Earliest oklahomans

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I. Discussion questions

1. Discuss the Boomer efforts to settle in the Unassigned Lands before the lands were opened for settlement.

2. Identify:

a. Buffalo soldiers

b. Boomers

c. Sooners

d. Colonization Association

e. Unassigned Lands

3. How were Indian leaders divided on the issue of opening their unoccupied lands for settlement?
4. Tell about the attempt of William L. Couch and his followers to settle in the Unassigned Lands.
5. Who were the groups who lobbied for opening the lands for settlement and what were their special interests?
6. Who were the groups who lobbied against opening the lands and what were their special interests?
7. Who was qualified to establish a land claim and then how would the homesteader hold the claim?
8. How many people participated in the Land Run of 1889?
9. Why do both Cleveland and Harrison get credit for the Land Run?
10. On a map with county names, identify three counties named for presidents and three named for tribes.

II. Activities

  1. Time Line-Add the dates for Indian Appropriations Act and the April 22, 1889 Land Run.

  1. Puzzle Letter Scramble

III. Internet Research


IV. Suggested Reading

Stan Hoig, The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 (Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1984)

Name_______________________________________ Date__________________________


In each puzzle below fit the letters in each column onto the lines directly above them. They may or may not go onto the lines in the same order in which they are listed. When the letters are written in the proper order, they will make a statement which can be verified in Chapter 12 in the textbook.

Student Activity Book Chapter 12   BOOMER SOONER
I. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word listed below.
1. Allotment in Severalty______________ 6. discrimination ________________________
2. public domain____________________ 7. entrant ______________________________
3. excursion________________________ 8. proclamation _________________________
4. tentative________________________ 9. disgruntle ____________________________
5. militant________________________ 10. restriction ____________________________
II. IDENTIFICATIONS. Write a sentence identification of each item below.
1. Elias C. Boudinot _________________________________________________________.
2. David L. Payne _________________________________________________________.
3. William L. Couch _________________________________________________________.
4. Buffalo soldiers _________________________________________________________.
5. Boomers _________________________________________________________.
6. Sooners _________________________________________________________.
III. MATCHING. Match the date to the event.
______ 1. Couch became leader of the Boomers. A. November, 1884
______ 2. Creeks offered to sell their unoccupied lands. B. March, 1885
______ 3. Payne led the Boomers into Indian Territory. C. 1879
______ 4. Unassigned Lands were opened to settlement. D. January, 1889

______ 5. The President signed a bill authorizing a president to open E. March, 1889

land for settlement.

F. December, 1884

______ 6. Couch led the Boomers into Indian Territory and defied

the military for a time. G. April, 1889

______ 7. Payne organized the Boomer Movement. H. February, 1880

______ 8. Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act.
IV. COMPLETION. Fill in the blanks with the words that would best complete each statement.
1. __________________encouraged the tribes to abandon old tribal customs of property ownership.
2. ________________________________was the founder of the Colonization Association.
3. The first Civilized Tribe to offer to sell unoccupied lands was the__________________________.
4. President _______________________signed a bill authorizing a president to open unoccupied

lands for settlement.

5. President ______________________announced that lands would be opened in Indian Territory.
6. People who tried to settle the land before it was legally open were called_____________________.
7. People who slipped into the land early to stake a claim illegally were called___________________.
8. The estimated number of participants in the race for land was_________________________.
9. Land claims were usually parcels containing _______________acres.
10. Town sites were restricted to ________________acres.
11. The Run of 1889 was called President _______________________________Race.
12. The run started at ________________________(time of day).
13. The town of ______________ was on the southern border of the land to be opened for settlement.
14. Of the 14,000 Boomers, only about ______________________________obtained claims.
15. All claims were subject to the ______________________________________Act.

Chapter 13

Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________
Common Core

Content Standard 1: The student will describe the state’s geography and the historic foundations laid by Native American, European, and American cultures.

1.4 Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans

regarding land ownership and trading practices.

2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.2 Describe the major trading and peacekeeping goals of early military posts including Fort Gibson.

2.7 Compare and contrast multiple points of view to evaluate the impact of the Dawes Act which resulted in the loss of tribal communal lands and the redistribution of lands by various means including land runs as typified by the Unassigned Lands and the Cherokee Outlet, lotteries, and tribal allotments.
4: The student will examine the transformation of Oklahoma during times of boom and bust of the 1920s through the 1940s.

4.1 Compare and contrast the successes and failures of the United States policy of assimilation of the Native Americans in Oklahoma including the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 and the effects of the Indian boarding schools (1880s-1940s) upon Native Americans’ identity, culture, traditions, and tribal government and sovereignty.


Read The Final Conquest, Chapter 13, pages 198-206.

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the question on page 206.

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:


Complete the statement using facts from the chapter.

True/False-determine if the facts are correct or incorrect.

Map Study-Locate and mark the federal courts that had jurisdiction over Indian Territory.

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: Early Settlers (pp. 238-245), if not used in previous chapter, and complete worksheets.

I. Discussion Questions
1. What were the major problems in the earliest judiciary system for Indian Territory and how were the problems solved?
2. Why did the Indians request the establishment of a federal court in Indian Territory?
3. Why did outlaws take refuge in Indian Territory?
4. Trace the right of whites to own property in Indian Territory, from the time of Indian settlement to the opening of unoccupied lands for white settlement.
5. Trace the movement from land ownership by the Indian tribes to allotments by severalty.
6. Can you compare the status of illegal settlers (according to page 123) to any modern-day group?
7. When was oil first produced as a business?
8. Why did Indian tribes oppose individual ownership of land?
9. Why was Congress dissatisfied with the Dawes Commission in 1898?
10. In what ways did Indians resist the division of their property?

1. Identifying people, places, and historical events

2. Time Line—Record the following on the time line with a short explanation:

Major Crimes Act, Organic Act, Dawes Commission forcible enrollment, Atoka Agreement, Curtis Act, Crazy Snake Rebellion

3. Crossword Puzzle (short)

III. Internet Search:





IV. Suggested Reading:

Arthur T. Burton, Black, Red, and Deadly: Black and Indian Gunfighters of the Indian Territory, 1870-1907 (Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1991)

Indians, Outlaws & Angie Debo [videorecording] (PBS Video, 1988)

Name____________________________________________ Date __________________________

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