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66 Huba Wass de Czege, From Vietnam to the 1991 Gulf War: The Struggle to Get the Doctrine Right Enough (Unpublished Monograph, 2006). A similar version was published as: Idem, Lessons from the Past: Making the Army's Doctrine "Right Enough" Today (Arlington: Institute of Land Warfare, 2006).

67 Czege, From Vietnam, 3.


68 William S. Lind, ‘Some Doctrinal Questions to the United States Army', Military Review 57:3 (March, 1977), 58.

69 William S. Lind, Maneuver Warfare Handbook (Boulder: Westview, 1985), 6.

70 William S. Lind, ‘The Theory and Practice of Maneuver Warfare’, in: Richard D. Hooker Jr., (ed.) Maneuver Warfare: An Anthology (California: Presidio, 1993), 3.

71 Ibid., 3.

72 Lind, Handbook, 7.

73 Ibid., 73.

74 Ibid., 76.

75 Ibid., 91.

76 Lind, ‘Theory', 11 - 12.

77 Ibid.

78 Richard Lock-Pullan, 'The Modern Sources of Maneuver Warfare Doctrine', The British Army Review 137 (summer, 2005), 12.

79 Lind, Handbook, 58 - 66.

80 Terry Terriff, ‘Innovate or Die: Organizational Culture and the Origins of Maneuver Warfare in the United States Marines Corps', Journal of Strategic Studies 29:3 (June, 2006), 475 - 503.

81 Naveh, 11.

82 Ibid., 251.


83 Huba Wass de Czega and L. D. Holder, 'The New FM 100-5’, Military Review 62:7 (July, 1982), 53.

84 Bronfeld, 28,

85 Ibid., 31.

86 Generaloberst Herman Balck (1897-1982) served in the Wehrmacht. as commander of Army Group G. Generalmajor Friedrich Wilhelm von Mellethin (1904-1997) served as the Operation’s officer of the Afrikakorps.

87 William DePuy, Generals Balck and von Mellenthin On Tactics: Implications for NATO Military Doctrine (Munich: Bundeswehr University, 2004), 3.

88 Ibid., 14.

89 Ibid.

90 Ibid., 19.

91 FM 100-5 Operations 1982, 2-1.

92 Ibid., 2-2.

93 Department of the Army, Field Manual 100-5 Operations (Washington DC, 1986), 10.

94 Ibid., 2-6.

95 Lock-Pullan, ‘Modern’, 6.

96 Naveh, 308.


97 Lock-Pullan, 'Rethink War’, 691.

98 FM 100-5 Operations 1986, 17

99 Robert Leonhard, The Art of Maneuver: Maneuver Warfare Theory and AirLand Battle (California: Presidio, 1991), 186.

100 For instance: Robert M. Citino, The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich (Lawrence: University Press Kansas, 2005), 307 - 311.

101 Roger A. Beaumont, ‘On the Wehrmacht Mystique’, Military Review 66:7 (July, 1986), 48.

102 Daniel Hughes, ‘Abuses of German Military History’, Military Review 66:12 (December 1986), 66-76, details the arguments against emulating the German army.

103 Martin van Creveld, ‘On Learning From the Wehrmacht and Other Things’, Military Review 68:1 (January, 1988), 62 - 71.

104 Daniel P. Bolger, ‘Maneuver Warfare Reconsidered’, in: Richard D. Hooker Jr. (ed.) Maneuver Warfare: An Anthology (California: Presidio, 1993), 19.

105 For example see the debate concerning the concept of intent: David A. Fastabend, ‘The Application of the Commander’s Intent’, Military Review 67:8 (August, 1987), 60 - 68; Edward J. Filiberti, ‘Command, Control and Commander’s Intent’, Military Review 67:8 (August, 1987), 54 - 59; Russell W. Glenn, ‘The Commander’s Intent: Keep It Short’, Military Review 67:8 (August, 1987), 49 - 53. Concerning the centre of gravity see: Dale C. Eikemier, ‘Centre of Gravity Analysis’, Military Review 84:4 (July-August, 2004), 2 - 5; Milan Vego, ‘Centre of Gravity’, Military Review 80:2 (March-April, 2000), 23 - 29.


106 Francis Fukuyama and Abram N. Shulsky, The Virtual Corporation and Army Organization (California: RAND, 1997) 42 - 43.

107 Citino, 310.

108 Department of the Army, Field Manual 3-0 Operations (Washington DC, 2001), Chapter 5, paragraphs 4 - 9, 61 - 63, 71 - 72; Chapter 6, paragraphs 37 - 39.

109 Department of the Army, Field Manual 6-0 Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces (Washington DC, 2003).

110 Comments made by the author of the field manual: William M. Connor, 'Emerging Army Doctrine: Command & Control', Military Review 82:2 (March-April, 2002), 80.

111 Paul van Riper, Planning for and Applying Military Force: An Examination of Terms (Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 2006), 13.

112 Leonhard, Fighting, 117.

113Citino, 310.

114 Creveld, ‘Learning’, 70.

115 Daniel Hughes, ‘Auftragstaktik’, in: Trevor N. Dupuy (Ed.) International Military Defence Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 A-B (London: Macmillan, 1993), 332.


116 Hughes, 'Abuses', 67.

117 Hughes, ‘Auftragstaktik’, op cit.

118 Echevarria, ‘Auftragstaktik, 50 - 56.

119 David M. Keithly and Stephen P. Ferris, ‘Auftragstaktik or Directive Control in Joint and Combined Operations’, Parameters 89:3 (autumn, 1999), 118 - 133; Joseph S. McLamb, ‘The Future of Mission Orders’, Military Review 77:5 (September-October, 1997), 71 - 74.

120 Fukuyama and al.'Military Organization', 329, 340.

121 Stephen Badsey, ‘Coalition Command in the Gulf War’, in: G. D. Sheffield (ed.) Leadership and Command: The Anglo-American Experience since 1861 (London: Brassey's, 2002), 198; Department of Defense, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report to Congress (Washington DC, 1992), 329.

122 Naveh, 329.

123 Ibid., 326.

124 For instance, General Franks’ testimony in: Tom Clancy and Fred Franks, On The Ground in Iraq: Into the Storm, A Study in Command (New York: Berkley, 2004). 465.

125 Jonathan M. House, Combined Arms Warfare in The Twentieth Century (Kansas: University Press Kansas, 2001), 273.


126 Lind, 'The Theory ', 15.

127 Richard J. Dunn III, 'From Gettysburg to the Gulf and Beyond: Coping with Revolutionary Technological Change in Land Warfare', McNair Paper 13 (Washington DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1991), 85.

128 Leonhard, The Art of Maneuver, 269.

129 For further details of the Soviet practice see: Leonhard, Fighting 52 - 58; Richard Simpkin, Race to the Swift: Thoughts on Twenty-First Century Warfare (London: Brassey’s, 1985), 288 - 292.

130 Leonhard, The Art 270.

131 Creveld and al.Air Power, 214.

132 Ibid., 219

133 Citino, 310.

134 Douglas A. Macgregor, Transformation Under Fire: Revolutionizing How America Fights (Westport: Praeger, 2003), 99 - 101.

135 General (Ret.) Sir Rupert Smith, Commander of 1st British Armored Division (First Gulf War), Interview with author, 1 September 2006, Brussels, Belgium.


136 Ibid.

137 Rupert Smith, The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World (New York: Penguin, 2006), 93 - 94.

138 Adam Grissom, To Digitize an Army: The US Army Force XXI Initiative and the Digital Divide, 1993-2003, PhD Dissertation (London: King's College, 2008), 7.

139 Smith, 94.

140 Vandergriff, 150 - 151.

141Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor, The Generals' War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf (New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1995)., 380 - 381; Richard M. Swain, Lucky War: Third Army in Desert Storm (Fort Leavenworth: Army Command and General Staff Press, 1994), 238, 247; Schwarzkopf, 429.

142 Barry D.Watts, Clausewitzian Friction and Future War, (Washington DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1996), 49 – 50, note 39; Schwarzkopf, 546.

143 Robert H. Scales Jr., Certain Victory: The US Army in the Gulf War (London: Brassey's, 1994), 254.

144 Vandergriff, 153.

145 Colin S. Gray, Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare (London: Windenfeld & Nicolson, 2005), 94; Watts, 51.


146 Van Creveld, Brower and Canby, 213 - 219.

147 Rodney Ben, ‘US puts tactics before tanks with a fraction of Schwarzkopf’s force’, Daily Telegraph, 16 March 2003.

148 John Keegan, The Iraq War (London: Hutchinson, 2004), 5 - 6.

149 Dr. Bruce R. Nardulli, RAND, Senior Analyst, Expert on Operations. Interview with author, 7 September 2006, Washington DC.

150 Mark Bowden, 'Forward', in: David Zucchino, Thunder Run: Three Days in the Battle For Baghdad (New York: Grove, 2004), xi.

151 Thomas E.Ricks Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (New York: Penguin, 2006), 125.

152 Nardulli, interview.

153 Michael R. Gordon and Bernard E. Trainor, Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (London: Atlantic, 2006), 430 - 431; Ricks, 126.

154 Zucchino, op cit.

155 Douglas Macgregor, 'The Failure of Military Leadership in Iraq, Fire the Generals!', in: Counterpunch!, available at: http://www.counterpunch.org/macgregor05262006.html accessed: April 2007.

Ibid.


156 Jack Kammerer, ‘Preserving Mission-Focused Command and Control’, available at: http://www.cgsc.army.mil/milrev, accessed: 29 September 2003.

157 Grissom, Digitize, 2.

158 Grissom, Digitize, 12.

159 Ibid., 2.

160 Gordon and Trainor, Cobra II, 162.

161 Donald P. Wright, Timothy R. Reese and the Contemporary Operations Study Team, On Point II: Transition to the new Campaign, The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom May 2003 - January 2005 (Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2008), 77 - 80, 160 - 161.

162 Nigel Aylwin-Foster, 'Changing the Army for Counterinsurgency Operations', Military Review 84:6 (November-December, 2005), 7.

163 Aylwin-Foster, 7.

164 Kevin C. M. Benson, ‘OIF Phase IV: A Planner's Replay to Brigadier Aylwin-Foster’, Military Review 86:2 (March-April, 2006), 61.

165 Ibid., 63 - 65.

166 Ibid., 65.


167 William S. Wallace, ‘TRADOC Commander, TRADOC Commander's Replay to Brigadier Aylwin-Foster’, Military Review 86:2 (March-April, 2006), 117.

168 Susan Craig, 'Aylwin-Foster’s Critique', Military Review 86:2 (March-April, 2006), 118.

169 Macgregor, 'The Failure'.

170 John D. Johnson, Mission Orders in the United States Army: Is the Doctrine Effective (Fort Leavenworth: Army Command and General Staff College, 1990).

171 Vandergriff, 139 - 140.

172 Ibid., 138.

173 Ibid., 142 - 143.

174 MacGregor Tranformation., 205.

175 Ibid., 196 - 197.

176 Ibid., 199.

177 Ibid.

178 David E. Johnson, Preparing Potential Senior Army Leaders for the Future: An Assessment of Leader Development Efforts in the Post Cold Era (Virginia: RAND, 2002), 27.

179 For a comprehensive review of the literature concerning military change and innovation: Adam Grissom, 'The Future of Military Innovation Studies', Journal of Strategic Studies 29:5 (October, 2006), 905 - 934.


180 One exception is: Emily Goldman and Leslie Eliason (ed.) The Diffusion of Military Technology and Ideas, (CA: Stanford University Press, 2003).

181 Robert C. Camp, Benchmarking: The Search for Industry Best Practices That Lead to Superior Performance (Portland: Productivity, 2006).

182 Alan L. Wilkins, Developing Corporate Character: How to Successfully Change an Organization Without Destroying It (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989), 7 - 19.

183 Ibid., 52

184 James N. Mattis, Memorandum for US Joint Forces Command (Norfolk: Department of Defense, US Joint Forces Command, 14 August 2008), 3, 6.

185 Ibid. 5.

186 US Army, TRADOC, Army Capstone Concept Draft, Version 2.7, September 2009.




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