New political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)
Explain that the rise of nationalism was a powerful force behind European politics during the nineteenth century.
Explain that widespread demands for political rights led to revolutions and legislative actions in Europe.
Explain that national pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism.
Explain that the terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe, especially in Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful revolutions in 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.
Explain that in contrast to continental Europe, the United Kingdom expanded political rights through legislative means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire.
Explain that Italy and Germany became nation-states long after the rest of Europe.
Explain the following events related to the unification of Italy and the role of Italian nationalists:
Count Cavour unified northern Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.
Explain the following events related to the unification of Germany and the role of Bismarck:
Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.
Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.
Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
The Anthony P. Campanella Collection of Giuseppe Garibaldi. University of South Carolina. http://www.sc.e.du/library/spcoll/hist/garib/garib.html. This site provides access to information on Giuseppe Garibaldi.
“The Civil Code.” The Napoleon Series. http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/c_code.html. This site provides brief background and an English translation of the Napoleonic Code.
“Count Cavour.” Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Ohio University. http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ac/cavour.htm. This site provides information on Count Cavour.
Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Ohio University. http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/contents.htm. This site contains many articles about various events and figures of the Revolutions of 1848.
“Napoleon.” Revolution and After: Tragedies and Farces. Washington State University. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REV/NAPOLEAN.HTM. This site provides information on Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna.
“Otto von Bismarck.” Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Ohio University. http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ac/bism.htm. This site contains information on Otto von Bismarck.
“Papal States.” Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions. Ohio University. http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ip/papalsta.htm. This site contains information on the Papal States.
“What was the Congress of Vienna?” The Napoleon Series. http://www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.html. This site presents the causes, events, and results of the Congress of Vienna.
Session 1: The Napoleonic Code and the Congress of Vienna
Internet and/or print resources on the Napoleonic Code and the Congress of Vienna
“The Civil Code.” Napoleonic Code. http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/c_code.html
“What was the Congress of Vienna?” http://www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.html
1. Introduce the Napoleonic Code by asking students whether they can remember any other law codes in history. Possible responses are Hammurabi’s Code, the Ten Commandments, and the Law Code of Justinian. Direct students to find several characteristics of the Napoleonic Code from available resources, including the Internet, if possible. Characteristics may include that the code was pro business, especially on contracts, and that it discriminated against women.
2. Instruct students to annotate a map or develop a chart to identify other legacies of Napoleon, including growth of nationalism and educational reforms.
3. Discuss the Congress of Vienna of 1815. Explain that this was a meeting of the victorious powers after Napoleon’s exile whose objective was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The decisions the participants had to make included whether to keep Napoleon’s reforms or undo many of them and how to redraw the map of Europe after Napoleon’s military conquests. Describe some of the key persons involved in the Congress of Vienna, such as Metternich, Talleyrand, and Tsar Alexander I of Russia. Have students conduct research on the process of the Congress. Then, have them reenact the Congress of Vienna.
4. Distribute maps of Europe just before and just after the Congress of Vienna. Have students note the changes—i.e., how the map of Europe was redrawn. Explain that absolute monarchies were placed back on their thrones, a practice that represented the doctrine of conservatism. Review the meanings of conservatism and liberalism, explaining that conservatism is characterized by a desire for little or no change or a return to old values, while liberalism is characterized by a desire for change. Relate these two opposing philosophies to the balance of power that resulted from the Congress of Vienna. Explain that these are the legacies of the Congress of Vienna.