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Session 7: Review of Enlightenment Thinkers

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Session 7: Review of Enlightenment Thinkers

  • Teacher-made flash cards of the Enlightenment thinkers (For each thinker, create four cards, each card containing one of the following: name, native country, title of his most famous book, his most important beliefs. Make as many sets of four cards as needed so that each student may receive one card.)

Instructional Activities

1. Conduct a review of the Enlightenment thinkers, using flash cards. Hand each student one card. Have students find their “matches” and gather together in groups of four to make complete four-card sets.

2. Once all four-card sets are formed, have groups share information about their thinker based on their flash cards.

NOTE: An alternate procedure for this activity is to place a card with each thinker’s name on the board. Then, hand each student a card (with either country, book title, or beliefs), and have students place their cards, one at a time, under the appropriate name. Once all cards have been placed, review them with the class to check whether all of them are in the correct places.

Session 8: Assessment


  • Attachment A: Sample Assessment Items
Instructional Activities

1. Distribute copies of Attachment A, and have students complete the assessment.

Attachment A: Sample Assessment Items

An asterisk (*) indicates the correct answer.

1. John Locke is closely associated with which belief?

A Absolute monarchs are the best form of government.

B The church should always be obeyed regardless of its message.

C A government should be a contract made by the people.*

D The people never have a right to revolt against the government.

2. Johannes Kepler is known as a pioneer of the Scientific Revolution for his

A development of the heliocentric theory.

B formulation of the law of gravity.

C use of the telescope to support the heliocentric theory.

D discovery of planetary motion.*

3. Peter the Great was a monarch of

A France.

B England.

C Prussia.

D Russia.*

4. The principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed is represented through

A communism.

B democracy.*

C socialism.

D oligarchy.

5. The development of the rights of Englishmen included

A an increase in royal power.

B the end of political factions.

C the rise to power of Charles I.

D the establishment of common law.*

6. The Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract was

A Voltaire.

B John Locke.

C Jean-Jacques Rousseau.*

D Montesquieu.

7. Which was NOT an application of Enlightenment thinking?

A Reason was applied to the human world, not just the natural world.

B Religious tolerance was encouraged.

C The Scientific Revolution was begun.*

D Democratic revolutions around the world were fueled.

8. The first reigning monarch to face a public trial and execution was

A James I.

B Charles II.

C Henry VIII.

D Charles I.*

9. The separation of powers found in the United States Constitution comes from the writings of which Enlightenment thinker?

A Hobbes

B Locke

C Montesquieu*

D Voltaire

10. The reign of which monarch gave England its first constitutional monarchy?

A Charles II

B James II

C Mary II*

D Elizabeth I

Organizing Topic

Latin American Revolutions

Standard(s) of Learning

WHII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Latin American revolutions of the nineteenth century by

a) describing the colonial system as it existed by 1800;

b) identifying the impact of the American and French revolutions on Latin America;

c) explaining the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simón Bolivar;

d) assessing the impact of the Monroe Doctrine.

Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills

Correlation to

Instructional Materials

Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)

Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources to make generalizations about events and life in world history.

Use maps, globes, artifacts, and pictures to analyze the physical and cultural landscapes of the world and to interpret the past.

Identify and compare contemporary political boundaries with the location of civilizations, empires, and kingdoms.

Analyze trends in human migration and cultural interaction.


Explain that Latin American revolutions of the nineteenth century were influenced by the clash of European cultures in the development of governments and ruling powers.

Explain that Spanish conquests in Latin America saw the rapid decline of native populations and introduction of slaves from Africa. Conquistadors were given governmental authority by the crown, becoming known as viceroys.

Describe the characteristics of the colonial system in Latin America, using the following information as a guide:

  • Colonial governments mirrored the home governments.

  • Catholicism had a strong influence on the development of the colonies.

  • A major element of the economy was the mining of precious metals for export.

  • Major cities were established as outposts of colonial authority:


Mexico City


São Paulo

Buenos Aires

Describe the rigid class structure of the colonies, using the following information as a guide:

  • Viceroys / colonial officers

  • Creoles

  • Mestizos

Explain that the American and French revolutions took place in the late 1700s. Within twenty years, the ideas and examples of these revolutions influenced the people of Latin America to establish independent nations, most notably in Haiti and Mexico.

Describe the influence of the American and French revolutions on Latin America, using the following information as a guide:

  • Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence. _

  • Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement.

  • French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies gained independence.

Identify the following selected countries that gained independence during the 1800s:

  • Mexico

  • Haiti

  • Colombia

  • Venezuela

  • Brazil

Explain that the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simón Bolivar led to the development of independent states in Latin America in the nineteenth century.

Describe the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture, using the following information as a guide:

  • Former slave who led Haitian rebellion against French

  • Defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, France, and Britain

Describe the contributions of Simón Bolivar, using the following information as a guide:

  • Native resident who led revolutionary efforts

  • Liberated the northern areas of Latin America

Explain that after the American Revolution, the United States wished to prevent foreign interference in America. The Monroe Doctrine was issued in 1823, alerting European powers that the American continents should not be considered for any future colonization.

Describe the impact of the Monroe Doctrine, using the following information as a guide:

  • The Monroe Doctrine was issued by President James Monroe in 1823.

  • Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent.

  • The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.

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