Earth Link and Advanced Resources Development s a. r L. (Elard) Submitted to: Council for Development and Reconstruction



Download 1.49 Mb.
Page17/30
Date conversion14.06.2018
Size1.49 Mb.
1   ...   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   ...   30

4.5Selection of Preferred Option

Option Tunnel 2 was preferred for the following reasons:


  • Lowest overall cost

  • Greatest security in terms of:

  • Least vulnerability to deliberate damage

  • Best resistance to earthquakes

  • Least risk of leakage and consequential damage

  • Greatest durability and design life

  • Lowest maintenance requirements (and thus minimized supply disruption)

  • Easier to supply the coastal strip from Ouardaniye WTW rather than a Khalde WTW

  • Spare hydraulic capacity available:

  • To supplement inadequate reservoir capacity in Beirut

  • To allow for future expansion of required; and

  • Least environmental impact during construction

5.Environmental and social Baseline

5.1Introduction


The baseline data presented in this section were reproduced based on desk studies and the use of available information in the initial EIA study (Montgomery Watson, 1998) except for the noise, ecological and socio-economic parts for which ELARD team has conducted extensive field surveys to gather relevant updated data.

5.2Climate and Air Quality

The Awali project covers an area that extends from the hillsides of western Lebanon, to the south of Beirut. An onshore south-westerly wind from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea affects this area most of the year. The high reconstruction activities and the high levels of traffic movements in Beirut and its suburbs are causing poor atmospheric quality conditions in this area.

The Climate conditions in this area are those of a typical eastern Mediterranean climate; the rainfall is low and restricted to the period between November and March, and the temperatures are high in summer, but the area is not subject to the cold winter that occurs in Lebanese mountains.

5.3Ambient Noise Level

      1. Data Collection


Noise level measurements were conducted by ELARD team to capture to the extent possible the baseline noise levels at different locations of the project, with due consideration of activities with potential noise generation as well as location of possible sensitive receptors. Table 5 -46 shows the locations where noise levels were measured, the date and time of the measurements, duration of measurement in addition to some relevant comments. The noise measurements were conducted using a Lutron Sound Level Meter (Figure 1), SL-4010 with accuracy of +/- 0.1dB. The timings of the measurements were selected in a way to be representative for the location. For instance, in Ouardaniye, where there are currently several sources of noise generation (primarily from existing traffic), three time ranges were selected (off-peak early morning, noon, and afternoon), whereas in other more remote locations, one time period was assumed to be sufficient to depict average noise levels in the area.

Table 5 46 Noise Level Monitoring Locations and Methodology



LOCATION

NOISE MEASUREMENT

SURVEY TYPE

Anticipated Noise Generation Potential/Sensitive Receptors


Date

Time interval

Ouardaniye

WTW


17.04.2010

6:59AM – 10:10 AM

10-minute intervals with noise levels recorded every 1 minute

Noise is expected to be generated during WTW construction and operational phases.




11:30 AM– 1:00 PM

4:40 – 7:00 pm

Nahr el Damour Siphon/Washout

15.04.2010

6:55 AM– 9:00 AM

5-minute intervals with noise levels recorded every 1 minute

Minor concern of noise. Noise generated from the construction phase only.




Khalde Distribution /Connection Chamber

14.04.2010

6:42 AM– 9:00 AM

10-minute intervals with noise levels recorded every 5 minutes

Minor concern of noise. Noise generated from the construction phase.





Hadath 90

Reservoirs



16.04.2010

7:00 AM– 7:43 AM


10-minute intervals with noise levels recorded every 1 minute

Minor concern of noise. Noise generated from the construction phase.




Hazmieh 90 Reservoirs

16.04.2010

8:17 AM – 9:17 AM

10-minute intervals with noise levels recorded every 1 minute


Minor concern of noise. Noise generated from the construction phase.





Figure 5 10 Noise measurements at the Khalde distribution and connection chambers

While all locations are expected to affect ambient noise levels during construction, the only source of noise during the operational phase is the water treatment works (WTW) in the Ouardaniye village.

The Nahr el Damour washout and Khalde distribution chamber were surveyed in the morning for two hours. Hadath 90 and Hazmieh 90 reservoirs were surveyed in the morning for one hour each because they are close to a major army barracks and to the presidential palace respectively, and army patrols would not allow a longer survey to be conducted, although more periods of measurements during the day would better depict noise levels particularly in Hazmieh 90 location, which is close to a major highway.

For the most part of the study area, the landscape along the water tunnel route is generally limestone rocks of the Sannine Formation (Cenomanian age). The terrain is unlikely to have any considerable effect on transmission of noise during construction. The construction works on the portals, washouts and chambers is likely to cause some increase in noise levels only during the construction phase; after construction is completed, noise levels should return to current ambient levels.

      1. Results


Ouardaniye WTW

The Ouardaniye site lies about 1 km from Ouardaniye village, south of the Sibline Cement Factory, between the valleys of Ouadi Aabaid and Saquiet Ouadi Baraz. The average noise level in the Ouardaniye WTW is 52dBA, with maximum values reaching up to 72dBA and minimum being 43dBA. Higher values are mainly associated to passing traffic, mosques call for prayer, air traffic and the local Sibline Cement Factory which is nearby on the opposite side of the valley.



Damour Washout

The Damour washout site lies between the Mhanna restaurant and the bridge south of Damour River. The average noise level in the Nahr el Damour Siphon/Washout is 66 dBA, with maximum reaching up to 86 dBA and minimum of 48 dBA. Noise levels are mainly associated to the river flow and passing cars and trucks.



Khalde Distribution/Connection Chamber

The Khalde site lies to the North of Deauville Hotel, facing a military base. The noise level measurements were taken to the north of the site because it could not be taken in front of the military base for security reasons.

The average noise level in the Khalde Distribution /Connection Chamber is 64 dBA, with maximum reaching up to 88 dBA and minimum being 53dBA. Noise levels are associated to passing traffic, helicopters, airplanes and splashing sea waves.

Hadath 90 Reservoir

The Hadath 90 reservoir site lies about 500m NW of the Warwar barracks and approximately 200m NE of Regis Libanais building. The average noise level in the Hadath 90 Reservoir is 60 dBA, with maximum reaching up to 82 dBA and minimum being 42 dBA. Noise levels are mainly associated to passing car traffic.


Hazmieh 90 Reservoir

The Hazmieh 90 reservoir zone lies about 100m south of Hypermarket Bou Khalil off the Siyad roundabout. The average noise level in Hazmieh 90 Reservoir is 70 dBA, with maximum reaching up to 88 dBA and minimum being 55 dBA. Noise levels are associated to the proximity to a major highway.


      1. Discussion


In any given setting, factors such as the frequency and magnitude of environmental noise may vary considerably over the course of the day. With regards to the study areas, the proposed water tunnel stretches primarily along residential areas with some construction sites or commercial activities or located near a road and some rural residential areas. As a result, noise sources are predominantly human based from passing traffic and some human activities such as aviation.

The existing ambient noise levels recorded near most of the tunnel portals and outlets averaged between 60 and 65 dBA. Therefore ambient noise levels already exceed allowed noise levels as per Lebanese legislation (Decision 52/1 of 1996) Table 5 -47 . Therefore contractors and operators of the project must take strict noise control measures to avoid significant impacts related to elevated noise in the project area.

Table 5 47 National Maximum allowable noise levels and permissible occupational Noise Exposure standards according to MoE Decision 52/1 of 1996.


Region Type

Limit for Noise Level dB(A)

Day time

(7 am- 6 pm)


Evening time

(6 pm- 10 pm)

Night Time

(10 pm- 7am)

Residential areas with some construction sites or commercial activities or located near a road

50-60

45-55

40-50

Urban residential areas

45-55

40-50

35-45

Industrial areas

60-70

55-65

50-60

Rural residential areas

35 – 45

30 – 40

25 – 35




1   ...   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   ...   30


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page