Earliest oklahomans

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I. Discussion Questions

1. Discuss the attempts of the Nez Perce to avoid removal.

2. What did the United States Government do to compensate the tribes for the large parcels of land ceded to the government?
3. What was the “leased district” and how was it used?
4. How did the buffalo play a role in the hostilities between the Indians and the white men?
5. Who were the signing parties to the Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek and what was the treaty to accomplish?
6. Describe the Sand Creek Massacre. Give the names of the leaders in the event.
7. Why did the government move the Nez Perce back to the Northwest?
8. Tell about the Battle of the Washita; be sure to include the names of the leaders in the event.

II. Activities

1. Puzzle of the Iroquois and Peoria Confederacies

2. Create an Imaginary Indian Nation
III. Internet Research

  1. Suggested Reading

Great Western Indian Fights Lincoln, Nebraska University of Nebraska Press, 1960)
Patricia Willis, Danger Along the Ohio (New York: Clarion.1997)
Ible Ann Rinaldi, The Second Bend in the River (New York: Scholastic, 1997)

Russell Shorto, Tecumseh and the Dream of an American Indian Nation (Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Silver Burdett, 1989)

Name_______________________________________ Date__________________________

Unscramble the tribal names of the Indian Confederacies above each column below:



Name_______________________________________ Date__________________________

Create an imaginary Indian nation. Name the following things in your nation. An example is given on the right of a real Indian nation.


Tribal name Chippewa

Meaning of tribal name Puckered up

(Refers to their moccasins)

Ancestral home Michigan

Terrain Forests

Means of earning a living Fishing, trapping, trading,


Housing Birchbark wigwam

Hairstyles Both men and women wore

hair long and loose

Language group Algonquian

System of government Chief and Council (both men

and women in council -

male chief)

Head of government Principal chief

Famous person from your tribe Henry Schoolworth

(intermarried citizen)

Famous for Ethnology

Family structure Patrilineal. After marriage, the

bride’s family moved in with

the groom and he supported


Brief tribal history Once a very powerful nation,

they traded with the French

for guns and drove the Sioux

out of the Great Lakes region.

They allied with France in the

French-Indian War and the

English in the Revolutionary

War. In the winter they made

long migrations in birchbark

canoes. They started fires by

using a bow to spin a stick

placed in punk on a board.

Student Activity Book Chapter 10   THE WESTERN INDIANS
I. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word below.
1. devastating ____________________ 9. misnomer ______________________
2. reservation ____________________ 10. disastrous ______________________
3. agitation ______________________ 11. shackle ______________________
4. tenure ________________________ 12. retaliate ______________________
5. latitude _______________________ 13. destitute ______________________
6. bombard ______________________ 14. exile ______________________
7. proposition ____________________ 15. covet ______________________

8. massacre ______________________ 16. marauding ______________________

II. IMPORTANT DATES AND EVENTS. Give the year when each of the following events occurred.
______1. Sandusky Senecas, Mixed Senecas, and Shawnees arrived in Indian Territory to find their assigned land belonging to someone else.
______2. The Quapaws were moved and settled on the wrong land.
______3. The Quapaws had to move again.
______4. The Nez Percé signed a treaty in which the government promised them perpetual tenure of

their lands.

______5. The Sac and Fox tribe was moved to Indian Territory.

______6. The Nez Percé were moved to Indian Territory. (Give year.)
______7. The Sand Creek Massacre occurred.
______8. The Medicine Lodge Creek Treaty was signed.
______9. The Battle of the Washita occurred.
______10. The government declared that it would no longer deal with Indian tribes through treaties.
III. COMPLETION. Fill in the blanks with answers that would best complete the statements.
1. The Sandusky Senecas were remnants of the original____________________________.
2. The Stokes Commission was appointed by President __________________________________.

3. ________________________, Chief of the Modocs, moved his tribe back to its homeland

without government permission.
4. Chief______________________ led the Nez Percé in a futile attempt to escape to Canada.
5. _______________________made several trips to Washington to plead for the return of his people to their homeland.
6. The three things that government commissioners were to accomplish were

(1) _________________________________________________________________________

(2) _________________________________________________________________________
and (3) _______________________________________________________________________.
7. The leader of the troops at the Sand Creek Massacre was _______________________________.
8. The leader of the troops at the Battle of the Washita was_________________________________.
9. The leader of the Southern Cheyennes at Sand Creek and the Washita was___________________.
10. The Wichitas, Caddoes, and Delawares, with four other tribes, were settled in the

IV. What did the United States Government do to compensate the tribes for the large parcels of land ceded

to the government?

V. THINKING ACTIVITY. In the space below, write a paragraph predicting what would have happened if

all the tribes that had been removed to Oklahoma had united into a single nation of Native Americans.

VI. Identify the areas of Indian Territory 1866-1889.

Chapter 11


Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher______________________ Date__________________
Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.4 Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European American regarding land ownership and trading practices.

Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.5 Cite specific visual and textual evidence to assess the impact of the cattle and coal mining industries on the location of railroad lines, transportation routes, and the development of communities.

Read Cattle Trails and Railroads, Chapter 11, pages 161-169

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 169 and map on 170-171.

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:

True/False study of historical facts

Sequencing of Events

Identifying use of items in a time period

Identifying cattle trails in Oklahoma
Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: The Cowboy: The Great American Myth, pp. 189-195. Option: Assign only first third (pp. 189-191) or assign two-thirds, from page 191, “The most famous ranch was the 101 Ranch…”

I. Discussion Questions These include using www.pbs.org.
1. Why were cattle trails founded and why did they decline?
2. How did the Reconstruction treaties between Indian tribes and the United States government bring about the growth of railroads across Indian Territory?
3. How did the Civil War affect tribal livestock raising?

4 How did the first cattle trail improve the economy of eastern Indian Territory?

5. Why was the Cherokee Livestock Association formed?
6. How did the government obtain rights to Cherokee lands?

7. Estimate the mileage of the train tracks from Caldwell, KS, to Colbert’s Ferry, TX. What benefits did the railroad give to the cattle drivers?

8. Use the www.pbs.org Events Timeline to discuss the role of Chinese laborers in the American West, particularly the railroad.
9. What was J.J. McAlester’s background and what became of him?
10. Find lyrics of cowboy songs at www.pbs.org. Why do you think they were so long?

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