Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)
Use maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and to interpret the past.
Identify geographic features important to the study of world history.
Analyze trends in human migration and cultural interaction.
Explain that the expanding economies of European states stimulated increased trade with markets in Asia. With the loss of Constantinople in 1453, European nations fronting the Atlantic sought new maritime routes for trade.
Summarize the following factors contributing to the European discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere:
Demand in Europe for gold, spices, and natural resources
Support for the diffusion of Christianity
Political and economic competition between European empires
Innovations of European and Islamic origins in navigational arts
Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator
Explain the roles of important explorers and conquistadors in the establishment of overseas empires and decimation of indigenous populations, using the following information as a guide:
Portugal: Vasco da Gama
Spain: Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan
England: Francis Drake
France: Jacques Cartier
Explain that one motive for exploration was to spread the Christian religion.
Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
Age of Exploration Time Line. The Mariners Museum.http://www.mariner.org/educationalad/ageofex/. This site contains information on exploration from ancient times to the present.
Conquistadors. Public Broadcasting System. http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/home.htm. This site about the conquistadors in the Western Hemisphere includes links to a timeline and a teaching guide. Links within the site will take students to information on the cultures of the Americas before and after European conquest. Web site timelines require Flash® technology, but the text information can stand on its own.
Historical Maps of the World. The University of Texas at Austin. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/history_world.html. This site provides access to historical maps.
“The Middle Passage.” Africans in America, PBS online. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p277.html. This site provides information and pictures on the middle passage.
Schuessler, Raymond. Ferdinand Magellan: The greatest voyager of them all.http://muweb.millersville.edu/~columbus/data/art/SCHUES01.ART. This site provides another historical account of Magellan’s voyage.
“The Sea-Route to India and Vasco da Gama.” The European Voyages of Exploration. http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/vasco.html. This site about da Gama and Portuguese traders includes interactive maps and extensive information.
Strassmann, Patty. The Influence of Spice Trade on the Age of Discovery.http://muweb.millersville.edu/~columbus/papers/strass-1.html. This is an extensive discussion of the spice trade that goes well beyond the SOL.
The Trading Game. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service. http://agweb.okstate.edu/fourh/aitc/lessons/less3-4/trading.pdf. This game is designed for fourth graders but could be altered for older students.