Earth Link and Advanced Resources Development s a. r L. (Elard) Submitted to: Council for Development and Reconstruction



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5.8Cultural Heritage

A study was commissioned to determine the extent of the archeological sensitivity of the project area during the old EIA study. Particular concerns had been noted in the Khalde and Chouwaifat areas where the research and work was concentrated. It involved a review of published and unpublished archeological material, a brief physical survey of the area and interviews with local inhabitants. The following findings can be highlighted:


  • In the Joun and Ouardaniye areas, there are no known archeological or historical interests, as would be expected in these rocky localities far from known former habitation.

  • At the Damour River crossing, there are also no known archeological remains, and no pottery shards have been found there. The tunnel will be located downstream of the meeting of two waters, historically a tourist location.

  • The most significant known archeological site is the Khan in Khalde area, located along the coast by the end of the runway extension for Beirut airport. Much of the khan has been destroyed by the urban development occurring in the area and the construction of the coastal highway.

Three phases of occupation have been identified at this site – classical (Greco Byzantine), Phoenician and Bronze Age.

To the west of the pipeline, occurs an extensive necropolis area that contains numerous tombs, related houses, baths and associated facilities.



  • To the south of the pipeline route in Khalde is a byzantine religious complex, and there are rumors of possible other former settlement in this area. There is no evidence of archeological remains along the Khalde to Chouwaifat pipeline route, and this is confirmed by local anecdotal talks.
  • If these areas are linked, then there is the possibility that classical remains could be found along the pipeline route near the coast. However, the former housing and road construction in the area would have destroyed most such remains (if they existed), and no evidence of archeological remains was encountered in the trial pit dug in this area for the geotechnical investigation for this project. It is concluded that this specific area contains little of archeological interest.


  • At the Hadath 125 Reservoir site, cemeteries are situated to the west, across the local road.

  • There are no known archeological interests at the other reservoir sites or adjacent to the connecting pipeline routes.

5.9Socio Economic Environment


A socio-economic survey was conducted with the local authorities in the Project area to map the demographic, social and economic baseline conditions at the level of towns and villages. This document also seeks to identify how the Project’s potential impacts might affect the identified baseline conditions. In other terms, the purpose of the study of socio-economic baseline conditions is to present a basis against which potential socio-economic impacts (whether positive or negative), induced during and as a direct or indirect result of the Project activities, can be assessed.

Data for this section was collected through:



  1. a desk review and consolidation of publicly available information from previous reports and the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities’ web portal on villages,

  2. individual face to face interviews with local, elected leaders and stakeholders to corroborate and supplement the desk review findings. The interviews were held with stakeholders in the towns and villages which will feature construction works, whether for supply, storage and/or distribution within the Awali–Beirut Water Conveyor Project,

  3. an intercept, random, researcher-administered survey with land operators, where main surface structures will be constructed and whose lands will be expropriated accordingly, in order to collect general information on their perceptions of the Project components and planned outcomes, and

  4. a site walk-over along the planned pipeline through Khaldeh, Hadath and Hazmieh.

The tools used for collecting data for the field survey included questionnaire sheets with structured questions for the interviews and land operator surveys, and photo shooting for visual documentation of the visited sites.

During the surveying of local leaders and residents, data was collected on: (1) the locality’s demographic profile including age and gender distribution; (2) the availability of public and private educational institutions and the overall level of education; (3) land ownership and land use patterns; (4) socio-cultural practices; (5) livelihood and income-generating activities in agriculture, agro-food businesses and industries, as well as industrial and commercial activities; (6) existing physical, public infrastructures, resources and services, e.g. water supply sources and networks, power supply, telecommunications, roads, sewage and solid waste disposal practices; and (7) development needs and priorities relating to poverty, unemployment, sanitation, etc. Individual consent was sought prior to any field data collection.

Furthermore, ELARD prepared and distributed a flyer (see Appendix H) that summarises the Project and informs the resident population and stakeholders of the public consultation session. The public consultation event was held on 12 May 2010. The issues raised in the public consultation are detailed in Appendix I.

It should be noted that due to the lack of formal, comprehensive and consistent data collection and record keeping processes on part of the interviewees, any figures contained within this socio-economic baseline section should be regarded as estimates.

        1. Areas relevant to the socio-economic assessment

The geographical scope of this assessment includes the areas that are directly affected by this Project through the sub-surface and surface structures that will be constructed underneath or in the villages.

A standard survey instrument was developed to collect information of relevance to the socio-economic assessment at the community level, especially with regard to livelihoods and standards of living



The study area is classified into two levels of concern:

  1. The primary level which includes those villages and towns in which main surface structures are constructed. These are summarized in Table 5 -49

Table 5 49 Villages, towns and surface structures

Village/town

Surface structure planned in the village/town

Joun

Regulating structure

Wadi Abou Yabes

Washout

Ouardaniye

Treatment works

Damour area

Two ventilation shafts and inverted Siphon

Naameh

Reservoir

Khaldeh

Flow measurement and sampling chamber


Surge shaft

Outlet distribution chamber

Choueifat

Reservoir

Aramoun El-Gharb

N/A

Bsous

N/A

Kfarchima

Reservoir

Hadath

Two reservoirs

Washout

Wadi Chahrour

Reservoir

Baabda (incl. Baabda, El Fayyadiyeh, El Yarzeh, El Louaizeh)

Reservoir

Hazmiyeh

One reservoir

Al Chiah

N/A

Bourj El Barajneh

N/A

Haret Hreik

N/A

The secondary level includes those villages and towns that are crossed by the tunnel. These villages are listed in Table 5 -50.

Table 5 50 Villages and towns crossed by the tunnel



        1. Description of the demographic structure


The Project’s phases fall entirely within the Mount Lebanon Governorate and across three Districts (Caza) – Chouf, Aley and Baabda. The project extends from the village of Joun where water is abstracted and delivered to three reservoirs located in the urban settlements of Hadath and Hazmieh. An extensive distribution network is planned to be constructed in the GBA to deliver the reservoirs’ water to the heavily-urbanised Beirut suburbs. Smaller reservoirs are planned to be constructed as part of the main distribution network. These reservoirs will be located in Naameh, Aramoun El-Gharb, Choueifat, Bsous, Kfarchima, Bourj El Barajneh, Al Chiah, Haret Hreik, Hazmiyeh, Baabda and Wadai Chahrour.

The areas crossed by the project are either rural or heavily urbanised. There are no accurate quantitative data on the demographic and socio-economic structures in the villages and towns where structures are due to be erected. However, a general profile of the whole Mount Lebanon governorate is summarized in Table 5 -51 to give the reader a general idea about the profile of the area.



Table 5 51 Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of communities in Mount Lebanon

        1. Governorate of Mount Lebanon

          Percentage distribution of the population by gender (2004)

          Male


          50.7

          Female

          49.3

          Fertility rate

          2 children

          Illiteracy rate

          Male

          4.5%

          Female

          1.48%

          Total

          7.51%

          Education enrollment rate by age

          5-9

          98.1

          10-14

          96.5

          15-19

          76.9

          20-24

          39.0

          25-29

          6.7

          Percentage distribution of actual labour force (≥15 years) by economic sector

          Agriculture

          1.8


          Industry

          16.3

          Construction

          5.1

          Trade

          23.2

          Transportation, post & telecommunications

          7.3

          Services

          43.3

          Insurance; Monetary and financial intermediation

          2.9

          Long-term unemployment as % of actual labour force

          2.8%

          Women’s health care during pregnancy (in 2000)

          98.4%
          General findings on development needs

Interviews with the local authority representatives on the general socio-economic and livelihood conditions revealed the extent of weakness in the infrastructure that provides water services to residents in parts of the Chouf, Aaley and Baabda districts. On the overall, the sources of water for drinking, service and irrigation purposes were varied, managed by different parties and did not meet the consumption needs of residents. There is a proliferation of private wells and municipality-owned wells that are used to supplement the intermittent water supply from water authorities. The depths of these wells reach 400 m in some areas. Water distribution networks are in a poor condition. Some municipalities have initiated repairs and installed new networks, but those remain the exception.

Wastewater networks are present in the area; however the coverage is not universal. A small percentage (~30%) of households is not connected and continues to dispose of sewage in uncontrolled septic tanks.

With the exception of the agricultural areas of Iqlim El Kharroub in the Chouf district and in the coastal agricultural plains of the Damour and Naameh, agriculture in the study area is on the wane. Water for agriculture is sourced from springs and private wells, as well as from the Damour River. It is well-documented however that the coastal aquifers are witnessing increasing salinity. Another, equally if not more important, pressure on agriculture is the urban expansion and a boom in construction in the hills overlooking Beirut from the south and the flat areas in the southern suburbs leading to fewer agricultural lands and non-built areas.

A rise in the standard of living and increasing population density place higher demands on the public infrastructure and utility provision. Water shortages in these areas are commonplace, and the population continues to adapt by tapping private sources, e.g. private wells. On the other hand, and due to the block pricing system of water, households continue to pay for a largely unmet service, whereby a subscriber annually pays for a 1m3/day provision, however water flows only 2-3 days/week on average.

These general findings were concluded upon an investigation of the livelihoods and public infrastructure in the villages and towns where the Awali-Beirut Water Conveyor will cross and/or deliver water through small reservoirs. Although the project was first intended to deliver the Awali water to the southern suburbs directly adjacent to Beirut, its planners have recognised that water shortages in the coastal villages of Iqlim El Kharroub necessitate allowing for the abstraction of water from the tunnel to supply those villages. Within the Project’s second phase, small reservoirs are planned to be built to provide a direct supply to the villages and their neighbouring localities. However, the weakness of distribution infrastructure and lack of fully-functional sanitation services may delay or dampen the anticipated benefits of augmented supplies.

        1. Findings by village


The surveys and meetings conducted in the Project study area serve to provide a general overview of the socio-economic situation in the localities which will host the Project’s infrastructure. The survey instrument used to hold structured interviews with local leaders and authority representatives is included in Appendix G. The demographic and socio-economic characteristics and features of the ‘primary level’ villages with planned surface infrastructure are portrayed below. Table 5 -52 shows a general description of the villages, including information on the educational infrastructure, socio-cultural attributes and water and wastewater services.

Joun

Joun village lies within the district of Al-Chouf at 350-400m above sea level and over an area of 12 km23. It boasts a culturally and religiously diverse community, a high literacy rate among its population and a functioning local authority. General information on Joun can be found in Table 5 -52. Specific information on the area where the regulating structure will be erected is listed in Table 5 -53. The regulating structure is planned to be sited close to the Monastery Saint Saviour, which also operates an adjoining high school, and close to the Damco Company, a producer of concrete building blocks. A staff member of the Damco Co reported that the manufacturer abstracts water from a nearby spring and uses septic tanks for sewage disposal.

In the Project’s EIA, completed in 1998, the Ministry of Environment raised questions on the impact of water abstraction on the operation of the Joun hydroelectric power plant and the resultant changes in the delivery of irrigation water to Joun’s agricultural areas (see Appendix B). This concern was also raised at the public participation meeting on May 12, 2010.

A water flow of 3m3/s (out of an average flow of 25m3/s) upstream the Joun hydroelectric power plant and into the planned tunnel is to be conveyed to Beirut. The diverted amount will not reduce the power generation at the plant because this amount of water is a surplus, owing to the fact that initial plans at the time of the plant’s design and construction had accounted for this future diversion.

A walk-over survey of the lands and structures downstream of the Joun hydroelectric power plant was conducted and interviews with river bank restaurant owners were held. The River’s water downstream is used to irrigate the agricultural lands adjacent to the river. The restaurants’ operators did not foresee any impacts on their industry from reduced water flow in the River, given that the height of water in the river could reach 3 or 4 m.

The land ownership in the area is yet to be identified through a land survey to be carried out at a future date.


Wadi Abou Yabes

The washout structure at Wadi Abou Yabes is located on the outskirts of the towns of Jamailiyeh and Sabouniyeh. The nearest activity taking place is a stone quarry site and its associated building blocks factory. The quarry site and plant obtain their water through a private well, drilled at a depth of 65 m, to supply 30-45 m3 of water daily. The future location of the washout structure in Wadi Abou Yabes and the nearby quarry site are shown in Appendix B and detailed in Table 5 -53. Information on the village of Jamailiyeh appears in Table 5 -52.


Ouardaniye

Ouardaniye falls within Iqlim Al-Kharoub of Al-Chouf District. The structures for the Ouardaniye Water Treatment Works will be located on the outskirts of the towns of Ouardaniye and Sibline, in the vicinity of agricultural plots within the jurisdiction of Ouardaniye and overlooking the Sibline cement factory (see Appendix B). All of the land lots directly affected by the project are privately owned except for one plot (No. 561-560) which is publicly owned by the State.

The number of residents in Ouardaniye is about 4,000 living in small cement buildings of 1-3 floors. The employment rate is high. Agriculture activities mainly take place in greenhouses where tomato is the main crop, accounting for nearly 5-6% of the region’s income. No common diseases were recorded in the village. General information on the Ouardaniye and Sibline villages are presented in Table 5 -52.

Regarding the infrastructure, all roads are paved and electricity is available through the national grid. The town of Ouardaniye is not served by a sewage network and disposes of its wastewater in septic tanks.

Contrary to the situation that prevailed in 1998 and which was highlighted in the previous EIA, whereby an adequate water distribution network was missing, today two water wells found at a depth of 452 m and 369 m4 respectively are used as the main water supply sources. The municipality distributes 1000 m3 of water per day via a network according to a specific schedule. In addition to this ‘official’ water network, up to 150 private wells used for private consumption are drilled in the village.

The municipality has a pending request, submitted in 2005, for the designation of a protected area within the jurisdiction of Ouardaniye.


Al-Damour

Al-Damour is a large town of 30,000 registered inhabitants, but only one-third of the town’s ‘citizens’ are residents, while only 1,000 households are occupied around the year, due to the displacement of residents during the civil war and high emigration rate to urban centers. The town area extends from the Damour agricultural plains on the coast up to the mountains and deep valleys through which the Damour River runs. A fifth of the town’s lands are agricultural with a total of 100 ha of cultivated areas – mostly bananas and vegetables, which are irrigated from the River and municipality-owned wells. The town’s drinking and service water is derived from municipality-owned and managed wells, as well as from private wells. A ventilation shaft is planned to be constructed to the south of the Damour River, in an uninhabited area (see Appendix C). The mountains and valleys of Damour are touristic areas, with restaurants and cafés scattered on the river banks. Further north to the ventilation shaft, a washout will be constructed close to some of the restaurants. The owner of one of the restaurants reported the lack of water and wastewater networks and the presence of four lined septic tanks at a 3m depth in the restaurant’s premises. Most of the lands are privately owned. General information on Al-Damour is presented in Table 5 -52.



Mechref

Mechref village is located north of Al-Damour and the Damour River and lies within the district of Al-Chouf. It is regarded as a resort town with holiday homes. The main surface structure to lie within the village boundaries will be a ventilation shaft south of the village and far from currently inhabited areas (See Appendix C). Sub-surface structures will be passing right underneath the village. Land use, land ownership and water infrastructure are issues that are yet to be examined in the Mechref village.


Naameh

Naameh lies within the district of Al-Chouf at an altitude of 100m above sea level. The majority of lands (98%) are privately owned and the rest are owned by the municipality. The village is witnessing a construction boom whereby 150-200 building permits were handed out in the last three years. Currently there are 26,000 residents in Naameh. Agriculture is practiced on 30% of the land in Naameh. The major agricultural crops grown are vegetables, bananas and strawberries. Irrigation water is supplied from the Damour River and from private wells. Most crops are irrigated using the drip technique; meanwhile bananas are surface-irrigated.

Drinking and service water are supplied through Ain El Delbeh water authority, the Mechref wells operated by the Beirut and Mount Lebanon Water and Wastewater Establishment, private wells and a municipality well. Despite the variety of sources, the village reports a shortage in water. The majority of households (80%) receive their water through a distribution network, which is however in a poor state. The majority of households (70%) are connected to the sewage network.


Khaldeh

Khaldeh, which is considered as a residential and touristic area, falls under the jurisdiction of the municipality of Choueifat in the Aley District. It is a coastal area that is rapidly urbanizing with 15,000-20,000 residents living in cement buildings of 1-4 floors.

All the land lots which are directly affected by the project are privately owned and the village is well-serviced with paved roads. A water distribution network runs through Khaldeh and is supplied from the Mechref village. According to the head of the Choueifat municipality, the water pipes have all been repaired this year. Also, several privately drilled wells exist in the village with a depth ranging from 30-60 m but water is slightly salty. Furthermore a sewer network is present and is connected to the collector in Khaldeh. No common diseases were recorded in the area.

Khaldeh will be the site of several surface structures: a measurement and sampling chamber, a surge shaft and a distribution chamber. The first two structures will be located near residences, and the land ownership has to be determined. The distribution chamber will be located in a vacant land plot near the highway (see Appendix C).

The head of the Choueifat municipality strongly opposed the Project for the following reasons:


  • As mentioned above, the water pipes have all been repaired this year and the costs incurred were high. The municipality will not accept any errors that could damage the newly installed pipes.

  • The land is rocky and it would be too difficult to pass pipelines or tunnels through it.

  • The idea of getting water from South Lebanon is not favourable and it would be preferable to get if from Al-Kaleb River or to drill wells. He also proposed to establish desalination stations or to even recycle water.
  • The old Saida road suffered from the density of ground-based extensions of different types and will not tolerate any more pipelines.


Choueifat

Choueifat is a large urban town of 200,000 residents, spreading over 18 sq. km. It is also witnessing a boom in construction, where an average of six building permits are authorised every month (over 200 permits in the last three years). Irrigation water for the little remaining agricultural lands is supplied from springs and private wells. Water in the town is supplied through a municipality well and five public wells operated by the Ain el Delbeh water authority, whose depths range from 30 to 200 m.



Aramoun El-Gharb

Aramoun lies in the district of Aley at 450m altitude. It is a predominantly residential village with 4,000 household units and 16,000 permanent residents. The village has rapidly grown in the past decade. In the last three years, 120 building permits were approved. The water supplied to the village is sourced from springs and a municipality well located at a 400m depth, in addition to a small amount from the Barouk water authority. The village faces shortages in water, whereby water is supplied for 12 hours per week. The existing water distribution network is in a poor state and does not reach all households. The majority of households are connected to a sewage network, which however is in a state of disrepair.


Bsous

Bsous is a rural village in the district of Aley situated at an altitude of 450m above sea level. One-third of the land is used for agricultural purposes, another third is forested land and the remaining areas are built-up. The small village of 2.5 sq. km counts 600 household units, 3,000 permanent residents and 5,500 residents during the summer months. Agricultural areas mostly consist of olive and almond orchards which are irrigated from harvested rain water through drip and surface irrigation.

Drinking and service water are supplied through a public well that is operated and managed by the water authority, and distributed through a well-maintained distribution network on a daily basis. The village is serviced a wastewater collection network covering 75% of the households. The remaining households retain septic tanks for sewage disposal.


Kfarchima

Kfarchima is a semi-urban locality located in the district of Baabda between 100 and 250 m above sea level and covering a land surface of 5 sq. km. Half of the land consists of built-up areas, and the rest are divided equally among agricultural areas and natural areas consisting mostly of forests. The resident population is estimated at around 20,000 occupying 2,000 household units. The municipality of Kfarchima reports approving only 30 building permits in the past three years. The agricultural lands in Kfarchima are used for growing vegetables and as olive orchards, and are irrigated from the local spring through drip and surface irrigation techniques. The Ain El Delbeh Water Authority operates two wells in Kfarchima and the water is conveyed to the residents by gravity and pumping through an aging distribution network that has been recently replaced by a newer one, which however has not yet been put in service. The village is served by an old wastewater collection network that is in a poor state.


Hadath

Hadath is a large urban centre lying in the Baabda District between 50 and 300 m above sea level and covering an area of 5.5 sq. km. It counted 150,000 residents in 2002. Its low-lying areas are considered an extension of the southern suburbs of Beirut. The area has witnessed a very rapid growth in newly built areas and a concentration of new businesses. It is primarily a residential and commercial town with some light industrial activity. It is home to many public service institutions, is well-developed and well-serviced through road networks. General information on the town of Hadath appears in Table 5 -52.

The town of Hadath is served through a municipality-owned and managed water distribution network. The town receives its water supply from the Ain El-Delbeh Water Authority. It is also served by a wastewater network.

Hadath will be the home of two reservoirs (see Appendix C). Both reservoirs lie in sparsely populated areas; however, there are residences that are very close to the planned site of the new structures.


Baabda

Baabda is the Baabda’s District centre town. It has a permanent resident population of 40,000 and 7,000 household units. The neighbourhoods of Fayyadiyeh, Louaizeh and Yarzeh fall under the authority of the Baabda municipality. These areas are highly sought by property developers due to their proximity to Beirut and their relatively secluded location. The Baabda municipality handed out 300 building permits in the last three years. Water is supplied from the Ain El Delbeh Water Authority as well as from a well in Yarzeh that is operated by the Baabda municipality and is 350m deep. All households were reported to be connected to the sources through a distribution network of average quality. The majority of households are connected to the wastewater network.



Hazmieh

Hazmieh is a large urban area next to Hadath lying between 50 and 150 m above sea level over 3.05 sq. km. It has a resident population of 40,000 occupying 8,000 household units. Similar to Hadath, it is a rapidly urbanizing area that is home to several public service institutions – such as the Ministry of Public Works. It counts 6,500 residents and has a strong presence of bank branches (over 10 bank branches). Its drinking and service water are supplied from the Spring of Daichouniyeh through the Ain El-Delbeh Water Authority and distributed through a public network to all residents at a rate of 2-3 days per week. The local authority representative, who was interviewed, reported quality problems and shortages in the summer season. Hazmieh is served by a wastewater network. General information on the town of Hazmieh is shown in Table 5 -52.

A reservoir is planned to be built in Hazmieh in a vacant land plot (Appendix C). The land ownership and designated land use have yet to be determined.

Chiah

Chiah is an urban locality with a high population density. Water is supplied to the estimated 7,000 household units from the Ain El Delbeh Water Authority sources. Residents do not consider the water of drinking quality and prefer to buy bottled water for drinking purposes. All households are connected to the distribution network which is reported to be in an average condition. All households are also connected to the wastewater collection network.


Bourj El Barajneh

Bourj El Barajneh is a densely populated suburb right outside the city of Beirut. A total resident population of 250,000 inhabitants dwell in 35,000 units built over 5 sq. km. Built areas take up 90% of all the land area. Nevertheless, the municipality handed out 55 new building permits in the last three years. Sparse agricultural lands can still be found with vegetables grown. Water is provided through the Ain El Delbeh Water Authority sources, private wells and through private haulers to households, especially for drinking water. A well-maintaind distribution network connects the public water sources to all residents. The area is also served by a well-maintained sewage collection network.



Haret Hreik

Haret Hreik is another heavily urbanised, densely populated suburb to the south of the city of Beirut covering less than 2 sq. km. Yet, it counts 25,000 household units occupied by more than 100,000 residents. It is served by the Ain El Delbeh Water Authority and receives its water from the Spring of Daichouniyeh and private wells. A distribution network is present; however it is in a poor state and covers only 10% of households. Wastewater and storm water networks are present and provide coverage to all households and roads.

Table 5 52 General features of surveyed towns and villages

Village/ Town

General Description

Livelihood activities

Education, Culture, Community & Public Infrastructure


Water & Wastewater Services

Other information

Joun

Population: 7500-8000

Altitude: 350-400 m

Surface area: 12 km2

Land ownership: 20-30% publicly owned, and the remaining is privately owned

Land use: 80% is designated for agricultural use


Agriculture: Olive groves; Citrus orchards; Vegetables and Flowers in greenhouses; the majority of designated agricultural lands remain uncultivated due to the lack of irrigation water

Industry: Agro-food (Olive oil; Orange Blossom water; Rose water; Carob molasses); Manufacture of Nylon, Tyres and concrete building blocks

Commerce: Small shops and garages


High literacy rate (95%)

Two public & two private schools

Public Library

Afforestation campaigns

Sports facilities

Monastery of Saint Saviour

Archaeological features

Old stone houses

One dispensary & resident doctors


Drinking, service and irrigation water is supplied by the Barouk Water Authority and distributed through a public network

A public, municipal well supplements the supply in addition to many private wells in privately-owned lands

Small hillside reservoirs for rain water harvesting

No sewage network; septic tanks are used


A land survey is underway

60-70 building permits were handed out in the last three years

60% of the population are seasonal residents


Jamailiyeh

Land ownership: the majority is privately owned

Land use: Residential and commercial, no agricultural or industry-designated lands



Agriculture: Very little agricultural activities take place

Industry: Quarry site and associated building blocks factory

Commerce: Small shops and garages


No public or private schools

Drinking, service and irrigation water is supplied through the Barouk Water Authority and distributed through a public network

No private wells were reported

No sewage network; septic tanks are used


A land survey has been carried out

Ouardaniye

Population: 4000

Altitude: 350 m



Agriculture: Vegetable production in greenhouses

Industry: A grain mill and building blocks factories

Commerce: Restaurant/Café


One public & one private school

One dispensary



Water is supplied through public wells, at depths of 452m and 369m, managed by the municipality, which also manages a distribution network

Up to 150 private wells are drilled in the village

No sewage network; septic tanks are used





Sibline

Population: 1200

Altitude: 350 m

Land ownership: The majority of lands are privately owned


Agriculture: Very little agricultural activities, mostly vegetable production, take place

Industry: Sibline Cement Factory; Shoe factory; Chocolate factory; Granite factory; Tarmac factory

Commerce: Swimming Club; Small shops and garages


One public, one private & one UNRWA-operated vocational school

One public hospital, one dispensary & many resident doctors

Archaeological features

Electricity & phone infrastructure



The Spring of Sibline

Water is supplied through public wells, at depths of 350m and 260 m, managed by the municipality, which also manages a reservoir and a distribution network

Private wells are also used

The Barouk Water Authority has not supplied water to Sibline since the 1970s

A municipality-owned & managed sewage network covers 85% of households; the rest use septic tanks


70-80 building permits were handed out in the last three years

Al-Damour

Population: 30,000

Resident population: 10,000 (due to displacement & emigration)

Land ownership: The majority of lands are privately owned

Land use: 20% are in agricultural use



Agriculture: 100 ha of banana plantations and vegetable production

Commerce: Restaurants/Cafés; Small shops and garages


Two public & three private schools

Archaeological features

One dispensary & resident doctors


The Damour River waters are used for irrigation

Drinking and service water are supplied through municipal public wells and private wells

A sewage network is present but is not operational; septic tanks are used


A land survey has been carried out

Around 30 building permits were handed out in the last three years



Naameh

Resident Population: 26,000

Agriculture is practiced on 30% of the land in Naameh. The major agricultural crops grown are vegetables, bananas and strawberries. Irrigation water is supplied from the Damour River and from private wells. Most crops are irrigated using the drip technique; meanwhile bananas are surface-irrigated.





Drinking and service water are supplied through Ain El Delbeh water authority, the Mechref wells operated by the Water and Mount Lebanon Water Establishment, private wells and a municipality well. Despite the variety of sources, the village reports a shortage in water. The majority of households (80%) receive their water through a distribution network, which is however in a poor state. The majority of households (70%) are connected to the sewage network.


The village is witnessing a construction boom whereby 150-200 building permits were handed out in the last three years.

Choueifat

Resident population: 200,000

Little remaining agricultural lands





Water in the town is supplied through a municipality well and five public wells operated by the Ain el Delbeh water authority, whose depths range from 30 to 200 m.


witnessing a boom in construction, where an average of six building permits are authorized every month (over 200 permits in the last three years).

Aramoun El Gharb

16,000 permanent residents

Little remaining agricultural lands




The water supplied to the village is sourced from springs and a municipality well located at a 400m depth, in addition to a small amount from the Barouk water authority. The village faces shortages in water, whereby water is supplied for 12 hours per week. The existing water distribution network is in a poor state and does not reach all households. The majority of households are connected to a sewage network, which however is in a state of disrepair.





Bsous

600 household units, 3,000 permanent residents and 5,500 residents during the summer months.


One-third of the land is used for agricultural purposes

Agricultural areas mostly consist of olive and almond orchards which are irrigated from harvested rain water through drip and surface irrigation.






Drinking and service water are supplied through a public

well that is operated and managed by the water authority, and distributed through a well-maintained distribution network on a daily basis. The village is serviced a wastewater collection network covering 75% of the households. The remaining households retain septic tanks for sewage disposal






Kfarchima

The resident population is estimated at around 20,000 occupying 2,000 household units


Agricultural lands in Kfarchima are used for growing vegetables and as olive orchards, and are irrigated from the local spring through drip and surface irrigation techniques.




The Ain El Delbeh Water Authority operates two wells in Kfarchima and the water is conveyed to the residents by gravity and pumping through an aging distribution network that has been recently replaced by a newer one, which however has not yet been put in service. The village is served by an old wastewater collection network that is in a poor state.


The municipality of Kfarchima reports approving only 30 building permits in the past three years.

Hadath

Population: 150,000

Industry: Light industries – Elevators, towels, tiles

Commerce: Banks & shops



Many public service institutions

Four public, 10 private & two vocational schools; three universities, including the largest Lebanese University campus

Two hospitals, three dispensarys and many resident doctors


Water is supplied through the Ain El-Delbeh water authority and distributed through a municipally-owned and managed network

A sewage network is present and operational





Hazmieh


Population: 6,500

Commerce: Over 10 banks and numerous offices

Many public service institutions

One public & six private schools; three universities

Two hospitals, one dispensary and many resident doctors


Water is supplied through the Ain El-Delbeh water authority from the Daichouniyeh Spring and distributed through a network

A sewage network is present and operational






Bourj El Barajneh

Population: 250,000

Surface area: 5km2

Altitude: 0-30 m

Land ownership: All lands are privately owned

Land use: 90% are built-up areas


Services: Commerce; traders; small shops; petrol stations

Many public service institutions

Six public and numerous private schools



Two private hospitals, many resident doctors, health centres, pharmacies and dentists








Table 5 53 Main establishments in the study area

No.

Village/Town

Structure


Geographic system WGS1984

Main observed establishments

Reference

Latitude

Longitude



Joun

Regulating Structure

33°34'49.27"N

35°26'18.95"E

DAMCO Company - building blocks company - located near a Greek Catholic monastery known as Deir El-Mokhalless (Monastery Saint Saviour)

Figure C1



Wadi Abou Yabes

Washout

33°35'46.50"N

35°25'44.77"E

Quarry and Building blocks factory

Figure C2



Ouardaniye

Water Treatment Works

33°37'1.31"N

35°25'3.83"E

Sibline Cement Factory

Figure C3




Damour

Washout

33°42'4.20"N

35°28'15.54"E

Several restaurants were recorded:

  • Aoun Restaurant

  • Mohanna Restaurant

  • Safa Restaurant

Figure C5



Hadath

Reservoir (at an altitude of 90m)

33°49'45.00"N

35°31'49.29"E

REGIE Libanaise des Tabacs et Tombacs

Figure C11



Hadath

Reservoir (at an altitude of 125m)

33°49'46.07"N

35°31'55.66"E

  • Saint George Hills Residential Project

  • Saydet Al Najat School

Figure C10



Hazmieh

Reservoir (at an altitude of 90m)

33°51'0.20"N

35°32'11.14"E


The area around the reservoir is considered as a residential area which includes several stores such as Supermarket Abou Khalil

Figure C12



Aramoun

N/A

33°45'46.28"N

35°29'16.99"E

Al Sa’ed residential project; it is under construction and extends over a surface of about 33 000 m2. It will include 15% of public spaces as well as roads, parking and gardens.

Drinking water needs are supplied from both a private water well running at a depth of 250 m and the regular water network




New Doha

N/A

33°45'32.52"N

35°29'22.12"E

Sky Tower Residential Project



Baawerte

N/A

33°44'6.12"N

35°29'4.17"E

Homes in Baawerte village




Mechref

N/A

33°43'0.22"N

35°28'33.55"E

Carmel Saint Joseph school; it’s worth noting that officials from this school have expressed their resentment against the project and clearly stated that they will object passing the pipelines beneath the school.






N/A

33°42'48.81"N

35°28'59.64"E

Hariri Canadian University (HCU)






N/A

33°40'27.18"N

35°27'47.46"E

Beirut Arab University (BAU)



Naameh

N/A

33°45'1.75"N

35°29'30.20"E

Naameh landfill




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