of Doaksville was a treaty between the___________________and the______________.

  6. The Western Cherokees became known as the Old_________________________.

  7. The principal chief of the Cherokees who opposed removal was__________________________.

  8. The treaty that resulted in the removal of the Cherokee Nation was the Treaty of______________.

  9. The general who commanded the removal of the Cherokees was General____________________.

  10. The Chickasaws purchased their land in Indian Territory from the____________________.
  11. The most successful of the Chickasaw removals was led by the _________________________, ______________________, and __________________________families.


  12. The signers of the Treaty of New Echota were___________________, ____________________, and ________________________.

  13. The tribe that suffered the most economically in the removals was the___________________.

  14. The state of _____________________________arrested and imprisoned missionaries who were thought to be working against removal.

  15. The last of the five tribes to recover from the removals was the __________________________.



III. MATCHING. Match the date to the event; a date may be used twice.

______1. Chickasaws ceded all land north of the Tennessee River. A. 1846


______2. Andrew Jackson called for Indian removal. B. 1829
______3. Assassination of the Ridge brothers and Elias Boudinot took place. C. 1805
______4. Treaty of Pontotoc was signed. D. Winter of 1838 1839

______5. Cherokees were removed.

E. 1832

______6. First treaty signed that referred to removal (with Cherokees).



F. 1839

______7. First group of Chickasaws left for their new home in Indian Territory.

G. 1817

______8. A unity agreement was signed, bringing peace to the Cherokee Nation.



H. 1850

______9. The last of the Chickasaws moved west.

I. 1837

______10. Treaty of Doaksville signed.

IV. You are a white farmer living in Georgia in 1838. You have witnessed the mistreatment of the Cherokees by members of the Georgia Guard. Pretend you are writing in a diary. Describe what has happened and make suggestions for solutions.






  1. MAP: Using colored pencils and color coding, mark the routes of the Chickasaw and Cherokee removals from the Southeast to their lands in Indian Territory.




Chapter 8

SEMINOLES AND OTHER SETTLERS
Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________
Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.1 Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans regarding land ownership and trading practices.


Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.3 Integrate visual and textual evidence to explain the reasons for and trace the migrations of Native American peoples including the Five Tribes into present-day Oklahoma, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, and tribal resistance to the forced relocations.

Content Standard 4: The student will examine the transformation of Oklahoma during times of boom and bust of the 1920s through the 1940s.

4.1 Compare and contrast the successes and failures of the United States policy of assimilation of the Native Americans in Oklahoma including the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 and the effects of the Indian boarding schools (1880s-1940s) upon Native Americans’ identity, culture, traditions, and tribal government and sovereignty.


ASSIGNMENTS:

Read Seminoles and Other Settlers, Chapter 8, page 90-99.


Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 99.
Complete the following in Student Activity Book:
Vocabulary

Matching dates and events in Oklahoma History

Completing historical statements correctly

Discussion: How did the issue of slavery play a role in the demands to remove the Seminoles?

Map Study - mark the routes of the Seminole removal
Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: The Trail of Tears section on the Seminoles (pp. 123-125) Write a paragraph giving details of the removal of the Seminole tribe and/or complete the assigned worksheet. May assign the worksheet as a “jigsaw” activity, have students works in pairs etc.





  1. Discussion Questions




  1. How did the issue of slavery play a role in the demands to remove the Seminoles?




  1. Explain the separation of the Seminoles from the Creeks and conclude with an explanation of why the Seminoles rejected the government’s idea of rejoining the two tribes for removal.




  1. Describe Osceola’s leadership and tell how he was arrested and died.




  1. What were the provisions of the Treaty of Camp Moultrie?




  1. What was the Treaty of Fort Gibson?




  1. Briefly describe the removal of the Seminoles.

7. When was Andrew Jackson elected President?

8. Why was No Man’s Land not popular with frontier farmers?

9. What is the American Indian population of Oklahoma now?
10. What is the capital of the Seminole Nation?



  1. Activities




      1. ESSAY TOPICS. Encourage students to use library resources.

- Discuss the political, economic, and social reasons for the removal of the Seminoles.

- What were the conditions in No Man’s Land and how did those circumstances come about?


      1. Time Line—Add the information related to Seminole removal (Fist Seminole War, Treaty of Camp Moultrie, Treaty of Payne’s Landing, Treaty of Ft. Gibson, The Great Seminole War).




  1. Internet Resources:


http://www.seminolenation-indianterritory.org/

http://www.housing.fsu.edu/housing/guide/semheri.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html (contains Teacher Guide)


  1. Suggested Reading:

Daniel F. Littlefield, Africans and Seminoles, From Removal to Emancipation (Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2001)


Jane F. Lancaster, Removal Aftershock: The Seminoles’ Struggles to Survive in the West, 1836-1866 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994)
Bill Lund and Tom Gallaher, The Seminole Indians (Mankato, Minnesota: Bridgestone Books, 1997)

Kathleen V. Kudlinski, Night Bird: A story of the Seminole Indians (New York: Viking, 1993)

Angela Shelf Medearis, Dancing with the Indians (New York: Holiday House, 1991)

Seminole: Indians of North America (videorecording). Adapted by book from Chelsea House Publishers. InVision Communications, Inc. (Bala Cynwyd, PA: Schlessinger, 1993)

Seminole (Muskogee): Indians of North America (Bala Cynwyd, PA: Schlessinger Video Productions, 1993)
Name____________________________________ Date_________________________
PUZZLE: The Seminoles
In the following letter-jumble find the words which complete the statements below. Circle or draw a line through those words and fill in the blanks on the corresponding questions. Words may be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal, but all will be top-to-bottom and/or left-to-right.
A S D F S T U A R T J K L C O N F E D E R A C Y K L M N P Q W E R R

W O R T H X Z N M H R U I P L M N Y T R E W Q Y U I O P M N B V C X

O I L G E X U E T O P M Q W T R I O P G A D S Q E V E R G L A D E S

N Y L E V E R G L M A E D W A T H O K L A S H A P I W U H O M I P S

X G A D S D E N X P I L L O T S P R E A K M A Y S V I N T E L U M E

T E N N C E S M I S A M I O S C E O L A M I O F A R L A K I P W Q X

Y O U T J A K L M O M I C A N O P Y J U M Y T E R W X W I T T I P I

J K U Y B A T I N N O P I T T H Z X E U E M A T H L A A P O K L A C

E P A Y N E S L A N D I N G A S D F G H M J K L A E I Y O U A B C L

S W A T E G A L M I N F A L C O R J A C L P I M E G R S A K L I G I

U M I N I S T R A K I N K L P U M E L I K J E M O U L T R I E K U N

P H I T C H C O C K U Y T R E W G F D S A L K R J H G V B N C B E C

G R E A T S E M I N O L E W A R T Y I P A R L M I E T Y G F E C I H

  1. A group of several tribes united together, such as Creeks, ____________________ .


  2. The first person to call the Oconees “Seminoles” was British Agent John ________________ .

  3. American commissioners and former slave owners went into Seminole country to look for ____________.

  4. The Seminoles lived in a swampland today known as the ____________________ .

  5. The first treaty with the Seminoles was the Treaty of Camp ____________________ .

  6. Colonel James ____________________ met with the Seminoles in 1832.

  7. A treaty was signed in 1832 at ______________________________ .

  8. Chief ____________________ said his mark was forged to sign the treaty.

  9. Chief Charley ____________________ said he was forced to sign the treaty.

  10. Indian Agent Wiley ____________________ tried to oust Seminole leaders who were against removal to the west.

  11. ____________________ , who was not a chief, led the Seminoles in a war with white soldiers who wanted to remove the tribe.

  12. This was the Second Seminole War, also known as the ___________________________ .

  13. _________________________ was another Seminole leader who stood against removal and who met with whites to talk peace.

  14. Captain Ethan Allen ____________________ believed the Seminoles really wanted peace and he met with them to discuss terms.

  15. Colonel ____________________ attacked the Seminoles in the peace talks.

  16. Brigadier General Thomas ____________________ was sent to Florida to end the Seminole wars.

  17. Colonel William J. ____________________ was sent to Florida to subdue the Seminoles.

  18. _______________________________ was the most formidable leader of the Seminoles.

Student Activity Book Chapter 8


SEMINOLES AND OTHER SETTLERS Name ______________________________


  1. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word below, as it is used in the textbook.

1. skirmish________________________ 5. evict___________________________


2. forge (verb) ___________________ 6. alliance__________________________
3. staunch ________________________ 7. formidable________________________
4. numerous ________________________ 8. census___________________________



  1. MATCHING. Match the date to the event.

______ 1. The Treaty of Camp Moultrie A. 1846


______ 2. The Mexican War B. 1823
______ 3. The beginning of the Great Seminole War C. 1835
______ 4. The ending of the Seminole Wars in Florida D. 1819
______ 5. Spain ceded Florida to the United States E. 1859



  1. COMPLETION. Fill in the blanks with words that complete the statements correctly.




      1. The Seminoles lived in the present state of______________________________.




      1. They inhabited a swampland known today as the______________________________.




      1. Government officials tried to attach the Seminole tribe to the _____________________Tribe.



      1. White people came into the Seminole villages looking for_____________________________.





      1. The first signed agreement or treaty with the Seminoles was the Treaty of________________.




      1. The Seminoles had to violate the boundaries set by the treaty because they were

____________________________________.

      1. Demands were made to remove the Seminoles, even though the land they inhabited was unfit for____________________________.




      1. The Seminoles rejected being rejoined with the Creeks because (1) _____________________

and (2)___________________________.


  1. Colonel ________________________met with the Seminoles at Payne’s Landing.




  1. The two Seminole chiefs who signed the Treaty of Payne’s Landing were Chief__________________ and Chief_________________________.

(continued)


  1. The Treaty of Ft. Gibson contained an agreement that the Seminoles would move west as part

of the _____________________________Nation.


  1. Though not a chief, the most powerful leader of the Seminoles during the Great Seminole War was




  1. In 1837, General ___________________was sent into Florida to stop the Great Seminole War.




  1. After the death of their great leader, the most formidable Seminole leader was ______________________



  1. During the Seminole Removals, more than __________________per cent of their number died.





  1. The Seminoles were given a portion of ___________________________land in Indian Territory.




  1. The dollar cost for removing each Seminole to Indian Territory was $_____________________.




  1. The two events that escalated the westward movement of whites were the __________________

and the ___________________________.


  1. The most lawless area of the region of Indian Territory was called________________________.




  1. Soon after the removals, the nation was facing the _______________________________War.




  1. DISCUSSION. Answer the question below in paragraph form.

How did the issue of slavery play a role in the demands to remove the Seminoles?



  1. MAP: Using colored pencils and color coding, mark the routes of the Seminole removals from the Southeast to their lands in Indian Territory.



Chapter 9

CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION

Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________
Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.4 Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans regarding land ownership and trading practices.

Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.4 Summarize the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction Treaties on Native American peoples, territories, and tribal sovereignty including the

a) Required enrollment of the Freedmen,

b) Second Indian Removal and the role of the Buffalo Soldiers,

c) Significance of the Massacre at the Washita,

d) Reasons for the reservation system, and

e) Establishment of the western military posts of Fort Sill, Fort Supply, and Fort Reno.


ASSIGNMENTS:
Read Civil War and Reconstruction, Chapter 9, pages 128-144.
Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 144.
Complete the following in Student Activity Book:

Vocabulary.

Complete the statements to make them correct

Matching dates to historical events

Identification of people and events

Map study - Identify the areas of Indian Territory using color-coding


Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: Missionaries, pages 178-179. Complete related worksheets.





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