Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/england.asp. This site provides a copy of the English Bill of Rights.
Cervantes Project. Texas A&M University. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/cervantes/V2/CPI/index.html. This site includes biographical information on Cervantes, as well as images and texts. Site is in Spanish, but viewers may select the English version.
“The Copernican Model: A Sun-Centered Solar System.” The University of Tennessee. http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/retrograde/copernican.html. This article provides information on Copernicus and the heliocentric system.
“Duc de Saint-Simon: The Court of Louis XIV.” Modern History Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17stsimon.html. This site provides information on the reign of Louis XIV.
“Founding Documents.” The Constitution Society. http://www.constitution.org/cs_found.htm. This site offers free copies of the U.S. Constitution and other founding documents.
“French Revolution.” Internet Modern History Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html. This site provides information on the French Revolution.
“Isaac Newton.” Eric Weisstein’s Book of Scientific Biography. WolframResearch. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Newton.html. This site provides biographical information on Isaac Newton.
“Jean-Jacques Rousseau.” The European Enlightenment. Washington State University. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ROUSSEAU.HTM. This site provides biographical information on Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
“Johann Sebastian Bach.” Classical Music Pages. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/bachjs.html. This site contains a brief biography of Johann Sebastian Bach.
“Johannes Kepler.” The Galileo Project. Rice University. http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/People/kepler.html. This site provides information on Johannes Kepler and Galileo.
“John Locke.” The History of Western Philosophy. Oregon State University. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/locke.html. This site provides biographical information on John Locke.
“Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws, 1748.” Modern History Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/montesquieu-spirit.html. This site provides information on the life and writing of Montesquieu.
“Thomas Hobbes.” The History of Western Philosophy. Oregon State University. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/hobbes.html. This site provides biographical information on Thomas Hobbes.
“Toussaint L’Ouverture.” Africans in America: Brotherly Love. Public Broadcasting Service. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h326.html. This site provides information on Toussaint L’Ouverture.
“William III and Mary II.” Britannia.http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon51.html. This site provides information on the reign of William III and Mary II.
“William Harvey: On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals, 1628.” Modern History Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1628harvey-blood.html. This site provides access to information on the work of William Harvey.
“Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.” Classical Music Pages. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/mozart.html. This site contains a brief biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Session 1: The Scientific Revolution
Drawings of Copernicus’ and Kepler’s views of the universe
1. Divide the class into groups of three or four. Display the following names on the board, and instruct each group to research what each individual contributed to the foundation of the Scientific Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, William Harvey.
2. Have each group report their findings to the class. As items are mentioned, use technology to display a list of them and have students take notes. Make sure to include the following: Copernicus’s heliocentric theory, based on observation (empiricism), changed the belief that the earth is the center of the universe to the knowledge that the sun is the center of the universe. This use of reasoning and observation are important components of the scientific method. Copernicus, however, thought the orbits of the planets were perfect concentric circles but realized that this was not correct. Kepler used mathematics to prove that the orbits were elliptical and not concentric. This use of math as proof is also an important component of the scientific method.
3. Display drawings of Copernicus’ and Kepler’s views of the universe, and have students compare them. Direct students to arrange themselves in the classroom to illustrate both Copernicus’s and Kepler’s version of the universe.
4. Point out that Galileo used the telescope to support the proof of the heliocentric theory. Proving a hypothesis is another important component of the scientific method.
5. Direct students to compare these historic discoveries with those of the Hubble telescope in our time. Ask them whether they think the Hubble telescope is changing our concept of the universe today. Encourage students to suggest ways the heliocentric theory impacted society at the time of the Scientific Revolution. Make sure students understand that the heliocentric theory made people feel less secure, challenged their accepted beliefs, and caused the Church to feel threatened.
6. Newton developed the process known as the scientific method and used it to formulate his law of universal gravitation (law of gravity). His formulation of the law of gravity is a paradigm that perfectly illustrates the concept of the scientific method.
7. Ask students to explain the law of gravity, and review the concept with them. Ask students to work in small groups to determine the effect this law had on science when it was conceived time. Also, ask students to suggest ways the development of the scientific method affected society. Possible answers may include that the development of the scientific method led to less superstition, more discoveries, better education, and concern by the Church about losing its influence and power.
8. William Harvey’s discovery of blood circulation was an important breakthrough in the medical field. It also illustrates the inductive and deductive components of the scientific method. Ask students to explain why Harvey was interested in this area of science. Ask them to suggest what impact his discovery had on later discoveries.