Earliest oklahomans


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Chapter 15


Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date____________

Common Core

Content Standard 2: The student will evaluate the major political and economic events that transformed the land and its people prior to statehood.

2.7 Compare and contrast multiple points of view to evaluate the impact of the Dawes Act which resulted in the loss of tribal communal lands and the redistribution of lands by various means including land runs as typified by the Unassigned Lands and the Cherokee Outlet, lotteries, and tribal allotments.


Read Land Opening and Settlers, chapter 16, pages 218-225.

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 225..

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:


Fill in the facts

Compare and contrast the Oklahoma Constitution

Match dates with events

Match names to identifications

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Features (optional): Read Early Settlers and Land Run of 1889 (p. 238) or Outlaws and Lawmen (p. 245), if not used with previous chapters.
I. Discussion Questions
1. Tell about the most famous photograph taken of the land runs.
2. Describe the living conditions of homesteaders in Oklahoma Territory.
3. How did the runs for land in the Cherokee Outlet and in the Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation differ from previous land runs?

4. What was the Jerome Act?

5. How was the Big Pasture area made available for settlement?

6. Write a brief paragraph describing the various ethnic groups that settled in the early days of territorial


7. What were some of the risks of racing in a land run?
8. Why did one Indian agent encourage wheat farming?
9. In the Cherokee Outlet run, were the chances of staking a claim better or worse than 50%?
10. How did it happen that Oklahoma had several entirely African-American towns?

II. Activities

Ethnic Viewpoint

Puzzle Word Maze
Time Line-Add the following to the time line:

Jerome Commission (Cherokee Commission)

Opening of Unassigned Lands on Sept. 22, 1891

Land run in Cherokee Outlet

Land runs in Kiowa-Comanche and Wichita lands, Big Pasture
III. Internet Search:

(Use the alphabetical order “finder,” and check this site for all land runs.)

IV. Suggested Readings:
Oklahoma Biographical Dictionary; People of all times and places who have been important to the history and life of the state (Somerset Publishers, Inc., 1999)


Encyclopedia of Oklahoma (Somerset Publishers, Inc., 1999)

Tim Tingle, Walking the Choctaw Road. (El Paso, Texas: Cinco Puntos Press, 2003)

Chris Wheeler, How the West Was Lost II: Volume 2 (Bethesda, Md.: Discovery Networks and 9K*USA. [videorecording], 1995) Bethesda, M: Discovery Enterprises Group, 1995. Part 1 covers the history of the Cherokee tribe. Part 2 covers the land runs of Oklahoma and the breakup of the tribal lands of the Five Civilized Tribes.

ETHNIC VIEWPOINT Name ______________________________ Date _____________
You are an immigrant from Germany, Russia, Mexico, or China, and you are participating in the race for land in the Cherokee Outlet. Answer the following questions about yourself and write a brief description of the land opening as you saw it. (If possible, use library reference materials to learn about your country before answering these questions.)
Name Age M F

Country of Origin Marital Status

Children (names and ages)

Other dependents

Type of employment before you came here

Why did you come to the United States?

Describe the Cherokee Outlet opening:
Moving your pencil from box to box in any direction, connect the letters to form the words which correctly complete the statements below. In forming a single word, you may not use the same box twice; but one box may be used in several words.

(1) The Arapaho tribe favored allotments in severalty, but the ____________________ tribe did not.
(2) The ____________________ lands were the first lands in the territory to be opened to non-

Indian settlement.

(3) Several ethnic groups settled in Oklahoma Territory, including the _________________.
(4) Some of the lands opened to settlement had been Indian ___________________.
(5) Because of the arid condition of the Cheyenne-Arapaho lands, few ____________________ participated

in the opening.

Student Activity Book Chapter 15   THE LAND OPENINGS AND THE SETTLERS
I. VOCABULARY. Write short definitions of each word below.

1. negotiate _________________________ 7. cistern ___________________________

2. extract ___________________________ 8. retain ___________________________
3. conveyance _______________________ 9. invalid ___________________________
4. ethnic ___________________________ 10. deliberation _____________________
5. arid _____________________________ 11. candid _________________________
6. “gyp” water _________________________ 12. clamor ___________________________
II. MATCHING. Match the date to the event.

______1. Jerome Commission appointed A. April 19, 1892

______2. A run for 900,000 acres in Lincoln and B. 1895

Pottawatomie Counties

C. May 4, 1896

______3. Cheyenne Arapaho lands opened

D. September 16, 1893

______4. Cherokee Outlet opened

E. 1906

______5. Kickapoo lands opened

F. June 30, 1892

______6. The Big Pasture and wood reserve sold at public auction

G. July, 1889

______7. Congress ruled Greer County in Oklahoma Territory

H. September 22, 1891

______8. Governor Seay estimated that 7,600 people settled Cheyenne Arapahos Lands

III. COMPLETION. In the blanks, fill in the word or words that would complete each sentence correctly.

1. The Jerome Commission was also known as the ________________________ Commission.

2. The Jerome Commission was to negotiate with the tribes in the ___________half of Indian Territory.
3. Most early land holders lived in_________________. (kind of shelter)
4. Farmers found that the most suitable crop for the Cheyenne Arapaho lands was________________.
5. When land openings began, many people waited for land to be opened in the_________________
6. The most famous of all the land openings was the opening of the__________________________.
7. ___________________was a frontier photographer who took famous photographs of the land run.
8. The last area opened by a land run was the_________________________________Reservation.
9. The Kiowa Comanche Wichita lands were opened and settled by_________________________.
10. Nearly 500,000 acres of Kiowa Comanche Wichita lands were reserved for__________________.
11. More than 50,000 acres were reserved for________________________________.
12. In the land auctions, land sold for an average of _______________dollars per acre.
13. ________________________County was in dispute between Oklahoma and Texas.
14. The ______________________Act ordered a lawsuit to determine the actual boundary between Oklahoma and Texas.
15. The largest ethnic group settling in Oklahoma was______________________________.
16. The county that was abolished and became a part of Roger Mills and Ellis Counties was
IV. MAP. Complete the following map to show the land openings in Oklahoma, naming each area.

Chapter 16

Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________
Common Core

Content Standard 3: The student will analyze the formation and development of constitutional government in Oklahoma.

3.1 Compare and contrast the development of governments among the Native American tribes, the movement for the state of Sequoyah, the proposal for an all-Black state, and the impact of the Enabling Act on single statehood.

3.2 Describe and summarize attempts to create a state constitution joining Indian and Oklahoma Territories including the impact of the Progressive and Labor Movements resulting in statehood on Nov.16, 1907.

3.3 Compare and contrast Oklahoma’s state government to the United States’ national system of government including the branches of government, their functions, and powers.

3.4 Describe the division, function, and sharing of powers among levels of government including city, county, tribal, and state.

3.5 Identify major sources of local and state revenues and the services provided including education, infrastructure, courts, and public safety.

3.6 Describe state constitutional provisions including the direct primary, initiative petition, referendum, and recall.

Content Standard 4: The student will examine the transformation of Oklahoma during times of boom and bust of the 1920s through the 1940s.

4.2 Examine multiple points of view regarding the historic evolution of race relations in Oklahoma including Senate Bill 1 establishing Jim Crow laws, the growth of all-Black towns, the Tulsa Race Riot, and the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.


Read Statehood, Chapter 16, pages 226-237.

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 237.

Complete the following in Student Activity Book:


Complete the statements

Compare and Contrast views of the State Constitution

Match dates to historical events

Identify important people in Oklahoma history

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: A section of African-American Experience, p. 406- top of p. 413. (The rest of the feature is assigned, with the worksheet, in Chapter 18. Students may begin worksheet now or wait till then.)
I. Discussion Question
1. Name four proposals for statehood.
2. When did Congress pass the Hamilton Act, and what was its other name?
3. Who was E.P. McCabe?
4. Describe when and where the Sequoyah Convention happened. Who was its president?
5. Define Jim Crowism.
6. Why was the Oklahoma Constitution considered progressive?
7. When did Oklahoma become a state?
8. Who was President of the United States in 1907?

9. Who was the first governor of the state of Oklahoma?

10. Contrast the voting rights of Oklahoma women in 1907 with those of other American women at that time.

II. Activities

Choose symbols for State of Sequoyah

Map Study-locating cities and towns in Oklahoma

Puzzle: Unscramble the Names

Time Line - On the class time line mark the following important people and events:

First Statehood Convention

Sequoyah Convention

Hamilton Bill (Oklahoma Enabling Act)

Constitutional Convention of Oklahoma

Approval of the State Constitution by voters

Date of Statehood

III. Internet Research:





IV. Suggested Reading:

Jeffrey Burton, Indian Territory and the United States, 1866-1906: Courts, Government, and the Movement for Oklahoma Statehood (Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995)

Fischer, LeRoy H., Oklahoma's Governors, 1907-1929: Turbulent Politics (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1981)


Let the students pretend that they are members of the Sequoyah Convention and expect Indian Territory to become the state of Sequoyah. Students are to select state symbols for the new state. They may not use any of Oklahoma’s state symbols. They should use symbols fitting for the eastern half of the state. They are to select a state bird, flower, rock, tree, reptile, fish, animal, and grass.

MAP STUDY Name______________________________________

On the following blank map, locate these towns which are important in this chapter: Oklahoma City; Guthrie; Kingfisher; Eufaula; Fort Gibson. Use a wall map or a road map for reference, and mark each town with an “x” and its name.

The letters in the answers to the following identifications are scrambled. Put the letters in the proper order for the correct answers. (No middle initials are used.)


A black woman who came from



A Cherokee lobbyist


First territorial settler to be nominated for

a national office

Creek Representative at the Sequoyah


President of the Constitutional


First black legislator


Former Kansas State Auditor

Student Activity Book Chapter 16   STATEHOOD
I. VOCABULARY. Write a short definition of each word below.
1. allotment______________________ 5. suffrage__________________________
2. thwart________________________ 6. progressive_______________________
3. initiative_____________________­_ 7. contingent________________________
4. referendum____________________ 8. constitute_________________________

II. COMPLETION. In the blanks, write the word or words that would complete each sentence correctly.

1. The first territorial settler to be nominated for a national office was_________________________.
2. The first nomination was for the office of____________________________________.

3. The founder of Langston University was______________________________________.

4. A leader who hoped to make Oklahoma Territory a black state was_________________________.
5. The man elected as president of the Sequoyah Convention was____________________________.
6. The five vice presidents of the convention were representatives from the______________________.

7. The proposed name for a state composed of Indian Territory was___________________________.

8. The capital of this state was to have been located at___________________________________.
9. The Hamilton Bill was also known as the_______________________________________.
10. The Congressional act combining the twin territories into the state of Oklahoma was the ________


11. The constitution for the new state of Oklahoma was declared legal by President_______________.
12. A man appointed head of a committee to prepare an enabling act was______________________.
III. STATE CONSTITUTION. Oklahoma’s Constitution was both modern and restrictive when it was passed in 1907. In the column on the left give three reasons why the Constitution was considered “Progressive.” In the column on the right give three reasons why some groups did not like it.

(1)_____________________________________ (1)____________________________________

_______________________________________ ______________________________________

(2)____________________________________ (2)____________________________________

_______________________________________ ______________________________________

(3)____________________________________ (3)____________________________________

_______________________________________ ______________________________________

IV. MATCHING. Match the date to the event below.
______ 1. Oklahoma Enabling Act passed A. January 25, 1892
______ 2. Enrollment of Indians began B. November 20, 1906
______ 3. First statehood convention in Oklahoma City held C. September 17, 1907
______ 4. Oklahoma became a state D. November 16, 1907
______ 5. Constitutional Convention in Guthrie held E. June 16, 1906
______ 6. First state officials elected F. 1905
______ 7. First statehood bill introduced G. December 16, 1891
______ 8. Five bills introduced into Congress to make twin H. June 10, 1896

territories one state

V. MATCHING. Match names to identifications. Some may be used more than once.
______ 1. A Cherokee lobbyist A. James Norman
______ 2. An attorney and builder of railroads B. William H. Murray
______ 3. A Creek chief C. W. C. Rogers
______ 4. Cherokee representative at Sequoyah Convention D. Pleasant Porter
______ 5. Choctaw representative E. Green I. Currin
______ 6. Seminole representative F. Charles N. Haskell
______ 7. Creek representative G. John F. Brown
______ 8. Chickasaw representative H. Green McCurtain
______ 9. First African American elected to political office
______ 10. President of Constitutional Convention at Guthrie

______ 11. The first governor of the state of Oklahoma

______ 12. Legislator who introduced first civil rights bill into the Oklahoma legislature

Chapter 17

Lesson Plans for Oklahoma History Teacher_________________ Date__________________
Common Core

Content Standard 4: The student will examine the transformation of Oklahoma during times of boom and bust of the 1920s through the 1940s.

4.2 Examine multiple points of view regarding the historic evolution of race relations in Oklahoma including Senate Bill 1 establishing Jim Crow laws, the growth of all-Black towns, the Tulsa Race Riot, and the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.

4.3 Summarize the impact of the national Socialist movement and organized labor on various segments of Oklahoma society including agriculture, mining, and state politics.

4.4 Examine how the economic cycles of boom and bust of the oil industry affected major sectors of employment, mining, and the subsequent development of communities, as well as the role of entrepreneurs including J.J. McAlester, Frank Phillips, E.W. Marland, and Robert S. Kerr.


Read Early Government, Chapter 17, pages 254-270.

Be prepared to participate in class discussion using the questions on page 270.

Complete the following assignments:


Complete the statement

Identification of dates and events, matching

Optional research and writing on Green Corn Rebellion

Choose from Activities on next page, Section II. Copy and distribute, or project them for group work.

Read Feature: The Greatest Athlete, pages 327-334. Complete the worksheets.

I. Discussion Questions
1. Discuss the removal of the capital from its first site as the state capital to the new site in Oklahoma City (Include the role played by Charles N. Haskell and the different legends about the transporting of the seal).
2. Tell about the problems and the growth of the oil industry in Oklahoma.
3. What was the Green Corn Rebellion?
4. Explain why a governor might call out the militia to stop horse races and prize fights.
5. Identify Joseph Oklahombi and tell what he accomplished.
6. Explain whether you think the capitol dome should have been built and tell why.
7. The towns of Stillwater, Edmond, and Norman competed to be the capital city, but received other honors instead. What were they?
8. Name the first three governors of the state, in order.
9. Why does the state concern itself with care for the mentally ill?
10. Describe the tactics of the WCU to recruit members.

II. Activities
Match Oklahoma towns with a description found in chapter 17.

Puzzle: Charles N. Haskell

Add the following to the classroom time line:

Kate Barnard

Governor Charles N. Haskell

The movement of the state capital from Guthrie to Oklahoma City

Information on discovery of oil and the Corporation Commission

1908 Elections

Governor Lee Cruce

Governor Robert L. Williams

Construction of the Capital building

Green Corn Rebellion

World War I

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