EMC Mirrors and Windows, Correlation to Minnesota Academic Standards, English Language Arts, Grade 12
Minnesota Academic Standards- ELA Grades 11-12
EMC Pages That Cover the Standards
Reading Standards for Literature
Key Ideas and Details
184.108.40.206 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
220.127.116.11 Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
419, 438, 482, 677, 793, 1180, 1183
18.104.22.168 Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
22.214.171.124 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
126.96.36.199 Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
188.8.131.52 Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
51–54, 176–202, 434–437, 438, 448
Gr. 11, American Tradition, covers the part of the standard regarding an American dramatist.
184.108.40.206 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Not Applicable to Literature per CCSS guidelines
220.127.116.11 Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including American Indian and other diverse cultures’ texts and how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
This standard is amply covered in grade 11, American Tradition.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
18.104.22.168 By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
Read widely to understand multiple perspectives and pluralistic viewpoints.
The textbook contains reading and comprehension instruction throughout the book to help students meet this standard.
Reading Standards for Informational Text
Key Ideas and Details
22.214.171.124 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
126.96.36.199 Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
188.8.131.52 Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
292, 618, 668, 1068, 1120
Craft and Structure
184.108.40.206 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
292, 587, 611, 612, 1068, 1095
220.127.116.11 Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
18.104.22.168 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
292, 319, 618, 638, 668, 944, 1067, 1068, 1120
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
22.214.171.124 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
765, 915, 1230–1232, 1273–1276
126.96.36.199 Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
This standard is amply covered in gr. 11, American Tradition.
188.8.131.52 Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
This standard is amply covered in gr. 11, American Tradition.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
184.108.40.206 By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
a. Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
220.127.116.11 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
18.104.22.168 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
22.214.171.124 Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well- structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
b. Use literary and narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, rhythm, repetition, rhyme, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, figurative and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
e. Provide a conclusion (when appropriate to the genre) that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative or creative text.
126.96.36.199 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
188.8.131.52 Use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11–12 on page 75.)
184.108.40.206 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
220.127.116.11 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
18.104.22.168 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
b. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).
22.214.171.124 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
a. Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.
126.96.36.199 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, including those by and about Minnesota American Indians, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
The opportunity to address the standard as it relates to Minnesota American Indians exists in grade 11 American Tradition.
188.8.131.52 Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
765, 922, 1098, 1230–1235, 1291
184.108.40.206 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, intended audience, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
221, 238–244, 319, 359, 1058–1068,
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
220.127.116.11 While respecting intellectual property, present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks (e.g., persuasion, argumentation, debate).
79, 221, 319, 459, 631, 765, 915, 1222-1223, 1229
18.104.22.168 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
494, 915, 1099, 1291
22.214.171.124 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts, audiences, tasks, and feedback from self and others, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11–12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 75 for specific expectations.)
a. Apply assessment criteria to evaluate oral presentations by self and others.
79, 221, 319, 459, 631, 677, 765, 915, 1229
126.96.36.199 Understand, analyze, evaluate, and use different types of print, digital, and multimodal media.
a. Evaluate the aural, visual, and written images and other special effects used in mass media for their ability to inform, persuade, and entertain.
b. Examine the intersections and conflicts between visual (e.g., media images, painting, film, graphic arts) and verbal messages.
c. Recognize how visual techniques or design elements (e.g., special effects, camera angles) carry or influence messages in various media. d. Recognize ethical standards and safe practices in social and personal media communications, and understand the consequences of personal choices.
909, 1098-1099, 1130
188.8.131.52 As an individual or in collaboration, create a multimedia work, a remix of original work and the work of others, or a piece of digital communication for a specific purpose (e.g., to connect literature to a culture or a literary period, to recast a piece of literature into a different time period or culture, to critique popular culture, to create a parody or satire).
a. Present, transform or remix content in an ethical manner, demonstrating an understanding of copyright, attribution, citation, the principles of Fair Use, and the different types of Creative Commons licenses.
b. Publish the work and share with an audience
Conventions of Standard English
184.108.40.206 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
b. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
220.127.116.11 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
18.104.22.168 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
22.214.171.124 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
“O ye who in these scattered rhymes may hear,” pp. 253–254
“One day I wrote her name upon the strand,” pp. 255–258
“Let me not to the marriage of true minds,” pp. 261–265
“My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun,” pp. 261–265
“When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes,” pp. 261–265
“Death, be not proud,” pp. 295–303
“How soon hath Time,” pp. 491–494
“When I consider how my light is spent,” pp. 491–494
“Ode to the West Wind,” pp. 725–730
“Ode to a Nightingale,” pp. 741–749
“Ode on a Grecian Urn,” pp. 741–749
“Bonny Barbara Allan,” pp. 101–110
“Get Up and Bar the Door,” pp. 101–110
“Lord Randall,” pp. 101–110
“A Hard Rain’s A-Gonna Fall,” pp. 107–109
“Sir Patrick Spens,” pp. 157–158
“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” pp. 687–712
from Beowulf, pp. 23–54
“The Head of Humbaba,” pp. 56–58
from The Faerie Queen, pp. 326–327
from Paradise Lost, pp. 495–509
The Rape of the Lock (mock epic), pp. 546–557
Nonfiction: Includes the subgenres of exposition, argument, and functional text in the form of personal essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources) written for a broad audience
“Meditation 17,” pp. 305–310
“Shooting an Elephant,” pp. 1112–1120
“Speech to the Troops at Tilbury,” pp. 238–244
Wartime Speech, pp. 1058–1068
“Defending Nonviolent Resistance,” pp. 1063–1067
“To All Writing Ladies,” pp. 559–561
“A Brief to Free a Slave,” pp. 605–611
from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, pp. 664–668
from A Room of One’s Own, pp. 999–1011
from “Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine,” pp. 1026–1033
essays about art or literature
“Of Studies,” pp. 289–292
“A Quick and Rough Explication of Donne’s Holy Sonnet 10,” pp. 300–302
“Macbeth, from Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays,” pp. 393–397
“Comparing Shakespeare’s Macbeth to Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland,” pp. 434–437
from the introduction to Frankenstein, pp. 759–763
“The War Letters of Wilfred Owen,” pp. 957–959
“Mr Sassoon’s Poems,” pp. 999–1011
“The Music of Poetry,” pp. 1015–1018
“Elizabeth I, Queen of England,” pp. 241–243
from The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., pp. 613–619
from The Book of Margery Kempe, pp. 159–161
from The Diary of Samuel Pepys, pp. 570–587
from The Diary of Fanny Burney, pp. 595–603
from Testament of Experience, pp. 1092–1095
“A Young Lady’s Diary,” pp. 589–594
“Reporting from the Terrain of the Mind,” pp. 1218–1219
“Simply Divine,” pp. 151–154
historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources) written for a broad audience
“The Conversion of King Edwin,” pp. 10–17
“The Story of Caedmon,” pp. 10–17
“Ten Steps to Keeping an On-Going Journal,” pp. 600–603
from A Dictionary of the English Language, pp. 605–611
“Cardiac Arrest in Healthy, Young Athletes,” pp. 905–909
Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality, and Range of Student Reading
NOTE: Mirrors & Windowsoffers high-quality literary works that were carefully chosen to enrich and enhance students’ understanding of themselves and their world. Each unit in the program presents a diverse body of rich and relevant selections related to a particular theme or topic. The following texts represent the complexity, quality, and range of those selections.
Literature: Stories, Drama, Poetry
“The Prologue” by Geoffrey Chaucer (circa 1386)
The Tragedy of Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1605–1606)
“Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats (1820)
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë (1848)
“Sailing to Byzantium” by William Butler Yeats (1928)
“The Train from Rhodesia” by Nadine Gordimer (1952)
“Dead Men’s Path”by Chinua Achebe (1972)
Informational Texts: Literary Nonfiction
“Speech to the Troops at Tilbury” by Queen Elizabeth I (1588)
“Meditation 17” by John Donne (1624)
“A Modest Proposal” by Jonathan Swift (1729)
from A Vindication of the Rights of Women by Mary Wollstonecraft (1792)
from A Room of One’s Own by Virginia Woolf (1929)
“Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell (1936)
EMC Mirrors & Windows, Correlation to Minnesota Academic Standards - ELA Grade 12, page