Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature
Formulation of the scientific method
Expansion of scientific knowledge
Explain that the Age of Absolutism takes its name from a series of European monarchs who increased the power of their central governments.
Summarize the following characteristics of absolute monarchies:
Centralization of power
Concept of rule by divine right
Identify the effect two absolute monarchs had on their countries, using the following information as a guide:
Louis XIV of France: Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power
Peter the Great of Russia: Westernization of Russia
Explain that political democracy rests on the principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed. The foundations of English rights include the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and common law. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen.
Summarize how the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution promoted the development of the rights of Englishmen. Use the following information as a guide:
Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I
The restoration of Charles II
Development of political parties/factions
Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)
Increase of parliamentary power and decrease of royal power
English Bill of Rights of 1689
Explain that Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.
Explain that Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
Describe the Enlightenment, using the following information as a guide:
Applied reason to the human world, as well as to the rest of the natural world
Stimulated religious tolerance
Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
Identify some Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas, using the following information as a guide:
Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection.
John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws: The best form of government includes a separation of powers.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract: Government is a contract between rulers and the people.
Voltaire: Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state.
Explain how philosophers of the Enlightenment influenced thinking on political issues. Use the following information as a guide:
Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
The Constitution of the United States of America and the Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
Explain that the ideas of the Enlightenment and French participation in the American Revolution influenced the French people to view their government in new ways. They overthrew the absolute monarchy and established a new government.
Explain causes of the French Revolution, using the following information as a guide:
Influence of Enlightenment ideas
Influence of the American Revolution
Summarize events of the French Revolution, using the following information as a guide: