Earth Link and Advanced Resources Development s a. r L. (Elard) Submitted to: Council for Development and Reconstruction

Environmental and Social Management Plan

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Environmental and Social Management Plan

Table 1 7 Summary of Environmental and Social Management Plan



Mitigation Measures

Institutional Responsibilities
(incl. enforcement & coordination)

Cost estimate

Construction Environmental and Social Management Plan (CESMP)

Site Clearance/ Excavation

Drilling/blasting, pipeline construction and tunnel boring works (to a lesser extent)

Solid and liquid waste generation from camp operations (such as sanitary facilities and kitchen) and pipelines pressure testing)
Accidental chemical / oil spills or leaks (from excavators and tunnel boring machine)

Disturbance to land/landscape (Land scaring from Project Footprint)
Compromised Visual Amenity
Contamination of soil quality.

Limiting the land clearance area required for pipelines in the vicinity of forested areas of Khalde; Planning and marking access routes and adopting minimum safe operating width

Using existing tracks/ routes to reduce the size of the impacted area;

Minimizing (whenever possible) the time and space of heavy machinery use and constructing intensive activities and using whenever possible existing and previously disturbed land and roads to access site and avoiding off-road driving, areas crossing wadis or that are prone to erosion;

Avoiding excessive removal of topsoil and minimizing grading and clearing of vegetation;

Stabilization of topsoil and spoil stockpiles along the pipelines previously removed during excavation works and using it as cover material whenever possible during backfilling and site restoration;

A preliminary project handover and restoration plan should be developed that identifies disposal options for all equipment and materials, including products used and wastes generated on site;

Project handover (end of Construction) should comprise the complete closure of the labor camps including the removal of all equipments and vehicles and other fixtures and infrastructures and covering of trenches and restoring of all sites to original state.

Reduce the use of blasted debris as much as possible and allow backfilling and site restoration from topsoil and spoil excavated by conventional methods (such as drilling) and generated by the tunnel boring works;

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Perform a soil sampling campaign in the Project affected areas, specifically where blasting activities took place, in order to document the soil conditions (physic-chemical characteristics, petroleum contamination, etc.) following the cessation of construction works

Environmental Consultant (to be hired by CDR)


Loading and Unloading operations (at construction sites and spoil handling facilities)

Truck transportation (haulage)

Operation of on-site diesel-fuelled generators

Increase in ambient dust levels

(fugitive dust emissions)

Increase in combustion/exhaust emissions (release of combustion gases, NOx, CO2,SO2, CO)

All vehicles, plant and equipment engines shall be properly maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions to maximize combustion efficiency and minimize emissions;

Usage of vehicles/machines equipped with exhaust emission control units;

All trucks transporting material likely to generate dust should be properly covered according to Lebanese requirements;

Maintenance and reporting of monthly fuel consumption records;

Any machinery, which is intermittent in use, should be shut off in periods of non use or, where this is impracticable to be throttled back to a minimum;

Small combustion source emissions (with a capacity of up to 50 megawatt hours thermal (MWth)) should adhere to the IFC emission standards for exhaust emissions in the General EHS Guidelines and MoE Decision 8/1 of 2001, whichever stricter;

Combustion source emissions with a capacity of greater than 50 MWth should comply with the IFC EHS Guidelines for Thermal Power;

Implement proper dust control measures. Measures will include the damping down of dust if excavations are occurring in high winds, rig dust suppression units and the covering piles of excavated material to prevent mobilization (with nets or matting);

Efficient scheduling of deliveries as well as establishing and enforcing appropriate speed limits over all paved and unpaved surfaces (< 40 km/h) via a Traffic Management Plan (TMP) approved by the Project Proponent.

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Drilling/blasting, pipeline construction
Vehicular movement and Equipment operation

Increase in ambient noise level

Fitting all machinery and vehicles with effective exhaust silencers;

Maintaining all machinery and vehicles in good repair and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions;

Limit the working hours when near sensitive sites (schools, health care unit, etc.);

Proper selection of equipment for the specific tasks considering the lowest sound power level;

Maintenance of equipment as not to create unnecessary noise owing to mechanical problems;

Operation of equipment in a manner considerate to the ambient noise background;

Avoidance of leaving equipment idling unnecessary;

Elimination of tonal, impulsive or low frequency noise through noise control engineering techniques where feasible (e.g. dampers, fitting of mufflers, etc.)

Provision of alternative methods if necessary (substituting hammering actions with hydraulics);

Provision by the Contractor of adequate buffer zone with sensitive populations in the Project Area;

Mandatory use of noise plugs during noisy activities and

Proper communication with receptors whenever highly noisy events are planned

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Vehicular movement &

Truck Trips/Haulage

Traffic congestion

Liaising with community and government by a dedicated resource in the field throughout the duration of the project (i.e. establishing a complaint register to document potential public complaints.

Clearly identify the project footprint to avoid accidents during further development of the area particularly in the designated and construction sites.

Having a Traffic Management Plan (TMP);

Allowing only certified and trained drivers to carry out transportation related activities;

Having an Emergency Response Procedures in place; and

Having a maintenance program to all vehicles associated with construction activities.

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Fuel, Oil and Chemical Handling and Storage

Contamination of soil quality and groundwater resources


Where appropriate, fuel, oil and chemicals stores will be sited in specific designated areas on site on an impervious base within a suitably contained area;

The fuel storage facilities will have a secondary containment, such as a berm, capable of holding the capacity of the largest container plus 10% to accommodate rainfall;

Fresh oil and waste oil will be segregated and stored separately to prevent a potential risk of mixing;

All storage tanks will be positioned to minimize the risks of damage by impact; All storage tanks will be of sufficient strength and structural integrity; No storage tank will be used for the storage of fuel, oil or chemicals unless its material and construction are compatible with the type of materials to be stored and storage conditions (e.g. pressure and temperature);

Drip trays will be installed underneath equipment such as diesel generators, transformers to contain leakage. The drip trays will be maintained and kept drained of rainwater; and

All fuel and oil will be inventoried and use recorded.


Supervision of refueling at all times by appropriate personnel: Checks to fill hoses, valves and nozzles for signs of wear and tear prior to operation; Checks to tank levels prior to delivery to prevent overfilling through side glass or manually by dipstick logs;

Locating fill pipes within the containment (unless shut-off valves are fitted); Grounding of tanks and grounding of vehicles during fuel transfers; and

Ensuring a supply of suitable absorbent materials is available at re-fuelling points for use in dealing with minor spills. If a leak or spill occurs during loading or offloading operations, the operations will be stopped and the spill will be contained, cleaned up and collected based on the Spill Response Plan.


Personnel handling chemicals will be trained in their handling and use and aware of the associated hazards including the personnel protective equipment (PPE) requirements through pre-task instruction.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for all chemicals supplied will be held at the storage area, the point of use and by the site medical staff and site ES&SR representative; Safety signage will be in place;

All chemical deliveries (loading and unloading operations) will be supervised at all times and will be transferred to a secure storage area without delay;

Storage of chemicals will be sited on designated areas at the site; an inventory of all chemicals on site will be kept and use will be recorded. Chemicals will be properly packaged, labeled and stored; Dangerous/hazard chemicals will be stored separately;

Chemical storage drums will be in good condition and with sealed bungs. All used drums will be washed / flushed with water and pierced before leaving the site to prevent local use and subsequent exposure to contaminants if they are not able to be returned to the original supplier.

All tanks and containers will be clearly labeled with the nature of the contents and placarded with the MSDS. The storage of chemical products in containers or on palettes equipped with plastic dust cover against severe weather. Chemicals will be shaded. Chemical storage drums and packaging are to be returned to the original supplier in an orderly fashion i.e. palletized and shrink wrapped.

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Waste Management

Contamination of soil quality and groundwater resources

CDR shall promote the use of a Licensed Municipal Waste Facility in coordination with MoE.

All personnel shall be responsible for ensuring that standards of “good housekeeping” are maintained. This will include clearance of all rubbish and work associated debris;

Contractors to include a waste management plan as part of CEMP.

And CDR to ensure that solid waste management is included in the contractor’s agreement.

Implementation: CDR/Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred


Site clearance /excavation and spoil stockpiling activities
Accidental spills
Tunneling activities

Contamination of groundwater Quality

Clean up spills if any with an absorbent material such as cat litter.

Develop a contingency plan to prevent potential groundwater contamination.

Passing water resulting from tunneling and excavation through oil separator prior to discharge in the event that it has been contaminated with oily residues.

Minimize the planned amount of land to be disturbed as much as possible.

Use special construction techniques in areas of steep slopes, erodible soils, and stream crossings.

Reclaim or apply protective covering (e.g., vegetative cover) on disturbed soils as quickly as possible.

Avoid creating excessive slopes during excavation and blasting operations since these activities accelerate water percolation into ground.

Monitor construction near aquifer recharge areas to reduce potential contamination of the aquifer.

Disposal of excess excavation materials in approved areas to control erosion and minimize leaching of hazardous materials.

Impose site-specific Best Management Practices, potentially including silt fences, hay bales, vegetative covers, and diversions, to reduce impacts to surface water from the deposition of sediments beyond the construction areas.

Immediate implementation of the Oil spill response plan in case of accidental events.

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Site clearance /Excavation
Vehicular movement

Destruction of natural habitat (loss of forested areas and few native flora species)

Develop a detailed plants Inventory at the 3 identified sensitive sites (Ouardaniye WTW, Nahr Damour Siphon/Washout and Khalde Flow measurement and sampling chamber) prior and post construction activities commencement as part of CEMP;

Developing an ecosystem rehabilitation plan to regenerate and reintroduce some of the native species of trees (especially at the most degraded areas) present in the studied area, therefore leading to positive impacts on biodiversity.

Implementation: Biodiversity expert


Special effort and attention should be given to the 4 sensitive sites

Limiting vehicular transport to defined roads as to prevent unnecessary damage to vegetation;

Preserving top soil excavated by conventional methods (such as drilling);

Avoiding introducing invasive plant species (e.g. weeds).

All affected areas must be replanted with indigenous species appropriate to the respective sites; and

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

Biodiversity expert

No cost incurred

Physical excavation (blasting, site clearance, trenching)

Demolition, alteration of or damage to archaeological resources, whether on surface or below-ground

Prepare a brochure to help crew members recognize any discovery of buried antiquities; and



Direct reporting to local authorities (DGA) in case of new findings during Construction and proper documentation of historic sites.

Implementation: Contractor.

Supervision: ESM

No cost incurred

Land Expropriation

Permanent and irreversible loss of land and some loss of agricultural greenhouses (agricultural business)
Temporary severance / disturbance of public rights-of-way and access to community resources and services.

Consultation with potentially affected communities prior to expropriation procedures.

Fair and full compensation for land and other assets expropriated for the project in the public interest as stated in the Lebanese expropriation law (Law No. 58/1991 and its amendments (2006))..

Compensation to local farmers who lost their agricultural lands (loss of livelihood);

Preparation of a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) (ongoing) as per the World Bank standards.


No cost incurred

Fuel and Chemicals handling & storage

Contamination of soil quality and groundwater resources

Selecting appropriate locations for septic tanks installation as to avoid leakage and contamination of groundwater.

Immediate cleaning of a spill by removing affected top soil layer by trained employees

Continuous in-situ sampling of soil in the vicinity and underneath the spill for potential contaminant; and

Stopping the source of spill (close valve, seal pipe, seal hole etc…);

Refueling in a designated fueling area that includes a temporary berm to limit, if not prevent, the spread of any spill.

Implementation: WTW operator

Supervision: During the first year of operation: ESM

After project handover: Environmental representative from BMLWWA

No cost incurred

Wastewater generation (sanitary/process)

Contamination of soil quality and groundwater resources

CDR should commission local contractor for the collection of domestic wastewater and disposal to nearest public sewerage network ( Frequency will be based on septic tank volume)

Implementation: Local contractor

Supervision year of operation: ESM

After project handover: Environmental representative from BMLWWA

200 (unit cost)

Adopting as much as possible dry cleaning techniques to decrease resultant wastewater, and to avoid flushing of spills to deeper soil layers.

Develop a stormwater management plan to ensure compliance with regulations and prevent off-site migration of contaminated stormwater.

Implementation: WTW Operator

Supervision: During the first year of operation: ESM

After project handover: Environmental representative from BMLWWA

No cost incurred

Leaching from Naameh landfill

Contamination of groundwater quality

Regular monitoring wells data inspection for the section of the tunnel lying downstream the land fill

Giving additional consideration for the subject strip during maintenance of the tunnel

Checking for any fissures or fractures in the tunnel wall during maintenance

During the first year of operation: ESM

After project handover: Environmental representative from BMLWA

Sludge handling and disposal

Contamination of groundwater resources

Design considerations for sludge management include dewatering and thickening processes prior to disposal.

Re-use of separated water at the inlet of the WTW instead of discharge of liquid effluent to wadis. In the event of effluent discharge into the Wadi (following sludge dewatering), the former should comply with the Lebanese new standards for discharge into receiving water bodies (Decision No. 8/1).

Investigate the disposal of sludge cake to the Naameh landfill instead of quarry rehabilitation. (In the latter case, potential for percolation/leaching into groundwater).

Implementation: WTW Operator

Supervision: During the first year of operation: ESM

After project handover: Environmental representative from BMLWWA

No cost incurred

Operation of pumping stations

Nuisance to noise-sensitive receptors

Fitting all equipment and pumps with effective exhaust silencers

Proper selection of pumps for the specific task considering the lowest sound power level; and,

Maintenance of pumping stations as not to create unnecessary noise owing to mechanical problems

Insulating generator rooms and engines.

Implementation: WTW Contractor

Supervision: During the first year of operation: ESM

After project handover: Environmental representative from BMLWWA

No cost incurred

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