Education in controlling the violent and repulsive ways of students for higher academic achievements



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A STUDY INTO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEACE


EDUCATION IN CONTROLLING THE VIOLENT AND

REPULSIVE WAYS OF STUDENTS FOR HIGHER

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS



Ph.D. THESIS

SUBMITTED TO

CH. CHARAN SINGH UNIVERSITY, MEERUT

FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

IN EDUCATION

BY: UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF:

RAJ KUMAR DR. SOTI SHIVENDRA CHANDRA

LECTURER, M.A.(Phil.), M.Ed., M.Phil., Ph.D.

D.A.V.COLLEGE, Retd. Principal, S.S.(P.G.)

KHARKHAUDA (MEERUT) College, Shahjahanpur

M.A. (ENGLISH & HINDI); Ex-O.S.D. & Director,

M.Ed., N.E.T. (EDUCATION); Institute of Distance Education,

M.B.A. Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut

RESEARCH CENTRE

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

MEERUT COLLEGE, MEERUT

2011

PREFACE

Nature is a great source of inspiration to all of us. The bright, fresh, vibrant and soothing morning after a spell of dark night is enough to exhort man to cherish positive thoughts always. The different creatures too give men the message of being self-disciplined and dutiful. For example, ants remove the rubbish from the place where they live at a difinite interval, bees present the example of their being laborious and good architects too, and animals like cow etc. settle down after sweeping away the discomforting objects by rubbing their hooves on the ground. A minute observation of the phenomenon will enable us to learn a variety of good things.

Taking lessons from the above-mentioned facts, the researcher has felt that the system needs to be tuned to rid students of violent and repulsive ways and to groom them to healthy life-styles for their overall development. This can be done by incorporating in curriculum more and more of contents of parental love and care, dutifulness, abandoning self-interests for a great cause, co-operative spirit, truthfulness and honesty, environment-friendly attitude and living up to the ideal of Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram. These attributes are an integral part of this study.

The results of the work done with students have heightened the morale of the researcher. In the light of results of the present study, it is hoped this work will inspire future researchers to pursue further researches on the effectiveness of Peace Education for better environment in education campuses. May the realm of disorder change into order! May the future of our children be bright! May this dream of mine come true!


(RAJ KUMAR)
DECLARATION

I, Raj Kumar, solemnly declare that the thesis entitled “A Study into the Effectiveness of Peace Education in Controlling the Violent and Repulsive Ways of Students for Higher Academic Achievements” submitted by me for the degree of Ph.D. in Education to Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, is my original work and it has not been submitted earlier elsewhere. However, if anything contrary to this declaration is found later on, I shall be fully responsible for the consequences thereof.




Date: RAJ KUMAR

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that work embodied in this thesis entitled “A Study into the Effectiveness of Peace Education in Controlling the Violent and Repulsive Ways of Students for Higher Academic Achievements” has been carried out by Raj Kumar under my supervision and guidance.

No part of this thesis has been submitted for any other Degree or Diploma. The work included in this thesis is the original and own work of the candidate.

The candidate has abided by all provisions as per the ordinance of Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut.

Date: (DR.) SOTI SHIVENDRA CHANDRA

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Research studies are accomplished beseeching guidance from the masters in the field. This thesis too has the fragrance of co-operation and assistance received from quite a significant number of institutions to accomplish this research work.

I acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude the co-operation and assistance received from the governing authorities of a number of institutions for allowing me access to material worth-studying for quality output.

In all sincerity and humility, I express my indebtedness to my supervisor, respected Dr. Soti Shivendra Chandra for his constant encouragement, keen interest, prompt disposal of a variety of points, queries and curiosities related to this study from the very beginning. In spite of health constraints, his ever-readiness to spare time for guiding me on this research study, in-depth knowledge by virtue of his life-long experience of the teaching learning field, critical approach on the different variables of this study, positive attitude, emotional support and untiring zeal, have always heightened my morale. My respect and devotion will ever be for him.

The library in-charges and staff at various institutions –Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, Meerut College, Meerut, N.C.E.R.T., New Delhi, Gandhi Smiriti, New Delhi, Gandhi Museum, New Delhi, U.N.E.S.C.O., New Delhi, D.A.V. College Kharkhauda etc. have provided the researcher a great deal of useful information of the related field. I am extremely thankful to them for their outstanding services.

The Principals, wing-incharges, teachers, staff and above all students of various schools where the practical part of this study was completed too deserve my sincerest thanks. But for their co-operation and assistance, this work would not have been possible.

Honorary Secretary of the college where I am presently working Dr. Rajive Atri, Dr. Manjula D Gupta for her help on statistical treatments of the data analyzed in this study, Dr. Satyaveer Singh Chaudhary for ideas on graphical presentations, Dr. Vinita Sharma for giving some inspiring stories, Dr. Navneet Singh for enlightening on development of education system in India, all the vivacious young professional colleagues for giving novel ideas, friends, well-wishers, system professionals and professionals giving a good shape to the thesis deserve appreciation and admiration for their wholehearted support. Multifarious nature of assistance of Shri Krishna Kumar, a faculty in Stream of Arts, D.A.V. College, Kharkhauda has been in tune with his name. Dr. Anju Tyagi, Lecturer (Drawing & Painting) and Head, Department of Arts, D.A.V. College, Kharkhauda too has been very helpful in giving artistic touch to some of the charts and sketches made by me to teach Civic Sense to students. To cut short, the whole of D.A.V. family has been very helpful to me in one form or the other.

I am heartily indebted to Respected Prof. (Mrs.) Neerja Saxena, Head, Department of Education, Meerut College, Meerut for the the final proceedings of conducting the Pre-submission Seminar under approval from Respected Principal of the college in the gracious presence of Prof. P.C. Sharma, all her team memers and the scholars pursuing M.Ed. Their suggestions for improvement have been incorporated in the thesis.

I am deeply indebted to my parents, my wife and children who have been great source of strength to me in accomplishment of this study.

I dedicate this work to my late grand-parents whose blessings for longevity and wisdom every morning have always inspired me to be devoted to noble pursuits.


RAJ KUMAR





CONTENTS

Pages

List of Figures i

List of Tables ii - v

List of Graphs vi-vii

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1-47


    1. Background necessitating this study 1

    2. Statement of the Problem 24

    3. Terms used in the study 24

    4. Statement of Aims and Objectives 30

    5. Hypothesis of this study 36

    6. Tools of this study 37

    7. Delimitation of the study 38

    8. Need and Significance of the present study 38

CHAPTER II :

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 48-102

2.0 Background 48

2.1 Studies in India 50

2.2 Studies Abroad 75


CHAPTER III : METHODS AND PROCEDURE 103-121

3.0 Background to understand the nature of this study 103

3.1 This Study : A Quasi Experimental study 105

3.2 Research Design of this study 108

3.2.1 Population of this study 110

3.2.2 Sampling procedure 111

3.2.3 Pre-tests and Post Tests in ‘Civic Sense’ and 111

Mathematics

3.2.4 Data Collection (Marks based on Evaluation on

answer-scripts) 119

3.2.5 Procedure for Statistical Treatment 120

CHAPTER IV : ANALYSIS OF DATA 122-165

CHAPTER V : INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION 166-201

CHAPTER VII : CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

FOR FURTHER STUDIES 202-228

6.1 Major findings 202

6.2 School-wise discussion on the experiences gained 206

6.3 Significance of hypothesis 222

6.4 Epilogue of present study 223

6.5 Educational implications of the study 224

6.5 Suggestions for further research 224

BIBLIOGRAPHY i-xvi
List of Appendix-I xvii

List of Appendix-II A-II

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

No. Particulars Page No.


  1. Children going to school hand in hand 39

  2. An adolescent going to school in happy mood 39

  3. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in hilarious mood

with school children 40

  1. Pt. Nehru and Dr. Radhakrishnan feasting

with children 41

  1. Meera Mahadevan taking care of children of

working mothers 41

  1. Empowering women through

Information Technology 42

  1. Workmen making pathway 43

  2. Development of housing facilities for countrymen 44
  3. Constituent elements of peace education 46




  1. Types and sources of peace 47

  2. Various variables discussed in studies in India 99

  3. Various variables discussed in studies abroad 101




LIST OF TABLES

Table

No. Particulars Page No.
1 Population or Universe of this study 110

2 Basic data for all statistical calculations

–Scholar’s Academy (01) 125

3 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics –(01) 126

4 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense –(01) 128

5 Computation of ‘t’Value –Mathematics –(01) 129

6 Basic data for all statistical calculations

–Scholar’s Academy (02) 130

7 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics –(02) 131

8 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense –(02) 133

9 Computation of ‘t’Value –Mathematics –(02) 134

10 Basic data for all statistical calculations

Dr. Ambedakar..School, Sudamapuri -(03) 135

11 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics –(03) 136

12 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense –(03) 138

  1. Computation of ‘t’ Value –Mathematics –(03) 139

14 Basic data for all statistical calculations

Kamal Inter College, Sudamapuri (04) 140

15 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics (04) 141

16 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense (04) 143

17 Computation of ‘t’Value –Mathematics (04) 144

18 Basic data for all statistical calculations

-Navin Bal Vidyalaya, Niwari Road,…(05) 145

19 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics (05) 146

20 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense (05) 148

21 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Mathematics (05) 149

22 Basic data for all statistical calculations

Sun Indian..School, Tibra Road, Modinagar (06) 150

23 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics (06) 151

24 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense (06) 153

25 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Mathematics (06) 154

26 Basic data for all statistical calculations

D N Pub. School,Govindpuri, Modinagar (07) 155

27 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics (07) 156

28 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense (07) 158

29 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Mathematics (07) 159

30 Basic data for all statistical calculations

Sh.R Pilot..School,Bhupendrapuri,…(08) 160

31 Computation of Means, Standard Deviations and

Correlation Coefficient –Civic Sense and

Mathematics (08) 161

32 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense (08) 163

33 Computation of ‘t’ Value –Civic Sense (08) 164

34 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense,for graphical view, Scholar’s…(01) 171

35 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics, for graphical view, Scholar’s..(01) 172

36 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense,for graphical view,Scholar’s..(02) 175

37 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics, for graphical view,Scholar’..(02) 176

38 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense,for graphical view, Dr.Ambedakar (03) 179

39 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics,for graphical view,Dr.Ambedakar.(03) 180

40 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense, for graphical view, Kamal.. (04) 183

41 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics, for graphical view, Kamal.. (04) 184

42 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense, for graphical view, Navin..(05) 187

43 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics, for graphical view, Navin.. (05) 188

44 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense, for graphical view, Sun Indian..(06) 191

45 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics, for graphical view, Sun Indian (06) 192

46 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense,for graphical view, D N Public.. (07) 195

47 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Mathematics, for graphical view, D N P Sch..(07) 196

48 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense,for graphical view, Sh.R Pilot..(08) 199

49 Class-intervalwise frequencies of I & II Test

–Civic Sense, for graphical view, Sh.R Pilot..(08) 200

50 Schools’ Positions in Civic Sense –Average

Vs.Highest Marks 220

51 Schools’ Positions in Mathematics –Average Vs.

Highest Marks 221



LIST OF GRAPHS

Graph

No. Particulars Page No.
G-1 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Scholar’s Academy, Saidpur (01) 171

G-2 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

–Scholar’s Academy, Saidpur (01) 172

G-3 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Scholar’s Academy, Saidpur (02) 175

G-4 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

–Scholar’s Academy, Saidpur (02) 176

G-5 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Dr. Ambedakar..School, Sudamapuri 179

G-6 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

–Dr. Ambedakar.. School, Sudamapuri 180

G-7 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Kamal Inter College, Sudamapuri 183

G-8 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

–Kamal Inter College, Sudamapuri 184

G-9 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Navin Bal Vidylaya, Niwari Road.. 187

G-10 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

–Navin Bal Vidyalaya, Niwari Road.. 188

G-11 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Sun Indian School, Tibra Road.. 191

G-12 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

– Sun Indian School, Tibra Road.. 192

G-13 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–D N Public School, Baldevnagar, Govindpuri.. 195

G-14 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

– D N Public School, Baldevnagar, Govindpuri.. 196

G-15 Graphical view of marks in Civic Sense

–Sh. Rajesh Pilot..School, Bhupendra Puri.. 199

G-16 Graphical view of marks in Mathematics

–Sh. Rajesh Pilot..School, Bhupendra Puri.. 200



CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
This study concerns the well-being and bright future of children who are pursuing studies presently in different schools. It is geared towards testing the potential strength of ‘Peace Education’ in guarding students against the evil effects of violent and repulsive ways which harm their interests. It teaches them to be at peace with others who come in contact with them, to learn how to live in harmony with fellow students and to be devoted to scholarly pursuits for higher academic achievements.

It is expected of schools to put in their sincere efforts for imparting quality education to students on the one hand, and for inspiring them to put their vital energies to proper uses on the other. School is the place where students from different background meet. Peaceful environment inside the campus is of utmost importance for smooth and meaningful teaching-learning endeavours. Various curricular and co-curricular activities are performed in schools throughout the session with team spirit. Attempts are made to groom students to a variety of ideal virtues and manners –talking, walking, smiling, studying, sharing and caring, and finer values such as truth, non-violence, love, beauty, honesty, dutifulness and time-consciousness etc., which are both worth-possessing and worth-practising for stress-free life and joyful life.

For this, concerted efforts are required to be made by all –parents, guardians, teachers and the society. In schools, only well qualified and committed teachers can withstand this challenge working as good guides and counsellors. At the same time adequate arrangements for information and communication technology services will have to be made for equipping teachers and students with the latest knowledge and developments in different fields. Science and technology is a double-edged weapon. It opens the gates for self-learning by students but with adequate caution as free-play may develop some vices in them and lead them to dark corners.


czg~eopZl egksn; ^vkRe&fuosnu* esa fy[krs gSa] ß;qokoLFkk thou dk olardky gS] mtkZ] ’kfDr] mRlkg] vkSj meax ls Hkjiwj thou] cpiu vkSj o;LdkoLFkk dh laf/kcsyk ;qokoLFkk esa ;fn thou fuekZ.k dk lgh ekxZn’kZu fey tk, rks thou esa vusdkusd miyfC/k;ksa ds iq"Ik f[kyrs pys tkrs gSaAÞ 1

fo|kFkhZ ds y{k.kksa ij izdk’k Mkyrs gq, ys[kd us vkxs fy[kk gS ^fo|kFkhZ thou] thou dk lqugjk dky gSA Student life is the Golden period of life. dqN lh[kus] dqN tkuus] dqN cuus dk lr~r lkFkZd iz;kl blh le; esa gksrk gSA ,d fo|kFkhZ esa fuEu y{k.k gksusa pkfg,a% 2

dkdps"Vk odks/;kua ’okufunzk rFkSo pA

vYikgkjh x`g R;kxh fo|kFkhZ iapy{k.keAA*

Children are very important future human resource of a Nation. Therefore, proper and urgent attention is required on the part of guardians – all elders and well-wishers to safeguard the interests of children. It is essential to guard them against unhealthy experiences which may come their way from different directions, channels and exposure to acts of notoriety and violence in home, schools, at points where they move. It may be a matter of great relief to note that, in India, a new-born baby, irrespective of gender considerations, is exposed to the society amid Shanti Mantras– Om Shanti! Shanti! Shanti! Still ‘Shanti’ escapes men for a variety of reasons.

M.K.Gandhi said, “If we are to teach real peace in the world, we shall have to begin with children.”3 Children of today, having gained maturity, would have to shoulder the responsibility of running the nation successfully, in tune with the spirit of the Constitution. Considering the merits of education, Maria Montessori asserts, “All education is for peace.”4 The very purpose of all educational endeavours should be to impart knowledge and understanding to students about life, about their potential strengths and its optimal utilization. It will be helpful in bringing about desired behavioural changes in students for their all round development.

Possession of wealth and land in abundant measure cannot provide perfect satisfaction and peace of mind. Mahavir Swami and Gautam Buddha renounced the world of material possession for the sake of perfect peace. The famous emperor Ashoka the Great was not happy even after expanding his empire at will and ultimately renounced war and violence. Ironically, man has not taken lesson from the past which tells that the beginning and end of wars are deliberate. It comes to an end after exhaustion of all our resources and strengths which could be better utilized for constructive purposes. The last century had witnessed two World Wars with the undercurrent for a third one –the Cold War time of frightening the competitor by developing nuclear capabilities. Still man’s thirst for power has not ended. Why? The answer is the insatiable thirst to win and rule over the World.

The Constitution of UNESCO reads:

Since wars begin in the mind of man it is in the minds of man that the defences of peace must be constructed.” 5

The idea of dominating over others, the desire to have lion’s share and amassing the wealth of the universe instigates a few individuals to wage war against rivals and also the weak. Thus heinous crimes are committed to satisfy one’s ego.


leFkZoku dks vius lk/kuksa vkSj ’kfDr;kas dk nq:Ik;ksx ugh djuk pkfg,A ßcy dk nq#i;ksx gh ,d ek= v’kkfUr dk ewy gSA ftl fdlh dks tks dqN feyk gS] og mldk O;fDrxr ugh gS] vFkkZr lef"V ’kfDr;ksa ls fufeZr gSA blh dkj.k feyk gqvk vius fy, mi;ksxh ugh gksrk] vfirq nwljksa ds fy, gksrk gSA ftl izdkj fpfdRld jksfx;ksa ds fy, vkSj jksfx;ksa ds ikl tks dqN gS og fpfdRld ds fy, mi;ksxh gksrk gS] mlh izdkj ijLij ftrus laca/k gS] mu lHkh esa ;g Li"V gS fd ijLij vknku iznku esa gh ,d nwljs dh iwfrZ fufgr gSA 6

Peace is a feeling of internal well-being and goodwill towards others. It is a style of life, a mental attitude, a state of equilibrium. To have an everlasting peace, it is essential that a person cherishes pure thoughts, pure feelings, pure motives and selfless concerns for the good of all. It refers to the state of life free from concerns, worries, problems, stress, conflicts and tensions. Such a state will inspire students to cherish positive thoughts with the intent to live and let others live. Peace is an intangible but indispensable asset which must be possessed by all as it makes life worth-living.

Each Age has the characteristic features of its own. In the present Age, fast transition in almost all walks of life is taking place, posing new challenges to managers of educational affairs. It requires novel ways and means to tackle new problems owing to changes in tastes, likings, preferences, social and cultural values of people. The factors effecting the following changes should to be closely monitored:



  1. Knowledge explosion

  2. Technological developments

  3. Excessive freedom to do things at will

  4. Polluted environment:

  1. Noise pollution

  2. Air pollution

  3. Water pollution

  4. Disorder/Unhygienic conditions all around


  1. Cultural Transformation

  1. Intermingling of cultures

  2. Indifference towards own culture

  3. Impact of global culture

  1. Falling values

  1. Fall in moral, social, economic, humanistic, political, and spiritual values

  2. Growing interest in materialistic values

  1. State of restlessness to know and have more and more knowledge with no concern for the utility of it.

The concept of peace is our own. From time immemorial, the people of India, have been wedded to ‘spiritual ways’ and practices whereby all tangible and intangible entities are invoked and the pledge for caring and sharing each others’ concern is renewed daily. Such a routine passes on a variety of values –social, cultural, human, environmental and above all eternal values to its practitioners.

India has enjoyed the status of a peace loving nation. The statements of some renowned personalities stand testimony to this fact:

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