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Present Perfect Continuous



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Present Perfect Continuous

The Present Perfect continuous is formed by the present tense of have + been + the ing form:

They have been attending a computing course since the beginning of the school year.


Use


We use the present perfect continuous:

-When we want to emphasize an action or situation in progress.

Ex: We have been playing this computer game for about an hour.
-With temporary actions and situations

Ex: I have been reading while you have been watching TV.


-with present evidence

Ex: Look at them. They have been playing tennis since midday.


-to talk about how long something has been going on

Ex: How long have your students been studying for the test?


-it is more used in informal speech

Definite Article


-The definite article has only got one form: the.

-It is used before singular and plural nouns.

-We use the when we talk about a particular person or thing.

-we use the with superlatives

-we use the with parts of the day.

-we use the with words which describe geographical position and place.



Indefinite Article


-The indefinite article is a or an.

-we use a before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel sounded like a consonant.

-we use an before words beginning with a vowel or words beginning with a mute h.

-the indefinite article a or an is used before a singular countable noun, with a noun complement. This includes names of professions, numerical expressions, expressions of price.



Zero Articl

-Zero article (omission of the definite article) is used before plural countable nouns in their general sense.

-We also omit the article before uncountable nouns in their general sense

-Zero article is used before proper names and titles

Prepositions




 Of time




In



Usamos para nos referirmos a:

-séculos (Shakespeare lived in the 16th century)

-meses (we’ew going to Paris in June)

-anos (He started working in this firm in 1990)

-estações do ano (He always spends two weeks with his granparents in the summer)

-partes do dia (Peter always goes to the gym in the evening)

-um periodo de tempo no futuro (I’ll finish this project in two weeks)

On



Usamos para nos referirmos a:

-dias da semana (We usually go to the cinema on Sundays)

-partes de dias especificos (Jacket goes to the dentist on Tuesday morning)

-datas (What are you going to do on April 27th?)

-dias (What are you going to do on Thursday

- ocasiões especiais (we usually go to a party on New year’s eve)


At



Usamos para nos referirmos a:

-horas (I always get up at 7:30 am)

-refeições (I usually eat soup at dinner)

-festas/celebrações (Shezan never works at ramadan)



Of place

In



Utilizamos:

-um espaço fechado e delimitado(The keys are in my purse)

-cidades, estados, países e continentes (Danny has been living in Italy since 1997)

-posição relativa de algo (The sofa is in the middle of the room)

-church,hospital,school (Mike is in hospital)

On


Utilizamos:

-superficies verticais/horizontais (Your watch is on the table)

-direções right/left (They live on the left side of the town)

-máquinas (Paul spends hours on his computer)

-side, coast, border, page, form, wall, ground, floor, island (I live in Portugal border)


At



Utilizamos:

-local em particular (Sign your name at the top of the page)

-local como ponto referência (We meet at the train station)

-atividades num determinado edificio (My dad works at the chemist’s)

-moradas (Tony lives at 52, East street)

-edificios/locais públicos onde decorrem atividades (I was at the cinema)

-home,school, work(I’m staying at home tonight)

Gerund



Utilizamos para:

-descrever atividades

-exprimir preferências

-verbos de perceção (feel,observe,see,…)

-depois de preposições
Não utilizamos para:

-descrever pessoas ou objetos




Acknowledge

Detest

Imagine

quit

Admit

Discuss

Justify

Recall

Advise

dislike

Keep

Recommend

Appreciate

endure

Mention

Report

Avoid

Enjoy

Mind

Resent

Be worth

Escape


Miss

Resist

Celebrate

Explain

Postpone

Suggest

Consider

Feel like

Practice

Support

Continue

Finish

Prevent

Tolerate

Delay

Forgive

Prohibit

Regret

deny

Give up

propose

Understand





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