Have the students pretend that they are farmers living near the Chisholm Trail. They should pretend that their homes, bunk-houses, and barns have become stopping places for cattle drovers during the trailherd season. Students will make signs advertising the services offered by their farms. Posters should be neat, decorative, and informative.
2. JOURNAL WRITING
Have the students pretend that they are cowboys or cowgirls on a cattle drive. Have them write one day’s events in a journal. Entries will be read aloud in class.
3. Puzzle: Message Boxes
4. Biographical writing (Jesse Chisholm)
III. INTERNET RESEARCH http://www.otrd.state.ok.us/StudentGuide/moreinfo.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chisholm_Trail http://www.onthechisholmtrail.com/ http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/places/trails_ter/cattle.htm
IV. SUGGESTED READINGS Clive Scott Chisholm, Following the Wrong God Home: Footloose in an American Dream (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003)
Rosalyn Schanzer, The Old Chisholm Trail: A Cowboy Song (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2001)
William R Sanford, The Chisholm Trail in American History (Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2000)
Baylis John Fletcher, Up the Trail in '79 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968)
Taylor, Ross McLaury. We Were There on the Chisholm Trail (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1957)
Ryan P. Randolph, Black Cowboys (New York: PowerKids Press, 2003)
John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men (New York: Penguin Books, 2002)
The Cherokee Strip Adventure, [videorecording] (Shawnee Brittan, 1993)
Below are 4 statements about characters in this chapter and how they earned a living. Using the clues below each grid, solve the puzzles and write the solutions on the blank lines. Start in the upper left-hand square of each grid and proceed square by square (horizontally or vertically, but NOT diagonally) to spell the answer. DO NOT cross your path or enter a single square twice. Not all the letters in any grid are used.
CLUE: This enterprising settler CLUE: This miner let someone else
built and re-built and re-built ... do the work.
4. BIOGRAPHICAL WRITING. Have the students research the life and times of Jesse Chisholm. Assign a report to be written on Jesse Chisholm’s life and accomplishments.
Student Activity Book Chapter 11 CATTLE TRAILS AND RAILROADS I. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word below.
1. subsidize________________________ 5. antebellum__________________________
II. TRUE or FALSE. In each blank, write “T’ for true and “F” for false.
______1. Numbers of cattle in Indian Territory increased during the Civil War.
______2. The first major cattle drive was up the Dodge City Trail.
______3. Cattle railheads were located only in Kansas.
______4. There were no taxes placed on the cattle by citizens of Indian Territory.
______5. Indian Territory was “wet.”
______6. No cattle trails crossed lands owned by Comanches or Pawnees.
______7. Local landowners refused to rent their pastures to trail bosses for grazing lands.
______8. Towns along the trails suffered economically from the cattle drives.
______9. The Chisholm Trail ran across eastern Indian Territory.
______ 10. Most stockyards were owned by railroad companies.
______ 11. Most cattle on the cattle drives were Herefords.
______ 12. There was never a railhead in Indian Territory.
______ 13. The Sand Bar Saloon was located in the middle of the Red River.
______ 14. After the Civil War, no Indians were involved in raising cattle.
______ 15. Cherokees owned the land in the Cherokee Outlet.
______ 16. The Cherokee Strip Livestock Association cheated the Cherokees of their lands.
______ 17. The Cherokee Strip Livestock Association wanted to improve the grade of cattle.in the herds.
______ 18. The first railroad to cross Indian Territory was the Rock Island.
______ 19. Jackson McCurtain fought building railroads through the territory.
______ 20. Gold and coal were discovered in Indian Territory.
III. SEQUENCING. Arrange the following events in chronological order. Place a number “1” beside the event that occurred first and continue through number “10” for the last occurring event.
______ 1. Purcell, Indian Territory, became a railhead.
______ 2. Coal was discovered by J. J. McAlester.
______ 3. The first major cattle drive crossed Indian Territory.
______ 4. States quarantined Texas cattle.
______ 5. The Cherokee Strip Livestock Association leased the Cherokee Outlet.
______ 6. Cattle drives began up the Chisholm Trail.
______ 7. The deadline date for cattlemen was established to move their herds out of the Cherokee Outlet.
______ 8. President Cleveland signed a bill to open Unassigned Lands to white settlement.
______ 9. The grazing fee was doubled for the Cherokee Outlet.
______ 10. The Atlantic and Pacific Railway was built as an east west line through Indian Territory.
IV. THINKING ACTIVITY. You’ve been hired as a cook on an 1890 cattle drive from Texas to Purcell, Indian Territory. Of the 20 items listed below, check the “Yes” column for the 10 items you will take and the “No” column for the 10 you will not take. Beside the “No” answers write the letter (a, b, or c) corresponding with one of the following reasons: a) not in general use at that time; b) luxury item for a cattle drive; c) useless on this kind of trip.
ITEM Yes • No • Reason ITEM Yes • No • Reason
1. 5 iron cooking pots ____ ____ ____ 11. animal traps ____ ____ ____
2. 20 bedrolls ____ ____ ____ 12. small fishing net ____ ____ ____
3. 1 aluminum skillet ____ ____ ____ 13. plastic strainer ____ ____ ____
4. kerosene ____ ____ ____ 14. toiletries ____ ____ ____
5. hatchet ____ ____ ____ 15. wooden spoons ____ ____ ____
6. 20 pillows ____ ____ ____ 16. horseshoes ____ ____ ____
7. gasoline ____ ____ ____ 17. horseshoe nails ____ ____ ____
8. electric saw ____ ____ ____ 18. rat poison ____ ____ ____
9. skinning knife ____ ____ ____ 19. leather strips ____ ____ ___
10. nylon rope ____ ____ ____ 20. coal ____ ____ ____
V . MAP. On the following map of Oklahoma, identify the 19th century cattle trails that crossed the state. Identify each trail and major geographical location by name.
BOOMER SOONER Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________ Common Core
Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.
2.6 Analyze the influence of the idea of Manifest Destiny on the Boomer Movement including the official closing of the frontier in 1890.
2.7 Compare and contrast multiple points of view to evaluate the impact of the Dawes Act which resulted in the loss of tribal communal lands and the redistribution of lands by various means including land runs as typified by the Unassigned Lands and the Cherokee Outlet, lotteries, and tribal allotments.