Also on the program today, a special event for millions of people and the music stars you may not even know.
Those items later... but first to our top story this week. Lots of horrible things happen in war zones, people are hurt or killed, and sometimes it's not because of the fighting. Investigators have to find out what happened and they need clues. Lucy explains how difficult it can be to piece together all the evidence.
Crime Scene Investigation
Lucy Andrew, reporter
Australian troops have been serving in Iraq.
In April this year, an Australian soldier, Private Jake Kovco was killed by a bullet from his own gun. How it happened is a mystery that is now being investigated.
A military inquiry has heard that the scene of Kovco's death was cleaned up before civilian police from Australia arrived. That means important evidence could have been destroyed making it difficult for investigators to figure out what happened.
To help us explain why, we've set up our own mystery.
REPORTER: When an unexpected death or crime occurs, the police seal off the area so they can collect evidence and work out what's happened.
Each bit of evidence is like a piece of a puzzle. By putting all the evidence together you build up a picture of what's happened. That's what I'm going to do here.
Liana's parents are blaming her for being careless and ruining her homework.... but Liana insists it wasn't her.
REPORTER: Let's see what we can find out from the scene of this crime.
Investigators collect things like DNA...fingerprints...
REPORTER: This one should work; it's on a smooth surface ….fibres or hairs...and samples of any liquids.
REPORTER: I'll send these off to the lab.
Investigators also interview any people involved.
REPORTER: So Liana, what happened?
LIANA: I had a drink of orange juice and put it on the table then I went upstairs to get a book and when I came back the glass was tipped over and orange juice had ruined my homework.
Back at the lab, they're analysing the results.
Everybody has a unique fingerprint pattern. Liana's fingerprints were found on the glass.... but we also found someone else’s fingerprints.
So what about the DNA sample?
DNA also has a unique pattern. When it is processed in a lab it forms a series of lines. The DNA pattern found on the glass doesn't match Liana's DNA.
What does Liana have to say about this?
LIANA: Well Mum and Dad said I couldn't have anyone over but my friend Jade dropped around and she did have a glass of orange juice while she was here …
Great! We've solved the case. It was Jade! She broke the glass and ruined your homework.
LIANA: But she couldn't have. She left at least 10 minutes before I went to get my book.
Fingerprints and DNA can identify who touched something but not when.
REPORTER: That will be the lab. Hello. Right. Interesting. OK, thanks Q.
The lab has looked at the hair samples and one of the samples is not human.
LIANA: Ohh! Tammy!
Liana has a dog, Tammy, and I think she could be at fault.
When we look closely you can see a small tear in the tablecloth and what appears to be orange juice on her fur.
I'll send this sample to the lab but I think I know what happened.
While Liana was upstairs, Tammy, pulled on the tablecloth, the glass tipped, spilling orange juice and destroying Liana's homework.
A crime scene can fill in the pieces of the puzzle and tell you a lot about what really happened. Liana’s name is cleared and she can blame her dog for ruining her homework.
This is how all kinds of official investigations are handled.
But if the evidence isn't left for investigators, they may never know what happened.
Other stories in the news this week ...
Firefighters have been battling more than 50 bushfires across New South Wales.
Wild winds and high temperatures made conditions very difficult.
7 homes were destroyed and two people died in the fires.
Millions of people around the world watched the television broadcast of Steve Irwin's memorial last week.
Five thousand people including Irwin's family, stars and politicians were at Australia Zoo as the world said goodbye to the croc hunter.
And thousands of people also turned out for the state funeral of motor racing champion Peter Brock.
Melbourne's St Paul's Cathedral was packed for the service and he was also honored at the Bathurst track where he won nine races.
The government of Thailand has been thrown out of power by the country's military.
This is called a coup and it's happened before in Thailand. But this time it there was no fighting and the Thai people seem quite happy about the change.
Most of you are probably Australian citizens... woohoo come on Aussie!
People from other countries can become Aussie citizens too and for them it's pretty exciting. But like most things, there are rules and at the moment the government wants to change those rules.
Andrea explains what's going on.
Andrea Nicolas, reporter
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: We sit all kinds of tests: Maths, Science, English... but how would you go sitting a test about Australia?
Well, it could become compulsory for migrants who are applying for Australian citizenship.
People who are born in Australia are automatically Australian citizens, as long as one of their parents is an Australian citizen or a permanent resident.
Australian citizens have the right to live in Australia. But permanent residents are from another country and have been given permission to live in Australia as long as they want, unless they commit serious crimes.
Australian citizens have the right to:
apply for an Australian passport.
run for Parliament.
vote in federal and state elections.
apply for financial help for study
participate in a range of job opportunities.
Australian citizens are also expected to obey the law, enrol to vote, serve on a jury if called, and defend their country if needed.
After living in Australia for 2 years, a permanent resident can apply to become an Australian Citizen.
They must have an interview, and show that they can speak some English as well as understand the rights and responsibilities of Australian Citizenship.
If they pass the interview, the last step is making the Australian citizenship pledge, which is done as part of a public ceremony.
PLEDGE: From this time forward,
I pledge my loyalty to Australia and its people whose democratic beliefs I share,
whose rights and liberties I respect, and whose laws I will uphold and obey.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: Now the Government wants to make some changes.
It wants permanent residents to live in Australia for 4 years instead of 2 before they can apply for citizenship and have a much stronger grasp of English.
Nhom-Bath from Sudan is applying to become an Aussie citizen.
NHOM-BATH: Actually it's difficult to learn English. If you know how to speak English, you might get a job. You also come in good with people. So it's very important to learn English.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: Melissa from Zimbabwe has always spoken English, but if the laws are changed it could be another 3 years before she can become a citizen.
MELISSA: In Art class, we had this summer scholarship to visit Canberra and that's in January and I couldn't go because I'm not a citizen and that was really frustrating.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: Not being a citizen will also stop her from voting.
The government also wants migrants to sit for a citizenship test. The test would include questions about Australian laws and values, such as democracy and equality, and would also include questions about Australian customs.
NHOM-BATH GRAB: It might be very interesting and I'll maybe learn some things in doing that.
MELISSA: I don't think it would be a bad idea. It's not that much of a hassle to fill in a test thing.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: Sitting a citizenship test is not a new thing… In Canada people applying for citizenship are asked questions about history, geography, government and symbols of Canada.
The Government is asking for public opinion about the citizenship test and is expected to make a decision early next year. (2007)
True or False?
Only Australian citizens can vote in all Australian elections.
Last weekend was the start of something special for many people around the world.
It was the beginning of a new month and a new year.
We've told you about Ramadan.
Lucy looks at Rosh Hashana and why it's important for Jewish people.
Jewish New Year
Lucy Andrew, reporter
Happy New Year! Many people celebrate the New Year on January the first.
Even though it's September Jewish people have just celebrated their New Year. It is on the first of Tishrei, the first month on the Jewish year. It's called Rosh Hashana and this first day of the year is thought to be when God created Adam and Eve.
REPORTER: The calendar year most people use is based on the time it takes for the earth to travel around the sun. The Jewish calendar is based on both the sun and the moon. Each month is based on the moon while each year is based on the sun.
The Jewish year and the sun year are different lengths. So every few years an extra month, the thirteenth month, is added to the Jewish calendar. Jewish people may still use an ordinary calendar for making appointments but they use the Jewish calendar to work out the dates of their Jewish and holy days.
Rosh Hashana begins at sunset the evening before.
LAUREN: Well at first we eat apples and honey. The honey signifies sweetness so it wishes us a sweet new year. We also blow the shofar, which is like a wake up call…to say wake up and it's time for judgment.
The shofar, which is a ram's horn, also calls the people to repent that is to be sorry for things they may have done or said and start the New Year afresh.
The New Year, Rosh Hashana, is the beginning of the ten days of repentance. It's a time to remember God and the good things we do in life. At the end of the ten days Jewish people celebrate Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year.
MUSHKIE: Rosh Hashana is like when the book of life opens and Yom Kippur is like when it closes.
Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement or Forgiveness, when people try to make up for anything bad that they've done. They ask friends they've wronged for forgiveness and they ask God to forgive them if they've done wrong to Him.
It is also when God judges if you'll have a good life next year…or not.
JACQUI: On Yom Kippur all the children who are over twelve** and all the adults … you don't eat or drink so you can pray all day. 'Cos it's the time when our God seals the book of life which is when he's finished judging your past year.
MUSHKIE: It's the day when we pray for a good year; we pray for whatever we need, we pray for whatever is important for us.
**Please Note - Jewish girls are considered to be adults at the age of 12 years of age while for boys it is 13. When Jewish people reach adulthood they are required to participate in the Yom Kippur fast.
Answer: There are 365 point two five days How would you feel if you were a really good musician or singer, you'd won an award, but not many people had even heard of you? It doesn't sound right does it? Many Indigenous musicians (in Australia) struggle to have their music played on the radio. Andrea looks at a recent awards ceremony that recognised the talents of some of these people.
Andrea Nicolas, reporter
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: This guy just won the award for best new talent at the 2006 Indigenous Music Awards in the Northern Territory. But have you heard of him?
His name is Task and he's an Aboriginal Hip Hop artist based in Alice Springs.
TASK: It's good to be recognised amongst all this great talent because NT is not normally known for aboriginal hip-hop. As an Aboriginal artist and representing hip-hop in the Australian context it's just good to be nominated.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: There are many Aboriginal artists based in the Northern Territory that you've probably never heard of. That's because it's hard for them to get publicity, and that makes it hard for them to get their music played on the radio. But at this music awards ceremony, they are rewarded for their musical talent.
It's only been running for 3 years, but this year around 2000 people attended.
SHELLIE MORRIS: I just think it's something that's really, really needed for the Northern Territory. We are a huge populous of Indigenous People. And it gives us a great opportunity to come together and share that experience.
DAMO, NOKTURNL: It's a good thing for artists to be shown some recognition… that their efforts are appreciated. Often travel quite a lot of distances. Sometimes underpaid.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: The crowd favourite this year, was the 2005 male artist of the year, Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu who teamed up with former Best Female Artist, Shellie Morris.
He was back playing in Darwin for the first time after playing in Adelaide at WOMAD - the world music festival, the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne and playing for the Queen during her March Australian visit.
Some groups don't care about fame or fortune; they just want to carry on their culture.
The group, Yilila, teaches young people about the songs and the dances that go with what they're singing about. But these artists are also exploring new music and teaming up with people like John Butler, who you probably do know from the John Butler Trio.
The Band Nokturnl has experienced success in mainstream music and had record contracts. But band members are concerned about being type-cast as an Indigenous band.
DAMO, NOKTURNL: The problem is as soon as they have a look at you being an Indigenous person, they automatically categorise you as Indigenous music. So unless we put on some face paint and some costumes, people are going to know that we're Indigenous and that's been a little bit of a hurdle in reaching a wider audience.
ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: Shellie Morris believes young Indigenous people can make a career from singing.
SHELLIE MORRIS: If a young person came and said they wanted to do music. I know that story is achievable, that dream is a real dream. It's not a pie in the sky.
True or False?
Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu was part of Yothu Yindi
Spin: To sports news now....
West Coast will play Sydney in the AFL Grand Final...
Yes, they're the same teams as last year but the Eagles will be hoping to win this time.
The Sydney Swans beat the Fremantle Dockers by 35-points to make the Grand Final, while the West Coast Eagles beat the Adelaide Crows.
Sydney's Adam Goodes should be playing extra well after winning the AFL's top honour the Brownlow Medal.
The Australian Opals have created history by becoming the nation's first world basketball champions at a senior level.
The Opals defeated Russia 91 points to 74 in the final to win the gold medal at the women's World Basketball Championships in Brazil.
COMMENTATOR: World championship gold for the 1st time ever.
The Opals didn't lose a game during the tournament.
Penny Taylor top scored with 28 points and was also named the tournament's most valuable player.
Our one day cricketers have done well too, defeating the West Indies by 127-runs in the final of the Tri-nations One Day Cricket Series in Kuala Lumpur.
Set 241 to win, the West Indies were bowled out for 113 in the 35th over with Brett Lee taking four wickets and Nathan Bracken three.
The Australian team returns home briefly before next month's Champions Trophy in India.
Which of these sports is not an Olympic event:
Answer: It's netball. If some people have their way there could be a lot of other things in the Olympics that you may not think of as sport.
Well, BMX used to be an extreme sport and has now made it into the Olympic Games. That's good news for Australia because it's ranked in the world's top five BMX countries. Sarah looks at the BMX revolution.
Sarah Martinelli, reporter
When cycling champs Lance Armstrong and Robbie McEwen began their cycling careers it wasn't on bikes like these, it was on bikes like these - BMX bikes. BMX stands for bicycle moto-cross. And back then, in the 1980s riders who wanted to compete at the top had to switch to traditional racing bikes. But today, it's a different story, and BMX racing is even an Olympic sport!
Ash is 16, and although he's too young to compete at the Beijing Olympics in 2008, he'll be ready for the London Olympics in 2012.
ASH, BMX WORLD CHAMPION: I'm aiming for the Olympics, in 2012. Yeah, That's what I'm aiming for now.
In August, Ash became the world champion of his age group.
ASH: I didn't believe it. I was like, ‘Did I win?’ And everyone is like, ‘Yeah’. But did I win? I didn't believe it!
A decade ago, BMX was considered an extreme sport, but its popularity has increased thanks to very successful BMX competitions.
Wade is a former world champion, and Ash's coach. He says the arrival of BMX at the Olympics shows a changing attitude to sport.
WADE: The new kids want to do more exciting things now. They want to actively dive off the cliff and do three somersaults. Doing that on a BMX bike getting out there jumping 40 feet and having fun.
But what about skateboarding, could that be included in the Olympics? It's even more popular than BMX racing. Talent selectors from the Institute of Sport are interested in skateboarding because skateboarders have skills that can be transferred to an Olympic event, the snowboarding halfpipe.
And skateboarding isn't the only sport they're interested in. The Sports commission is spending 13 million over the next 4 years getting talent for various events, and it's already got some success in a completely new sport to Australia.
JASON GULBIN, AIS TALENT COORDINATOR: We were able to transfer the skills that surf beach sprinters had, very explosive characteristics which were important for the sport of skeleton and we were able to within 18 months, not only get Michelle Steel to the Olympic games but also able to produce a world junior champion in that time frame as well.
The sports commission is looking ahead by trying to predict what other sports will be big in the future, with some surprising answers.
JASON GULBIN: Even at the moment there is a group of video gamers who are lobbying the Chinese government to at least have video gaming as a demonstration sport at the Olympics. So you can never predict. So just as you were suprised that the BMX bandits are now and Olympic event, we may have Xboxers, Playstations, Nintendo freaks, who are now hoping to vie for Olympic medals in the future.
How did you go with our mystery location?
It's the Western Wall in Jerusalem.
Well, that's the end of our term, so we're having a two-week break. Short Takes continues as normal after Rollercoaster and there's plenty to do on our website. We have an end of term quiz, a BMX quiz and part two of our special survey on what worries kids. We'll leave you with some of finalists of the Golden Paw Awards for artwork of endangered Australian animals. Bye
All new weekly materials will continue to be published on the website. www.abc.net.au/btn
What Worries You and Children Your Age – A National Survey of Children’s Concerns
More than 1500 children responded to Stage 1 of the ‘What Worries You’ survey on the BTN website. Statements from the children were collated and used to create a list of common ideas. During Stage 2 of the survey children are being asked to rank how much they worry about each of these things online. Stage 2 of the survey and will be online 25/09/06 – 30/10/06. ABC Marketing will subsequently release findings from the entire survey.
Behind the News would like to thank Professor Colin MacMullen, Flinders University, SA, for his assistance with this research project.