editing – (AmE) stress on continuity vs. montage – (European) exploration of contrast and clash
Transitions (1,2, and 3 gradual, 4 more abrupt)
FADES, fade-in: a dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears; fade-out: a shot that gradually darkens as the screen goes black.
DISSOLVE: a transition between 2 shots during which shot B gradually appears as shot A gradually disappears
WIPE: a transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating shot A and replacing it with shot B
CUT: An instantaneous change from shot A to shot B
DIMENSIONS OF FILM EDITING
A. GRAPHIC RELATIONS involve editing on the basis of purely pictorial qualities of the two shots (interaction of similarity and difference)
If shots are linked by noticeable (not necessarily exact) similarities, we refer to this similarity as a graphic match (match by composition, 4 elements of mise-en-scene, etc.)
Shots may be matched graphically, or may clash graphically
B. RHYTHMIC RELATIONS refer to the relative screen duration of the shots (duration of each shot can be controlled). The patterning of shot lengths may profoundly contribute to what we intuitively understand as film rhythm (other elements also create rhythm: movement in the mise-en-scene, camera position and movement, the rhythm of the sound, the overall context etc.).
C. SPATIAL RELATIONS – editing used to create film space (for example allows omniscience)
Building space, two common strategies:
shot determining a spatial whole and than showing pieces (details in close-up)
Cutaway – a shot of another event elsewhere that will not last as long as the elided action (man climbing – cut to a woman waiting – man continuing his climbing but advanced)
Expansion (opposite of ellipsis) of duration may be accomplished through the use of overlapping editing
3. Frequency of story events. One shot or sequence of shots may be shown several times (to heighten tension, illustrate obsessive thoughts etc.).
editing – primary means of constructing the film, but potentially disruptive. If badly controlled may divert spectator’s attention. In order to avoid it a system of conventions was developed: continuity editing also known as ”invisible editing” (designed to emphasize the story, ensures narrative continuity, story seems coherent)
graphics: kept similar from shot to shot; rhythmic relationsusually will not be emphasized; spatial and temporal relations are important.
►►► The 180’ degree system
Mise-en-scene and camera placement are arranged to establish and sustain an imaginary line, or axis of action
The line or axis is generally determined by the position of the two main characters in the shot
180’ rule dictates that the camera may not CUT from 1 side of the line to the other
Cutting from one end of the line to the other, back and forth. Used especially in conversations often keeps the shoulder of one character in the shot of the other
► Eyeline match; this is a way to create the impression of spatial continuity when two characters are not in the same shot
1. Shot A shows a person looking offscreen, shot B shows us what is being looked at
2. In neither shot are both lookerand object shown.
► Establishment / breakdown / reestablishment
Space is established with a long shot (an ESTABLISHING SHOT)