Earliest oklahomans

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I. Discussion Questions

1. What role did geography play in the alignment of Indian Territory with the South in the Civil War?

2. What were the major reasons why Indian Territory joined with the Confederacy?
3. How did the tribes settle into a society similar to that of the Old South?
4. How did the Seminoles differ in their attitude toward slavery from that of the Cherokees?
5. Tell about the slave rebellion in 1842.
6. How was the Cherokee leadership divided over the issue of taking sides during the Civil War?
7. Why was the Confederacy interested in Indian Territory?
8. What actions did the Plains Tribes take in choosing sides during the Civil War?
9. How did Reconstruction affect Indian Territory?
10. Discuss the role of John Ross in the Civil War as it was conducted in Indian Territory.

II. Activities

  1. Time Line of Oklahoma—Add the following information to the time line: the date for the beginning of the Civil War, the entrance of various tribes into the conflict and the side they supported, neutral tribes, Battle of Round Mountain, Battle of Honey Springs, and the official end to the war.

  2. Map Study-color coding Indian Territory

III. Internet Research:

IV. Suggested Reading

Frank Cunningham General Stand Watie's Confederate Indians (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998)

Jeffery Burton, Indian Territory and the United States, 1866-1906: Courts, Government, and the Movement for Oklahoma Statehood (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995)

Roxanne Rhoades, Breaking Ground: the Story of Oklahoma Settlement: a Teachers’ Guide. (Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Foundation for the Humanities (Teacher Reference)

Name_______________________________________ Date__________________________

On the outline maps of Oklahoma below, on Map A, trace the internal boundaries of Indian Territory as they were from 1855-1866. On Map B, trace the internal boundaries as they were after 1866 until the time of the land openings, 1866-1889. Label each area.



Student Activity Book CHAPTER 9

CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION Name_____________________________
I. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word below.
1. supplement_____________________ 5. abolition_______________________
2. plantation_____________________ 6. defected_______________________
3. dragoon _______________________ 7. reconstruction_______________________
4. blockade _______________________ 8. subsidize_______________________
Define the following words as they relate to Chapter 9.
9. alignment ____________________________________________
10. “Golden Years” ____________________________________________
11. freedmen ____________________________________________
12. overseer ____________________________________________
II. COMPLETION. Fill in the blanks below with the word or words that would make each statement correct.
1. The only state bordering Oklahoma that was a Union state was___________________________.
2. Most tribal agents favored the side of the_______________________________________.

3. The first battle of the Civil War in Indian Territory was the Battle of________________________.

4. The battle that was fought on the same day as the Battle of Gettysburg was the Battle of _______
5. The battle that was a turning point for the war in Indian Territory was the Battle of_____________.
6. Tribal schools were supported financially by_____________________________________.
7. The Confederacy looked at Indian Territory as a source of supply for grain, meat, and____________.
8. The regiment where most Indians served in the Union army was called the_________________.
9. Plains tribes who refused to sign alliance agreements with the South were the ________________


10. After the war, the severity of the treaties between the tribes and the government depended largely upon their_________________________.

III. MATCHING. Match the date to the event. Name_____________________________

______1 . Creeks signed treaty with the South A. 1861

______2. Seminoles signed treaty with the South B. July 10, 1861
______3. Cherokees signed treaty with the South C. July 12, 1861
______4. Choctaws signed treaty with the South D. August 1, 1861
______5. Plains Comanches signed treaty with the South E. August 12, 1861
______6. The Battle of Cabin Creek F. November 19, 1861
______7. Last Confederate general surrendered G. July 17, 1863
______8. Civil War declared H. September, 1864
______9. General Robert E. Lee surrendered I. April 9, 1865
______10. The Battle of Honey Springs J. June 23, 1865

______11. The Battle of Round Mountain K. January, 1866

______12. Reconstruction treaties signed in Washington between L. October 7, 1861

the Federal Government and the Five Civilized Tribes

IV. MATCHING. Match the names to the identification. Some may be used more than once.
______1. Last chief of the Five Civilized Tribes to sign a treaty with A. Seminoles

the South

B. Creeks

______2. The last Confederate general to surrender

C. Choctaws

______3. A Creek leader who led tribal neutrals and Union

sympathizers D. Cherokees

______4. A slave who lent money to buy provisions for hungry people E. Chickasaws

F. John Ross

______5. The only tribe to treat slaves as freedmen

G. Stand Watie

______6. The only tribe that didn’t adopt slaves into the tribe after

the war. H. Opothleyahola
______7. The only tribe to remain completely loyal to the South I. Albert Pike

______8. Leaders of this tribe were the first to make official contact J. Gopher John

with the Union
______9. Military leader of the Mounted Cherokee Rifles
______10. The most influential Indian leader who favored neutrality
V. Using colored pencils and color coding, mark the major areas of Indian Territory from 1855-1866.

Chapter 10

Lesson Plan for Oklahoma History Teacher________________ Date ___________
Common Core

Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.4 Summarize the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction Treaties on Native American peoples, territories, and tribal sovereignty including the

a) Required enrollment of the Freedmen,

b) Second Indian Removal and the role of the Buffalo Soldiers,

c) Significance of the Massacre at the Washita,

d) Reasons for the reservation system, and

e) Establishment of the western military posts of Fort Sill, Fort Supply, and Fort Reno.

2.5 Cite specific visual and textual evidence to assess the impact of the cattle and coal mining industries on the location of railroad lines, transportation routes, and the development of communities.

Content Standard 4: The student will examine the transformation of Oklahoma during times of boom and bust of the 1920s through the 1940s.

4.1 Compare and contrast the successes and failures of the United States policy of assimilation of the Native Americans in Oklahoma including the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 and the effects of the Indian boarding schools (1880s-1940s) upon Native Americans’ identity, culture, traditions, and tribal government and sovereignty.


Read The Western Indians, chapter 10 (pages 145-160).

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:

Match important dates with events

Complete historical statements

Writing on government compensation

Thinking Activity - Writing that requires using the facts to draw a logical conclusion.

Map Study - Label the areas of Indian Territory 1866-1889.

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: Men of Peace on the Southern Plains (pages 180-188). Complete the assigned worksheet. Option: Divide class and reading into sections, then work in pairs or groups on worksheet.

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